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Special Issue "Image Guided Interventions and Emerging Technologies"

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Nuclear Medicine & Radiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Rahmi Oklu

Division of Interventional Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 5777 E. Mayo Blvd, Phoenix, AZ 85054, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: venous thrombosis; oncologic interventions; image guided procedures; bioengineering; medical devices

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There has been significant growth in advanced image guided interventions over the past decade. From the development of new procedures and techniques to new devices, interventional radiology (IR) is continuing to have a major impact in clinical medicine. IR is at the forefront of oncologic, gastrointestinal and vascular interventions, including drug delivery where IR catheters could be placed virtually anywhere under real-time guidance for a more efficient delivery of therapeutics. Here, we would like to review some of the past and present advancements in IR and end with emerging technologies in minimally invasive endovascular and percutaneous approaches to disease including recent discoveries in bioengineering.

Prof. Dr. Rahmi Oklu, MD, PhD, FSIR
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Clinical Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Interventional radiology
  • Endovascular
  • Percutaneous
  • Embolization
  • Imaging
  • Image guided interventions
  • Drug delivery
  • Biomaterials
  • Bioengineering

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Practice Trends of Fibrinogen Monitoring in Thrombolysis
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(5), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7050111
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 10 May 2018
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Abstract
There is a lack of evidence or societal guidelines regarding the utility of fibrinogen monitoring during thrombolysis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the current use of monitoring fibrinogen levels during thrombolysis. A voluntary, anonymous online survey was sent to all [...] Read more.
There is a lack of evidence or societal guidelines regarding the utility of fibrinogen monitoring during thrombolysis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the current use of monitoring fibrinogen levels during thrombolysis. A voluntary, anonymous online survey was sent to all physician members of the Society of Interventional Radiology, consisting of 23 questions related to practitioner demographics, thrombolysis protocol, and fibrinogen monitoring. There were 455 physician responses; 82% of respondents monitored fibrinogen levels during thrombolysis, of which 97% decreased or stopped tissue plasminogen activator based on the level. Self-reported estimates of significant bleeding events during thrombolysis were 1.86% in those who monitored fibrinogen and 1.93% in those who did not. Only 34% of all respondents report, in their clinical experience, having found low fibrinogen level to be correlated with bleeding events. There was no significant difference in self-reported major bleeding rates between practitioners who monitor and those who do not monitor fibrinogen. This high variability of clinical use of fibrinogen monitoring during catheter-directed thrombolysis is secondary to the paucity of scientific studies demonstrating its utility; further scientific investigation is needed to define the true utility of fibrinogen monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Guided Interventions and Emerging Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Degree of Left Renal Vein Compression Predicts Nutcracker Syndrome
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(5), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7050107
Received: 31 March 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (544 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nutcracker syndrome (NS) refers to symptomatic compression of the left renal vein (LRV) between the abdominal aorta and superior mesenteric artery with potential symptoms including hematuria, proteinuria, left flank pain, and renal venous hypertension. No consensus diagnostic criteria exist to guide endovascular treatment. [...] Read more.
Nutcracker syndrome (NS) refers to symptomatic compression of the left renal vein (LRV) between the abdominal aorta and superior mesenteric artery with potential symptoms including hematuria, proteinuria, left flank pain, and renal venous hypertension. No consensus diagnostic criteria exist to guide endovascular treatment. We aimed to evaluate the specificity of LRV compression to NS symptoms through a retrospective study including 33 NS and 103 control patients. The size of the patent lumen at point of compression and normal portions of the LRV were measured for all patients. Multiple logistic regression analyses (MLR) assessing impact of compression, body mass index (BMI), age, and gender on the likelihood of each symptom with NS were obtained. NS patients presented most commonly with abdominal pain (72.7%), followed by hematuria (57.6%), proteinuria (39.4%), and left flank pain (30.3%). These symptoms were more commonly seen than in the control group at 10.6, 11.7, 6.8, and 1.9%, respectively. The degree of LRV compression for NS was 74.5% and 25.2% for controls (p < 0.0001). Higher compression led to more hematuria (p < 0.0013), abdominal pain (p < 0.006), and more proteinuria (p < 0.002). Furthermore, the average BMI of NS patients was 21.4 and 27.2 for controls (p < 0.001) and a low BMI led to more abdominal pain (p < 0.005). These results demonstrate a strong correlation between the degree of LRV compression on imaging in diagnosing NS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Guided Interventions and Emerging Technologies)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Developing Interventional Radiology Anticoagulation Guidelines: Process and Benefits
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7040085
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 30 March 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
We created, posted, and updated radiology department anticoagulation guidelines and identified various steps in the process, including triggering events, consensus building, legal analysis, education, and distribution of the guidelines to nurses and clinicians. Supporting data collected retrospectively, before and after implementation, included nursing [...] Read more.
We created, posted, and updated radiology department anticoagulation guidelines and identified various steps in the process, including triggering events, consensus building, legal analysis, education, and distribution of the guidelines to nurses and clinicians. Supporting data collected retrospectively, before and after implementation, included nursing satisfaction survey results and the number of procedure cancellations. After the guidelines were developed and posted, significantly fewer procedures were cancelled, nursing satisfaction was higher, and radiologists performed procedures with less variability. Anecdotally, radiologists had fewer queries about anticoagulation. The development and dissemination of radiologic procedure anticoagulation guidelines should be considered as a departmental quality improvement project. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Guided Interventions and Emerging Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Baseline Apparent Diffusion Coefficient as a Predictor of Response to Liver-Directed Therapies in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(4), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7040083
Received: 4 April 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 April 2018 / Published: 14 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3716 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Predicting outcomes in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who undergo locoregional therapies remains a substantial clinical challenge. The purpose of this study was to investigate pre-procedure diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) as an imaging biomarker for tumoral response to therapy for patients [...] Read more.
Predicting outcomes in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who undergo locoregional therapies remains a substantial clinical challenge. The purpose of this study was to investigate pre-procedure diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) as an imaging biomarker for tumoral response to therapy for patients with HCC undergoing drug eluting embolic (DEE) chemoembolization and radioembolization. A retrospective review of HCC patients who underwent DEE chemoembolization or radioembolization was performed. Of the 58 patients who comprised the study population, 32 underwent DEE chemoembolization and 26 underwent radioembolization. There was no significant difference in median apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values across the two treatment groups (1.01 × 10−3 mm2/s, P = 0.25). The immediate objective response (OR) rate was 71% (40/56). Tumors with high ADC values were found to have a higher probability of OR within 90 days (odds ratio 4.4, P = 0.03). Moreover, index lesion specific progression free survival (PFS) was greater for high ADC tumors, independent of conventional predictors of treatment response (hazard ratio 0.44, P = 0.01). Low ADC was associated with poorer PFS (P = 0.02). Pre-procedure ADC < 1.01 × 10−3 mm2/s is an independent predictor of poorer immediate OR and index lesion specific PFS in patients with HCC undergoing DEE chemoembolization or radioembolization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Guided Interventions and Emerging Technologies)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Minimally Invasive Limited Ligation Endoluminal-Assisted Revision (MILLER): A Review of the Available Literature and Brief Overview of Alternate Therapies in Dialysis Associated Steal Syndrome
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(6), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7060128
Received: 29 April 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 28 May 2018 / Published: 29 May 2018
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Abstract
Dialysis associated steal syndrome (DASS) is a relatively rare but debilitating complication of arteriovenous fistulas. While mild symptoms can be observed, if severe symptoms are left untreated, DASS can result in ulcerations and limb threatening ischemia. High-flow with resultant heart failure is another [...] Read more.
Dialysis associated steal syndrome (DASS) is a relatively rare but debilitating complication of arteriovenous fistulas. While mild symptoms can be observed, if severe symptoms are left untreated, DASS can result in ulcerations and limb threatening ischemia. High-flow with resultant heart failure is another documented complication following dialysis access procedures. Historically, open surgical procedures have been the mainstay of therapy for both DASS as well as high-flow. These procedures included ligation, open surgical banding, distal revascularization-interval ligation, revascularization using distal inflow, and proximal invasion of arterial inflow. While effective, open surgical procedures and general anesthesia are preferably avoided in this high-risk population. Minimally invasive limited ligation endoluminal-assisted revision (MILLER) offers both a precise as well as a minimally invasive approach to treating both dialysis associated steal syndrome as well as high-flow with resultant heart failure. MILLER is not ideal for all DASS patients, particularly those with low-flow fistulas. We aim to briefly describe the open surgical therapies as well as review both the technical aspects of the MILLER procedure and the available literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Guided Interventions and Emerging Technologies)
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Open AccessReview
Social Medicine: Twitter in Healthcare
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(6), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7060121
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 21 May 2018 / Accepted: 22 May 2018 / Published: 28 May 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Social media enables the public sharing of information. With the recent emphasis on transparency and the open sharing of information between doctors and patients, the intersection of social media and healthcare is of particular interest. Twitter is currently the most popular form of [...] Read more.
Social media enables the public sharing of information. With the recent emphasis on transparency and the open sharing of information between doctors and patients, the intersection of social media and healthcare is of particular interest. Twitter is currently the most popular form of social media used for healthcare communication; here, we examine the use of Twitter in medicine and specifically explore in what capacity using Twitter to share information on treatments and research has the potential to improve care. The sharing of information on Twitter can create a communicative and collaborative atmosphere for patients, physicians, and researchers and even improve quality of care. However, risks involved with using Twitter for healthcare discourse include high rates of misinformation, difficulties in verifying the credibility of sources, overwhelmingly high volumes of information available on Twitter, concerns about professionalism, and the opportunity cost of using physician time. Ultimately, the use of Twitter in healthcare can allow patients, healthcare professionals, and researchers to be more informed, but specific guidelines for appropriate use are necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Guided Interventions and Emerging Technologies)
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Open AccessReview
Role of Venous Sampling in the Diagnosis of Endocrine Disorders
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(5), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7050114
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 8 May 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
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Abstract
Venous sampling is the gold standard for localizing abnormal hormone secretion in several endocrine disorders. The most common indication for venous sampling is in the workup of primary aldosteronism, adrenocorticotropic hormone-dependent Cushing’s syndrome, and hyperparathyroidism. In experienced hands, venous sampling is safe and [...] Read more.
Venous sampling is the gold standard for localizing abnormal hormone secretion in several endocrine disorders. The most common indication for venous sampling is in the workup of primary aldosteronism, adrenocorticotropic hormone-dependent Cushing’s syndrome, and hyperparathyroidism. In experienced hands, venous sampling is safe and accurate. This review discusses the role of venous sampling in the workup of endocrine disease, describing the underlying anatomy and pathophysiology, as an understanding of these concepts is essential for technical and clinical success. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Guided Interventions and Emerging Technologies)
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Open AccessReview
The Use of Transarterial Approaches in Peripheral Arteriovenous Malformations (AVMs)
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(5), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7050109
Received: 31 March 2018 / Revised: 1 May 2018 / Accepted: 7 May 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
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Abstract
Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a subset of congenital vascular malformations (CVMs). They comprise abnormal connections between arterial and venous circulation; treatment approaches are dependent on the angioarchitecture of the AVM, specifically the number and arrangement of the feeder arteries and outflow veins. Various [...] Read more.
Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a subset of congenital vascular malformations (CVMs). They comprise abnormal connections between arterial and venous circulation; treatment approaches are dependent on the angioarchitecture of the AVM, specifically the number and arrangement of the feeder arteries and outflow veins. Various imaging modalities can be used to diagnose and plan treatment. Here we will review the use of transarterial approaches to treat AVMs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Guided Interventions and Emerging Technologies)
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Open AccessReview
Gastrodoudenal Embolization: Indications, Technical Pearls, and Outcomes
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(5), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7050101
Received: 1 April 2018 / Revised: 25 April 2018 / Accepted: 27 April 2018 / Published: 2 May 2018
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Abstract
The gastroduodenal artery (GDA) is frequently embolized in cases of upper GI bleed that has failed endoscopic therapy. Additionally, it may be done for GDA pseudoaneurysms or as an adjunctive procedure prior to Yttrim-90 (Y90) treatment of hepatic tumors. This clinical review will [...] Read more.
The gastroduodenal artery (GDA) is frequently embolized in cases of upper GI bleed that has failed endoscopic therapy. Additionally, it may be done for GDA pseudoaneurysms or as an adjunctive procedure prior to Yttrim-90 (Y90) treatment of hepatic tumors. This clinical review will summarize anatomy and embryology of the GDA, indications, outcomes and complications of GDA embolization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Guided Interventions and Emerging Technologies)
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Open AccessReview
Bleeding after Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage: Incidence, Causes and Treatments
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(5), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7050094
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 23 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5816 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Of all procedures in interventional radiology, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) is amongst the most technically challenging. Successful placement requires a high level of assorted skills. While this procedure can be life-saving, it can also lead to significant iatrogenic harm, often manifesting as [...] Read more.
Of all procedures in interventional radiology, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) is amongst the most technically challenging. Successful placement requires a high level of assorted skills. While this procedure can be life-saving, it can also lead to significant iatrogenic harm, often manifesting as bleeding. Readers of this article will come to understand the pathophysiology and anatomy underlying post-PTBD bleeding, its incidence, its varied clinical manifestations and its initial management. Additionally, a structured approach to its treatment emphasizing endovascular and percutaneous methods is given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Guided Interventions and Emerging Technologies)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Endovascular Interventions for the Morbidly Adherent Placenta
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(5), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7050092
Received: 31 March 2018 / Revised: 20 April 2018 / Accepted: 23 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (19199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Morbidly adherent placentas are a spectrum of abnormalities ranging from placental invasion of the myometrium to invasion past the myometrium and muscular layers into adjacent structures. This entity is becoming more prevalent recently with increased number of cesarean deliveries. Given the high risk [...] Read more.
Morbidly adherent placentas are a spectrum of abnormalities ranging from placental invasion of the myometrium to invasion past the myometrium and muscular layers into adjacent structures. This entity is becoming more prevalent recently with increased number of cesarean deliveries. Given the high risk of morbidity and mortality, this was traditionally treated with pre-term planned cesarean hysterectomy. However, recently, uterine preservation techniques have been implemented for those women wishing to preserve future fertility or their uterus. Early identification is crucial as studies have shown better outcomes for women treated at tertiary care facilities by a dedicated multidisciplinary team. Interventional radiologists are frequently included in the care of these patients as there are several different endovascular techniques which can be implemented to decrease morbidity in these patients both in conjunction with cesarean hysterectomy and in the setting of uterine preservation. This article will review the spectrum of morbidly adherent placentas, imaging, as well as the surgical and endovascular interventions implemented in the care of these complex patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Guided Interventions and Emerging Technologies)
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Open AccessReview
Multi-Detector Computed Tomography Imaging Techniques in Arterial Injuries
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(5), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7050088
Received: 1 April 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6477 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cross-sectional imaging has become a critical aspect in the evaluation of arterial injuries. In particular, angiography using computed tomography (CT) is the imaging of choice. A variety of techniques and options are available when evaluating for arterial injuries. Techniques involve contrast bolus, various [...] Read more.
Cross-sectional imaging has become a critical aspect in the evaluation of arterial injuries. In particular, angiography using computed tomography (CT) is the imaging of choice. A variety of techniques and options are available when evaluating for arterial injuries. Techniques involve contrast bolus, various phases of contrast enhancement, multiplanar reconstruction, volume rendering, and maximum intensity projection. After the images are rendered, a variety of features may be seen that diagnose the injury. This article provides a general overview of the techniques, important findings, and pitfalls in cross sectional imaging of arterial imaging, particularly in relation to computed tomography. In addition, the future directions of computed tomography, including a few techniques in the process of development, is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Guided Interventions and Emerging Technologies)
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Open AccessReview
Colorectal-Vaginal Fistulas: Imaging and Novel Interventional Treatment Modalities
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7040087
Received: 11 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 22 April 2018
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Abstract
Colovaginal and/or rectovaginal fistulas cause significant and distressing symptoms, including vaginitis, passage of flatus/feces through the vagina, and painful skin excoriation. These fistulas can be a challenging condition to treat. Although most fistulas can be treated with surgical repair, for those patients who [...] Read more.
Colovaginal and/or rectovaginal fistulas cause significant and distressing symptoms, including vaginitis, passage of flatus/feces through the vagina, and painful skin excoriation. These fistulas can be a challenging condition to treat. Although most fistulas can be treated with surgical repair, for those patients who are not operative candidates, limited options remain. As minimally-invasive interventional techniques have evolved, the possibility of fistula occlusion has enriched the therapeutic armamentarium for the treatment of these complex patients. In order to offer optimal treatment options to these patients, it is important to understand the imaging and anatomical features which may appropriately guide the surgeon and/or interventional radiologist during pre-procedural planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Guided Interventions and Emerging Technologies)
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Open AccessReview
Quadrilateral Space Syndrome: Diagnosis and Clinical Management
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(4), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7040086
Received: 1 April 2018 / Revised: 18 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 21 April 2018
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Abstract
Quadrilateral space syndrome (QSS) is a rare disorder characterized by axillary nerve and posterior humeral circumflex artery (PHCA) compression within the quadrilateral space. Impingement is most frequently due to trauma, fibrous bands, or hypertrophy of one of the muscular borders. Diagnosis can be [...] Read more.
Quadrilateral space syndrome (QSS) is a rare disorder characterized by axillary nerve and posterior humeral circumflex artery (PHCA) compression within the quadrilateral space. Impingement is most frequently due to trauma, fibrous bands, or hypertrophy of one of the muscular borders. Diagnosis can be complicated by the presence of concurrent traumatic injuries, particularly in athletes. Since many other conditions can mimic QSS, it is often a diagnosis of exclusion. Conservative treatment is often first trialed, including physical exercise modification, physical therapy, and therapeutic massage. In patients unrelieved by conservative measures, surgical decompression of the quadrilateral space may be indicated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Guided Interventions and Emerging Technologies)
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Open AccessReview
A Practical Review of the Emerging Direct Anticoagulants, Laboratory Monitoring, and Reversal Agents
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7020029
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 11 February 2018
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Millions of patients in the United States use anticoagulation for a variety of indications, such as the prevention of stroke in those with atrial fibrillation (AF) and the treatment and prevention of venous thrombosis. For over six decades warfarin was the only available [...] Read more.
Millions of patients in the United States use anticoagulation for a variety of indications, such as the prevention of stroke in those with atrial fibrillation (AF) and the treatment and prevention of venous thrombosis. For over six decades warfarin was the only available oral anticoagulant, but now several DOACs are available and their use has become more prevalent in recent years. In spite of this increased use, many physicians remain reluctant to prescribe DOACs due to concerns about bleeding and reversibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Guided Interventions and Emerging Technologies)
Open AccessReview
The Evolving Treatment of Peripheral Arterial Disease through Guideline-Directed Recommendations
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7010009
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 28 December 2017 / Accepted: 2 January 2018 / Published: 9 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1992 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) refers to partial or complete occlusion of one or more non-coronary arteries that leads to compromised blood flow and ischemia. Numerous processes are involved in arterial stenosis, however, atherosclerosis remains the most common etiology. PAD constitutes a major health [...] Read more.
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) refers to partial or complete occlusion of one or more non-coronary arteries that leads to compromised blood flow and ischemia. Numerous processes are involved in arterial stenosis, however, atherosclerosis remains the most common etiology. PAD constitutes a major health economic problem, and it is estimated that over 200 million people around the world suffer from PAD, with at least 20% having some degree of claudication. The purpose of this review is to compare and contrast the guidelines on PAD published in 2005, 2011 and 2016 in terms of new recommendations and level of evidence for practicing clinicians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Guided Interventions and Emerging Technologies)
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