Special Issue "Powder Metallurgy and Additive Manufacturing/3D Printing of Materials"

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Konda Gokuldoss Prashanth
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Guest Editor
Head of the Additive Manufacturing Laboratory, Professor at the Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate Tee 5, 19086 Tallinn, Estonia
Interests: Powder metallurgy; additive manufacturing; powder bed fusion processes (laser (SLM)/electron beam (EBM)); selective laser sintering (SLS); meta-stable materials (including amorphous materials); light metals; materials joining and structure–property correlation in metals
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Powder metallurgy (PM) and related processes, including additive manufacturing (AM)/3D printing, are revolutionizing the manufacturing sector, especially for the production of the metallic components with added functionalities. Not only can they fabricate near-net-shaped components, but they can also help in the materials saving and weight reduction of components in the automobile and aerospace sectors, and help in reducing fuel consumption and promoting a greener environment.

Both PM and AM are undergoing rapid development, with new improvements and innovations taking place rapidly. However, they still face several industrial challenges, like process capabilities, and material aspects including microstructure formation and properties and the process cycle. It is, therefore, necessary to devote attention to focus research and development activities in these fields, including PM and AM, to promote the industrialization of these processes and new technologies. This includes the production of powder, the properties of powder, AM process developments, the design of alloys for the AM process, and the post-processing of the components. This Special Issue will be devoted to disseminate expert views and article contributions on developments and innovations in the fields of both PM and AM.

Scientific contributions are invited from scientists, researchers, engineers, and industry to disseminate recent inventions and developments in the fields of PM and AM. The potential topics include but are not limited to the following:

  • Powder production;
  • Powder properties;
  • Gas atomization;
  • Mechanical (ball) alloying/milling;
  • Consolidation processes;
  • Alloy Systems and alloy development;
  • Next generation 3D/4D printing;
  • Innovation in processing strategies;
  • Microstructure–property correlation;
  • Innovation and advancement in powder production;
  • Numerical simulation;
  • Industrialization of the process;
  • Defect and failure analysis.

This Special Issue looks forward to receiving submissions in any form, including review articles, regular research articles, and short communications. Both experimental and theoretical studies are of interest.

Prof. Dr. Konda Gokuldoss Prashanth
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • powder metallurgy
  • gas atomization
  • ball milling/alloying
  • additive manufacturing
  • 3D printing
  • selective laser melting
  • electron beam melting

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Communication
Pressing and Infiltration of Metal Matrix Nanocomposites
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp5020054 - 28 May 2021
Viewed by 827
Abstract
The ability to produce metal matrix nanocomposites via pressing and infiltration was validated. Al/TiC nanocomposite was used as the model material. Pressing the powder in a die yielded cylindrical specimens with a green density of 1.98 ± 0.05 g/cm3, which was [...] Read more.
The ability to produce metal matrix nanocomposites via pressing and infiltration was validated. Al/TiC nanocomposite was used as the model material. Pressing the powder in a die yielded cylindrical specimens with a green density of 1.98 ± 0.05 g/cm3, which was increased to only 2.11 ± 0.12 g/cm3 by sintering. Direct infiltration of the pressed specimens at 1050 °C for 3.5 h yielded specimens with a density of 3.07 ± 0.08 g/cm3, an open porosity of 3.06 ± 1.40%, and an areal void fraction of 8.09 ± 2.67%. The TiC nanoparticles were verified to be well dispersed using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The measured hardness of 64 ± 3 HRA makes it a promising material for structural applications in industries such as aerospace and automotive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Powder Metallurgy and Additive Manufacturing/3D Printing of Materials)
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Communication
Synthesis of Bulk Zr48Cu36Al8Ag8 Metallic Glass by Hot Pressing of Amorphous Powders
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp5010023 - 09 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 850
Abstract
The critical cooling rate necessary for glass formation via melt solidification poses inherent constraints on sample size using conventional casting techniques. This drawback can be overcome by pressure-assisted sintering of metallic glass powders at temperatures above the glass transition, where the material shows [...] Read more.
The critical cooling rate necessary for glass formation via melt solidification poses inherent constraints on sample size using conventional casting techniques. This drawback can be overcome by pressure-assisted sintering of metallic glass powders at temperatures above the glass transition, where the material shows viscous-flow behavior. Partial crystallization during sintering usually exacerbates the inherent brittleness of metallic glasses and thus needs to be avoided. In order to achieve high density of the bulk specimens while avoiding (or minimizing) crystallization, the optimal combination between low viscosity and long incubation time for crystallization must be identified. Here, by carefully selecting the time–temperature window for powder consolidation, we synthesized highly dense Zr48Cu36Ag8Al8 bulk metallic glass (BMG) with mechanical properties comparable with its cast counterpart. The larger ZrCu-based BMG specimens fabricated in this work could then be post-processed by flash-annealing, offering the possibility to fabricate monolithic metallic glasses and glass–matrix composites with enhanced room-temperature plastic deformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Powder Metallurgy and Additive Manufacturing/3D Printing of Materials)
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Article
Vacuum Hot Pressing of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Ferritic Stainless Steels: Effect of Al Addition on the Microstructure and Properties
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(3), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4030093 - 14 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1136
Abstract
The present article investigates the fabrication of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic stainless steel (FSS). Three different ODS alloys with three different Al contents were fabricated, where the presence of Al-based oxides play a crucial role in determining the size of the oxide [...] Read more.
The present article investigates the fabrication of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic stainless steel (FSS). Three different ODS alloys with three different Al contents were fabricated, where the presence of Al-based oxides play a crucial role in determining the size of the oxide particles. Due to Ostwald ripening, the samples with Al show coarser oxide particles compared to the alloy without Al, which hampers the density of the fabricated samples and, hence, have reduced hardness levels. The present results suggest that the composition of the oxide present in ODS plays a crucial role in determining the properties of these samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Powder Metallurgy and Additive Manufacturing/3D Printing of Materials)
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Article
The Dimensional Accuracy of Thin-Walled Parts Manufactured by Laser-Powder Bed Fusion Process
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(3), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4030091 - 11 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1067
Abstract
Laser-Powder Bed Fusion brings new possibilities for the design of parts, e.g., cutter shafts with integrated cooling channels close to the contour. However, there are new challenges to dimensional accuracy in the production of thin-walled components, e.g., heat exchangers. High degrees of dimensional [...] Read more.
Laser-Powder Bed Fusion brings new possibilities for the design of parts, e.g., cutter shafts with integrated cooling channels close to the contour. However, there are new challenges to dimensional accuracy in the production of thin-walled components, e.g., heat exchangers. High degrees of dimensional accuracy are necessary for the production of functional components. The aim is to already achieve these during the process, to reduce post-processing costs and time. In this work, thin-walled ring specimens of H13 tool steel are produced and used for the analysis of dimensional accuracy and residual stresses. Two different scanning strategies were evaluated. One is a stripe scan strategy, which was automatically generated and provided by the machine manufacturer, and a (manually designed) sectional scan strategy. The ring segment strategy is designed by manually segmenting the geometry, which results in a longer preparation time. The samples were printed in different diameters and analyzed with respect to the degree of accuracy and residual stresses. The dimensional accuracy of ring specimens could be improved by up to 81% with the introduced sectional strategy compared to the standard approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Powder Metallurgy and Additive Manufacturing/3D Printing of Materials)
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Article
Use of Bimodal Particle Size Distribution in Selective Laser Melting of 316L Stainless Steel
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4010008 - 01 Feb 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2070
Abstract
Spherical powders with single-mode (D50 = 36.31 µm), and bimodal (D50,L = 36.31 µm, D50,s = 5.52 µm) particle size distribution were used in selective laser melting of 316L stainless steel in nitrogen atmosphere at volumetric energy densities ranging from [...] Read more.
Spherical powders with single-mode (D50 = 36.31 µm), and bimodal (D50,L = 36.31 µm, D50,s = 5.52 µm) particle size distribution were used in selective laser melting of 316L stainless steel in nitrogen atmosphere at volumetric energy densities ranging from 35.7–116.0 J/mm3. Bimodal particle size distribution could provide up to 2% greater tap density than single-mode powder. For low laser power (107–178 W), where relative density was <99%, bimodal feedstock resulted in higher density than single-mode feedstock. However, at higher power (>203 W), the density of bimodal-fed components decreased as the energy density increased due to vaporizing of the fine powder in bimodal distributions. Size of intergranular cell regions did not appear to vary significantly between single-mode and bimodal specimens (0.394–0.531 µm2 at 81–116 J/mm3). Despite higher packing densities in powder feedstock with bimodal particle size distribution, the results of this study suggest that differences in conduction melting and vaporization points between the two primary particle sizes would limit the maximum achievable density of additively manufactured components produced from bimodal powder size distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Powder Metallurgy and Additive Manufacturing/3D Printing of Materials)
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