Special Issue "Graphene Oxide Composites"

A special issue of Journal of Composites Science (ISSN 2504-477X). This special issue belongs to the section "Carbon Composites".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2021) | Viewed by 11187

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Jian-Zhang Chen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Graduate Institute of Applied Mechanics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
Interests: plasma processing; atmospheric pressure plasma; dielectric barrier discharge; flexible electronics; solar cells; supercapacitors; metal oxides; wide-bandgap materials
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Graphene shows great promise for applications in many fields. Graphene and its derivatives, graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO), have been used as components for composite materials. GO, an important derivative of graphene, is amphiphile with hydrophilic edges and a hydrophobic basal plane. Oxygen-containing functional groups not only improve the dispersion of GO in aqueous solution but also serve as the bonding sites for heterogeneous materials. Therefore, GO is considered a promising component for composite materials.

GO composites synthesized by various methods can be used for solar cells, supercapacitors, sensors, fuel cells, batteries, etc. The versatile applications and synthesis methods of GO composites have opened up a whole new direction for research and development. In this Special Issue, papers related to composites made with GO, graphene, and rGO are all invited.

Prof. Jian-Zhang Chen
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Graphene
  • Reduced graphene oxide
  • Graphene oxide
  • Polymer
  • Metal
  • Ceramics
  • Carbon-based material
  • Carbon nanotube
  • Composite
  • Supercapacitor
  • Solar cell
  • Fuel cell
  • Redox flow cell
  • Battery
  • Solar fuel
  • Flexible electronics
  • Synthesis
  • Plasma

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Article
Stability Enhancement of Laser-Scribed Reduced Graphene Oxide Electrodes Functionalized by Iron Oxide/Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites for Nitrite Sensors
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(8), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6080221 - 03 Aug 2022
Viewed by 293
Abstract
An iron oxide/reduced graphene oxide (ION-RGO) nanocomposite has been fabricated to functionalize a low-cost electrochemical nitrite sensor realized by light-scribed reduced graphene oxide (LRGO) electrodes on a PET substrate. To enhance the stability and adhesion of the electrode, the PET substrate was modified [...] Read more.
An iron oxide/reduced graphene oxide (ION-RGO) nanocomposite has been fabricated to functionalize a low-cost electrochemical nitrite sensor realized by light-scribed reduced graphene oxide (LRGO) electrodes on a PET substrate. To enhance the stability and adhesion of the electrode, the PET substrate was modified by RF oxygen plasma, and a thin layer of the cationic poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) was deposited. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) reveal that the light-scribing process successfully reduces graphene oxide while forming a porous multilayered structure. As confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, the LRGO electrochemical response to ferri-ferrocyanide and nitrite is significantly improved after functionalization with the ION-RGO nanocomposite film. Under optimized differential pulse voltammetry conditions, the LRGO/ION-RGO electrode responds linearly (R2 = 0.97) to nitrite in the range of 10–400 µM, achieving a limit of detection of 7.2 μM and sensitivity of 0.14 µA/µM. A single LRGO/ION-RGO electrode stands for 11 consecutive runs. The novel fabrication process leads to highly stable and reproducible electrodes for electrochemical sensors and thus offers a low-cost option for the rapid and sensitive detection of nitrite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene Oxide Composites)
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Article
Nanocomposites of Copper Trimesinate and Graphene Oxide as Sorbents for the Solid-Phase Extraction of Organic Dyes
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(7), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6070215 - 20 Jul 2022
Viewed by 279
Abstract
A nanocomposite based on graphene oxide and copper trimesinate was obtained by the in situ method. The samples have permanent porosity and a microporous structure with a large surface area corresponding to the adsorption type I. A study of the adsorption properties of [...] Read more.
A nanocomposite based on graphene oxide and copper trimesinate was obtained by the in situ method. The samples have permanent porosity and a microporous structure with a large surface area corresponding to the adsorption type I. A study of the adsorption properties of the obtained composites with respect to organic dyes (malachite green, indigo carmine, brilliant green, Rose Bengal, crystal violet) showed that adsorption largely depends on the content of graphene oxide in the composites. The complex is an effective sorbent for the extraction of cationic and neutral organic dyes when the content of graphene oxide in the nanocomposite is 20% of the calculated copper trimesinate due to electrostatic forces of interaction. For anionic dyes, the maximum adsorption is achieved when using a composite containing 5% graphene oxide due to the predominance of physical sorption. Experimental results show that the obtained sorbent can be used for extraction in a wide pH range, illustrating the excellent pH window offered by this adsorbent. Kinetics data were properly fitted with the pseudo-second-order model. Equilibrium data were best correlated with the Freundlich model. The process was endothermic and spontaneous in nature. The composite makes it possible to achieve a maximum sorption of 393 mg/g, which is a sufficiently high value for the absorption of dyes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene Oxide Composites)
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Article
Preparation of ZrO2/Graphene Oxide/TiO2 Composite Photocatalyst and Its Studies on Decomposition of Organic Matter
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6010009 - 29 Dec 2021
Viewed by 448
Abstract
Water polluted by organic dyes is a serious environmental problem. In response to this, the aim of this research is to degrade dye wastewater using a modified photocatalyst. Since sunlight only has less than 5% UV energy, for a general photocatalyst, using sunlight [...] Read more.
Water polluted by organic dyes is a serious environmental problem. In response to this, the aim of this research is to degrade dye wastewater using a modified photocatalyst. Since sunlight only has less than 5% UV energy, for a general photocatalyst, using sunlight for excitation to decompose organic pollutants is not an effective way. Therefore, we manufactured the modified photocatalyst by zirconium dioxide, graphene oxide, and titanium dioxide. This was to better improve the photo-degradation efficiency for the degradation of organic pollutants. The modified photocatalyst was analyzed by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy (Raman), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results demonstrated that the modified photocatalyst can be activated by the absorption of visible light. Additionally, the band gap of the modified photocatalyst would decrease. The photodegradation percentage of the modified photocatalyst under visible light (Philips TL-D 8W/865 fluorescent tube) for 4 h reached up to 49.92%. At the third test after ultrasonic washing for the cyclic test, the photodegradation percentage of the modified photocatalyst could still maintain at 47.71%. This indicates that the modified photocatalyst has good stability and reusability, and so this can be reused in this regard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene Oxide Composites)
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Article
Synthesis of MRGO Nanocomposites as a Potential Photocatalytic Demulsifier for Crude Oil-in-Water Emulsion
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(7), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5070174 - 04 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 834
Abstract
Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion has been a major concern for the petroleum industry. A cost-effective magnetite-reduced graphene oxide (MRGO) nanocomposite was synthesized to study the demulsification process of emulsion using said nanocomposite under solar illumination. Characterization data show that the magnetite was successfully deposited [...] Read more.
Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion has been a major concern for the petroleum industry. A cost-effective magnetite-reduced graphene oxide (MRGO) nanocomposite was synthesized to study the demulsification process of emulsion using said nanocomposite under solar illumination. Characterization data show that the magnetite was successfully deposited on reduced graphene oxide through redox reaction at varying loading amounts of magnetite. Demulsification of the O/W emulsion using MRGO nanocomposite shows that in general the demulsification efficiency was dependent on the loading amount of Fe3O4 on the RGO sheet. It was proposed that the surfactant hydroxyl groups have an affinity towards Fe3O4, which the loading amount was directly proportionate to available active site in Fe3O4. As the loading amount increases, charge recombination centers on the RGO sheet would increase, effectively affecting the charge distribution within MRGO structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene Oxide Composites)
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Article
Effect of Graphene Oxide as a Reinforcement in a Bio-Epoxy Composite
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(3), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5030091 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1073
Abstract
Graphene oxide (GO) has gained interest within the materials research community. The presence of functional groups on GO offers exceptional bonding capabilities and improved performance in lightweight polymer composites. A literature review on the tensile and flexural mechanical properties of synthetic epoxy/GO composites [...] Read more.
Graphene oxide (GO) has gained interest within the materials research community. The presence of functional groups on GO offers exceptional bonding capabilities and improved performance in lightweight polymer composites. A literature review on the tensile and flexural mechanical properties of synthetic epoxy/GO composites was conducted that showed differences from one study to another, which may be attributed to the oxidation level of the prepared GO. Herein, GO was synthesized from oxidation of graphite flakes using the modified Hummers method, while bio-epoxy/GO composites (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.6 wt.% GO) were prepared using a solution mixing route. The GO was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. The thermal properties of composites were assessed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). FTIR results confirmed oxidation of graphite was successful. SEM showed differences in fractured surfaces, which implies that GO modified the bio-epoxy polymer to some extent. Addition of 0.3 wt.% GO filler was determined to be an optimum amount as it enhanced the tensile strength, tensile modulus, flexural strength and flexural modulus by 23, 35, 17 and 31%, respectively, compared to pure bio-epoxy. Improvements in strength were achieved with considerably lower loadings than traditional fillers. Compared to the bio-epoxy, the 0.6 wt.% GO composite had the highest thermal stability and a slightly higher (positive) glass transition temperature (Tg) was increased by 3.5 °C, relative to the pristine bio-epoxy (0 wt.% GO). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene Oxide Composites)
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Article
Dielectric Constant Enhancement with Low Dielectric Loss Growth in Graphene Oxide/Mica/Polypropylene Composites
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5020052 - 08 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1114
Abstract
Polypropylene has been widely used as dielectric material in organic thin-film capacitors due to their high breakdown strength, low dielectric loss and self-healing capability. However, polypropylene’s energy density is relatively low. Increasing the energy density of polypropylene by adding materials with a high [...] Read more.
Polypropylene has been widely used as dielectric material in organic thin-film capacitors due to their high breakdown strength, low dielectric loss and self-healing capability. However, polypropylene’s energy density is relatively low. Increasing the energy density of polypropylene by adding materials with a high dielectric constant is commonly used. Still, it often leads to an increase in dielectric loss, lower dielectric strength and other shortcomings. In this study, a thin 2D platelet of mica/graphene oxide composite material was made from exfoliated mica as a substrate and attached by graphene oxide. The mica/graphene oxide platelets were added to polypropylene to make a plastic dielectric composite. The non-conductive flat inorganic additive can increase the dielectric constant and dielectric strength of the composite without increasing dielectric loss. The tiny mica/graphene oxide platelets can significantly improve the dielectric properties of polypropylene. The results show that by adding a small amount (less than 1 wt%) mica/graphene oxide, the relative dielectric constant of polypropylene can increase to more than 3.7 without causing an increase in dielectric loss and the dielectric strength of polypropylene can also enhance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene Oxide Composites)
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Article
Nanocomposite of Graphene Oxide Encapsulated in Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA): Pre-Modification, Synthesis, and Latex Stability
J. Compos. Sci. 2020, 4(3), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs4030118 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1277
Abstract
The compatibility of graphene oxide with its dispersion medium (polymer) plays a critical role in the formation of nanocomposite materials with significant property improvements. Environmentally friendly miniemulsion polymerization, which allows a formation of nanoencapsulation in an aqueous phase and high molecular weight polymer/composite [...] Read more.
The compatibility of graphene oxide with its dispersion medium (polymer) plays a critical role in the formation of nanocomposite materials with significant property improvements. Environmentally friendly miniemulsion polymerization, which allows a formation of nanoencapsulation in an aqueous phase and high molecular weight polymer/composite production is one promising method. In this study, we screened a series of amphiphilic modifiers and found that the quaternary ammonium (ar-vinyl benzyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride (VBTAC) pending carbon double bonds could effectively modify the graphene oxide (GO) to be compatible with the organophilic monomer. After that, free radical miniemulsion polymerization successfully synthesized stable latex of exfoliated poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/ GO nanocomposite. The final latex had an extended storage life and a relatively uniform particle size distribution. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of this latex and its films indicated successful encapsulation of exfoliated nano-dimensional graphene oxide inside a polymer matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene Oxide Composites)
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Article
A Commercial Carbonaceous Anode with a-Si Layers by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition for Lithium Ion Batteries
J. Compos. Sci. 2020, 4(2), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs4020072 - 11 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1201
Abstract
In this study, we propose a mass production-able and low-cost method to fabricate the anodes of Li-ion battery. Carbonaceous anodes, integrated with thin amorphous silicon layers by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, can improve the performance of specific capacity and coulombic efficiency for [...] Read more.
In this study, we propose a mass production-able and low-cost method to fabricate the anodes of Li-ion battery. Carbonaceous anodes, integrated with thin amorphous silicon layers by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, can improve the performance of specific capacity and coulombic efficiency for Li-ion battery. Three different thicknesses of a-Si layers (320, 640, and 960 nm), less than 0.1 wt% of anode electrode, were deposited on carbonaceous electrodes at low temperature 200 °C. Around 30 mg of a-Si by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) can improve the specific capacity ~42%, and keep coulombic efficiency of the half Li-ion cells higher than 85% after first cycle charge-discharge test. For the thirty cyclic performance and rate capability, capacitance retention can maintain above 96%. The thicker a-Si layers on carbon anodes, the better electrochemical performance of anodes with silicon-carbon composites we get. The traditional carbonaceous electrodes can be deposited a-Si layers easily by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, which is a method with high potential for industrialization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene Oxide Composites)
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Article
Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Micropollutants in Water by Zr-MOF/GO Composites
J. Compos. Sci. 2020, 4(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs4020054 - 12 May 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2326
Abstract
Nanocomposites of UiO-66 and graphene oxide (UiO-66_GO) were prepared with different GO contents by a one-step hydrothermal method, and their photocatalytic activities for the degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ) were investigated under ranges of GO loading, catalyst dose, initial pollutant concentration, and solution pH. [...] Read more.
Nanocomposites of UiO-66 and graphene oxide (UiO-66_GO) were prepared with different GO contents by a one-step hydrothermal method, and their photocatalytic activities for the degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ) were investigated under ranges of GO loading, catalyst dose, initial pollutant concentration, and solution pH. The UiO-66_GO nanocomposites showed photocatalytic rate constant up to 0.0136 min−1 for CBZ degradation and its high overall removal efficiency (>90%) in 2 h. The photocatalytic rate constant over the UiO-66_GO nanocomposite was about 2.8 and 1.7 times higher than those over pristine GO and UiO-66, respectively. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity by GO was attributed to increased surface area and porosity, improved light absorption, and narrowed band gap. The composite also showed substantial recyclability and stability over five consecutive cycles of photocatalytic degradation. The experimental results indicated that O2●− and OH are the responsible radicals for photocatalytic degradation, which helped us propose a photocatalytic mechanism for the enhanced CBZ photodegradation. This work provides a reference for the development of GO-based composite photocatalysts and expands the application of UiO-66 as a photocatalyst for the degradation of persistent micropollutants in water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene Oxide Composites)
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Review

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Review
Green Reduction of Graphene Oxide Involving Extracts of Plants from Different Taxonomy Groups
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6020058 - 15 Feb 2022
Viewed by 859
Abstract
Graphene, a remarkable material, is ideal for numerous applications due to its thin and lightweight design. The synthesis of high-quality graphene in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner continues to be a significant challenge. Chemical reduction is considered the most advantageous method for [...] Read more.
Graphene, a remarkable material, is ideal for numerous applications due to its thin and lightweight design. The synthesis of high-quality graphene in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner continues to be a significant challenge. Chemical reduction is considered the most advantageous method for preparing reduced graphene oxide (rGO). However, this process necessitates the use of toxic and harmful substances, which can have a detrimental effect on the environment and human health. Thus, to accomplish the objective, the green synthesis principle has prompted researchers worldwide to develop a simple method for the green reduction of graphene oxide (GO), which is readily accessible, sustainable, economical, renewable, and environmentally friendly. For example, the use of natural materials such as plants is generally considered safe. Furthermore, plants contain reducing and capping agents. The current review focuses on the discovery and application of rGO synthesis using extracts from different plant parts. The review aims to aid current and future researchers in searching for a novel plant extract that acts as a reductant in the green synthesis of rGO, as well as its potential application in a variety of industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene Oxide Composites)
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Review
Conjugated Polymer/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites—State-of-the-Art
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(11), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5110292 - 05 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 802
Abstract
Graphene oxide is an imperative modified form of graphene. Similar to graphene, graphene oxide has gained vast interest for the myriad of industrial applications. Conjugated polymers or conducting polymers are well known organic materials having conducting backbone. These polymers have semiconducting nature due [...] Read more.
Graphene oxide is an imperative modified form of graphene. Similar to graphene, graphene oxide has gained vast interest for the myriad of industrial applications. Conjugated polymers or conducting polymers are well known organic materials having conducting backbone. These polymers have semiconducting nature due to π-conjugation along the main chain. Doping and modification have been used to enhance the electrical conductivity of the conjugated polymers. The nanocomposites of the conjugated polymers have been reported with the nanocarbon nanofillers including graphene oxide. This review essentially presents the structure, properties, and advancements in the field of conducting polymer/graphene oxide nanocomposites. The facile synthesis, processability, and physical properties of the polymer/graphene oxide nanocomposites have been discussed. The conjugated polymer/graphene oxide nanocomposites have essential significance for the supercapacitors, solar cells, and anti-corrosion materials. Nevertheless, the further advanced properties and technical applications of the conjugated polymer/graphene oxide nanocomposites need to be explored to overcome the challenges related to the high performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene Oxide Composites)
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