Special Issue "Personalized Medicine for Neuroimmunology and Epigenetics in Depressive Disorders"

A special issue of Journal of Personalized Medicine (ISSN 2075-4426). This special issue belongs to the section "Mechanisms of Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (5 January 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Piotr Galecki
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Adult Psychiatry, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland
Interests: clinical psychiatry; neuroimmunology; epigenetics; depression
Prof. Dr. Kuan-Pin Su
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Psychiatry, An-Nan Hospital, China Medical University,Tainan, TAIWAN
Interests: immunopsychiatry; nutritional psychiatry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Depressive disorders are one of the most common mental disorders worldwide, with more than 264 million people affected. They are a leading cause of disability. Despite their high prevalence, the etiopathogenesis of depressive disorders is not yet fully understood. The aim of recent studies in the field of psychiatry is to seek consistent theory that would exhaustively explain the aetiology of depression. Neuroimmunology, epigenetics, and their correlations seem to play an important role in this matter.

We would like to invite experts from all over the world to participate in our common project, a Special Issue of the Journal of Personalized Medicine, titled Personalized Medicine for Neuroimmunology and Epigenetics in Depressive Disorders, in which we would like to focus on the biological background of depressive disorders. Nowadays, when one third of the patients suffer from treatment resistant depression, seeking for new therapeutic targets is especially important. Since depression also has a significant impact on socioeconomics, scientists are also seeking methods of its primary prevention.

Original research papers, brief scientific reports, as well as review papers, regarding the given topic, will be considered for publication in this Special Issue ‘’Personalized Medicine for Neuroimmunology and Epigenetics in Depressive Disorders’’.

Prof. Dr. Piotr Galecki
Prof. Dr. Kuan-Pin Su
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Personalized Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Depression
  • Major depressive disorder
  • Neuroimmunology
  • Epigenetics
  • Prevention

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Inflammatory versus Anti-inflammatory Profiles in Major Depressive Disorders—The Role of IL-17, IL-21, IL-23, IL-35 and Foxp3
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(2), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11020066 - 23 Jan 2021
Abstract
Background: The authors of this research study intended to verify whether there are any changes in gene expression in depressed patients without coexisting inflammatory diseases for selected immune-inflammatory factors that are particularly important in autoimmune disease pathogenesis (IL-17, IL-21, IL-23, IL-35, Foxp3). Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: The authors of this research study intended to verify whether there are any changes in gene expression in depressed patients without coexisting inflammatory diseases for selected immune-inflammatory factors that are particularly important in autoimmune disease pathogenesis (IL-17, IL-21, IL-23, IL-35, Foxp3). Methods: The study was carried out on a group of 190 patients with depression and 100 healthy volunteers. The severity of depressive symptoms was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Scale. RT-PCR was used to evaluate mRNA expression and ELISA was used to measure protein expression of these genes. Results: The level of gene expression for IL-17, IL-21, IL-23, and IL-35 was substantially higher in the group of patients with depression compared to the control group. The mean mRNA expression of Foxp3 was considerably reduced in patients suffering from depressive disorders. There was a statistically significant correlation between the number of hospitalizations and the expression of specific inflammatory factors. Conclusions: Expression of specific inflammatory genes may be a factor in the etiopathogenesis of depressive disorders. The duration of the disease seems to be more important for the expression of the genes in question than the severity of depression. These cytokines may affect the metabolism of neurotransmitters and neuroendocrine functions in the brain as well as be a marker and a new potential therapeutic target for recurrent depressive disorders. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Brain Responses to Emotional Stimuli after Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Treatments in Major Depressive Disorder: Toward Personalized Medicine with Anti-Inflammatory Nutraceuticals
J. Pers. Med. 2020, 10(4), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm10040283 - 16 Dec 2020
Abstract
N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements improve the symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) in randomized-controlled trials and meta-analyses, with the higher efficacy from anti-inflammatory eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) than brain-dominant docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). To investigate the specific brain mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory anti-depressant nutraceutical [...] Read more.
N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements improve the symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) in randomized-controlled trials and meta-analyses, with the higher efficacy from anti-inflammatory eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) than brain-dominant docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). To investigate the specific brain mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory anti-depressant nutraceutical compounds, we recruited 24 MDD subjects in this double-blind, head-to-head study with a 12-week EPA or DHA treatment (clinical trial registration number: NCT03871088). The depression severity was assessed by Hamilton depression rating scale (HAM-D). Brain responses to emotional stimuli were measured by a 3-Tesla MRI. The correlation between HAM-D scores and brain responses also were tested. Compared to 18 healthy controls, the brain responses of untreated 24 MDD patients mainly revealed hypoactivity in the regions associated with emotion perception and emotion control when processing positive emotion. After treatment, more remitted MDD patients have been observed in the EPA as compared to the DHA groups. In addition, the EPA, but not DHA, treatment revealed increased activity in the regions associated with emotion perception and cognitive control when processing positive emotion. The correlation analysis further revealed negative correlation between HAM-D scores and brain responses in cognitive control regions. The results of this study may imply the compensatory brain responses of cognitive and emotion controls by EPA but not DHA and underpin personalized medicine with anti-inflammatory nutraceuticals toward depression treatments. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Treatment-Resistant Depression Revisited: A Glimmer of Hope
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(2), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11020155 - 23 Feb 2021
Abstract
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent psychiatric disorder worldwide. It causes individual suffering, loss of productivity, increased health care costs and high suicide risk. Current pharmacologic interventions fail to produce at least partial response to approximately one third of these patients, [...] Read more.
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent psychiatric disorder worldwide. It causes individual suffering, loss of productivity, increased health care costs and high suicide risk. Current pharmacologic interventions fail to produce at least partial response to approximately one third of these patients, and remission is obtained in approximately 30% of patients. This is known as Treatment-Resistant Depression (TRD). The burden of TRD exponentially increases the longer it persists, with a higher risk of impaired functional and social functioning, vast losses in quality of life and significant risk of somatic morbidity and suicidality. Different approaches have been suggested and utilized, but the results have not been encouraging. In this review article, we present new approaches to identify and correct potential causes of TRD, thereby reducing its prevalence and with it the overall burden of this disease entity. We will address potential contributory factors to TRD, most of which can be investigated in many laboratories as routine tests. We discuss endocrinological aberrations, notably, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation and thyroid and gonadal dysfunction. We address the role of Vitamin D in contributing to depression. Pharmacogenomic testing is being increasingly used to determine Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Cytochrome P450, Serotonin Transporter, COMT, folic acid conversion (MTHFR). As the role of immune system dysregulation is being recognized as potentially a major contributory factor to TRD, the measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP) and select immune biomarkers, where testing is available, can guide combination treatments with anti-inflammatory agents (e.g., selective COX-2 inhibitors) reversing treatment resistance. We focus on established and emerging test procedures, potential biomarkers and non-biologic assessments and interventions to apply personalized medicine to effectively manage treatment resistance in general and TRD specifically. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Personalized Medicine Using Neuroimmunological Biomarkers in Depressive Disorders
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(2), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11020114 - 10 Feb 2021
Abstract
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with increased suicidal risk and reduced productivity at work. Neuroimmunology, the study of the immune system and nervous system, provides further insight into the pathogenesis and outcome of MDD. Cytokines are the main modulators of neuroimmunology, and [...] Read more.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with increased suicidal risk and reduced productivity at work. Neuroimmunology, the study of the immune system and nervous system, provides further insight into the pathogenesis and outcome of MDD. Cytokines are the main modulators of neuroimmunology, and their levels are somewhat entangled in depressive disorders as they affect depressive symptoms and are affected by antidepressant treatment. The use of cytokine-derived medication as a treatment option for MDD is currently a topic of interest. Although not very promising, cytokines are also considered as possible prognostic or diagnostic markers for depression. The machine learning approach is a powerful tool for pattern recognition and has been used in psychiatry for finding useful patterns in data that have translational meaning and can be incorporated in daily clinical practice. This review focuses on the current knowledge of neuroimmunology and depression and the possible use of machine learning to widen our understanding of the topic. Full article
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