Special Issue "New Perspective in Atrial Fibrillation"

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Cardiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 June 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Charles Guenancia
Website1 Website2 SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Department of Cardiology, University Hospital, 14 rue Paul Gaffarel, Dijon, France.PEC 2 Laboratory, EA 7460, UFR Sciences de Santé, Université de Bourgogne, Dijon, France.
Interests: predictors of atrial fibrillation onset and recurrence in acute settings (sepsis, myocardial infarction, cardiac surgery, stroke): focus on atrial cardiopathy markers.

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In spite of the large volume of associated research, the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in atrial fibrillation (AF) onset and recurrence remain uncertain. This may explain why the performances of thromboembolic and bleeding prediction scores in AF patients are limited. In the past few years, the concept of atrial cardiopathy has emerged as a promising lead to connect AF to stroke, heart failure, and inflammatory processes: indeed, all of the mechanisms associated with atrial remodeling and the development of atrial cardiopathy are also likely to promote the development of AF. This recent concept of atrial cardiopathy suggests that the real trigger of stroke may be an abnormal atrial substrate rather than the atrial rhythm itself. In this setting, AF could be seen as a symptom of atrial cardiopathy rather than a risk factor of stroke. In the absence of validated clinical markers of atrial cardiopathy, the search for AF remains the cornerstone of cardioembolic stroke prevention for now.

The aim of this Special Issue is to gather basic research as well as pathophysiological and epidemiological papers focused on the relationship between atrial substrate and atrial fibrillation onset, recurrence, and outcomes.

Dr. Charles Guenancia
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • atrial fibrillation
  • atrial cardiopathy
  • atrial fibrosis
  • atrial mapping
  • autonomic nervous system
  • stroke
  • heart failure
  • anticoagulant therapy
  • thromboembolic risk
  • bleeding risk

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
What Is the Ideal Blood Pressure Threshold for the Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation in Elderly General Population?
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 2988; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092988 - 16 Sep 2020
Abstract
Intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering in patients with hypertension at increased risk of cardiovascular disease has been associated with a lowered risk of incident atrial fibrillation (AF). It is uncertain whether maintaining the optimal BP levels can prevent AF in the general elderly [...] Read more.
Intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering in patients with hypertension at increased risk of cardiovascular disease has been associated with a lowered risk of incident atrial fibrillation (AF). It is uncertain whether maintaining the optimal BP levels can prevent AF in the general elderly population. We included 115,866 participants without AF in the Korea National Health Insurance Service-Senior (≥60 years) cohort from 2002 to 2013. We compared the influence of BP on the occurrence of new-onset AF between octogenarians (≥80 years) and non-octogenarians (<80 years) subjects. With up to 6.7 ± 1.7 years of follow-up, 4393 incident AF cases occurred. After multivariable adjustment for potentially confounding clinical covariates, the risk of AF in non-octogenarians was significantly higher in subjects with BP levels of <120/<80 and ≥140/90 mm Hg, with hazard ratios of 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–1.28; p < 0.001) and 1.14 (95% CI, 1.04–1.26; p < 0.001), compared to the optimal BP levels (120–129/<80 mm Hg). In octogenarians, the optimal BP range was 130–139/80–89 mm Hg, higher than in non-octogenarians. A U-shaped relationship for the development of incident AF was evident in non-octogenarians, and BP levels of 120–129/<80 mm Hg were associated the lowest risk of incident AF. Compared to non-octogenarians, the lowest risk of AF was associated with higher BP levels of 130–139/80–89 mm Hg amongst octogenarians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspective in Atrial Fibrillation)
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Open AccessArticle
Real-Life Incident Atrial Fibrillation in Outpatients with Coronary Artery Disease
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(8), 2367; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9082367 - 24 Jul 2020
Abstract
Background: The risk, correlates, and consequences of incident atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) are largely unknown. Methods and results: We analyzed incident AF during a 3-year follow-up in 5031 CAD outpatients included in the prospective multicenter CARDIONOR [...] Read more.
Background: The risk, correlates, and consequences of incident atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) are largely unknown. Methods and results: We analyzed incident AF during a 3-year follow-up in 5031 CAD outpatients included in the prospective multicenter CARDIONOR registry and with no history of AF at baseline. Incident AF occurred in 266 patients (3-year cumulative incidence: 4.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.1 to 5.3)). Incident AF was diagnosed during cardiology outpatient visits in 177 (66.5%) patients, 87 of whom were asymptomatic. Of note, 46 (17.3%) patients were diagnosed at time of hospitalization for heart failure, and a few patients (n = 5) at the time of ischemic stroke. Five variables were independently associated with incident AF: older age (p < 0.0001), heart failure (p = 0.003), lower left ventricle ejection fraction (p = 0.008), history of hypertension (p = 0.010), and diabetes mellitus (p = 0.033). Anticoagulant therapy was used in 245 (92%) patients and was associated with an antiplatelet drug in half (n = 122). Incident AF was a powerful predictor of all-cause (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.47 to 2.83; p < 0.0001) and cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.88; 95% CI: 1.88 to 4.43; p < 0.0001). Conclusions: In CAD outpatients, real-life incident AF occurs at a stable rate of 1.6% annually and is frequently diagnosed in asymptomatic patients during cardiology outpatient visits. Anticoagulation is used in most cases, often combined with antiplatelet therapy. Incident AF is associated with increased mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspective in Atrial Fibrillation)
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Open AccessArticle
Major Bleeding Predictors in Patients with Left Atrial Appendage Closure: The Iberian Registry II
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(7), 2295; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072295 - 19 Jul 2020
Abstract
Introduction and objective: Major bleeding events in patients undergoing left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) range from 2.2 to 10.3 per 100 patient-years in different series. This study aimed to clarify the bleeding predictive factors that could influence these differences. Methods: LAAC was performed [...] Read more.
Introduction and objective: Major bleeding events in patients undergoing left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) range from 2.2 to 10.3 per 100 patient-years in different series. This study aimed to clarify the bleeding predictive factors that could influence these differences. Methods: LAAC was performed in 598 patients from the Iberian Registry II (1093 patient-years; median, 75.4 years). We conducted a multivariate analysis to identify predictive risk factors for major bleeding events. The occurrence of thromboembolic and bleeding events was compared to rates expected from CHA2DS2-VASc (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age, diabetes, stroke history, vascular disease, sex) and HAS-BLED (hypertension, abnormal renal and liver function, stroke, bleeding, labile INR, elderly, drugs or alcohol) scores. Results: Cox regression analysis revealed that age ≥75 years (HR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3 to 4.8; p = 0.004) and a history of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) (HR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1 to 3.9; p = 0.020) were two factors independently associated with major bleeding during follow-up. Patients aged <75 or ≥75 years had median CHA2DS2-VASc scores of 4 (IQR: 2) and 5 (IQR: 2), respectively (p < 0.001) and HAS-BLED scores were 3 (IQR: 1) and 3 (IQR: 1) for each group (p = 0.007). Events presented as follow-up adjusted rates according to age groups were stroke (1.2% vs. 2.9%; HR: 2.4, p = 0.12) and major bleeding (3.7 vs. 9.0 per 100 patient-years; HR: 2.4, p = 0.002). Expected major bleedings according to HAS-BLED scores were 6.2% vs. 6.6%, respectively. In patients with GIB history, major bleeding events were 6.1% patient-years (HAS-BLED score was 3.8 ± 1.1) compared to 2.7% patients-year in patients with no previous GIB history (HAS-BLED score was 3.4 ± 1.2; p = 0.029). Conclusions: In this high-risk population, GIB history and age ≥75 years are the main predictors of major bleeding events after LAAC, especially during the first year. Age seems to have a greater influence on major bleeding events than on thromboembolic risk in these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspective in Atrial Fibrillation)
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Open AccessArticle
Involvement of Autonomic Nervous System in New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation during Acute Myocardial Infarction
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1481; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051481 - 14 May 2020
Abstract
Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and associated with in-hospital and long-term mortality. However, the pathophysiology of AF in AMI is poorly understood. Heart rate variability (HRV), measured by Holter-ECG, reflects cardiovascular response to the autonomic nervous system [...] Read more.
Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and associated with in-hospital and long-term mortality. However, the pathophysiology of AF in AMI is poorly understood. Heart rate variability (HRV), measured by Holter-ECG, reflects cardiovascular response to the autonomic nervous system and altered (reduced or enhanced) HRV may have a major role in the onset of AF in AMI patients. Objective: We investigated the relationship between autonomic dysregulation and new-onset AF during AMI. Methods: As part of the RICO survey, all consecutive patients hospitalized for AMI at Dijon (France) university hospital between June 2001 and November 2014 were analyzed by Holter-ECG <24 h following admission. HRV was measured using temporal and spectral analysis. Results: Among the 2040 included patients, 168 (8.2%) developed AF during AMI. Compared to the sinus-rhythm (SR) group, AF patients were older, had more frequent hypertension and lower left ventricular ejection fraction LVEF. On the Holter parameters, AF patients had higher pNN50 values (11% vs. 4%, p < 0.001) and median LH/HF ratio, a reflection of sympathovagal balance, was significantly lower in the AF group (0.88 vs 2.75 p < 0.001). The optimal LF/HF cut-off for AF prediction was 1.735. In multivariate analyses, low LF/HF <1.735 (OR(95%CI) = 3.377 (2.047–5.572)) was strongly associated with AF, ahead of age (OR(95%CI) = 1.04(1.01–1.06)), mean sinus-rhythm rate (OR(95%CI) = 1.03(1.02–1.05)) and log NT-proBNP (OR(95%CI) = 1.38(1.01–1.90). Conclusion: Our study strongly suggests that new-onset AF in AMI mainly occurs in a dysregulated autonomic nervous system, as suggested by low LF/HF, and higher PNN50 and RMSSD values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspective in Atrial Fibrillation)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
RNAs and Gene Expression Predicting Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation in Cardiac Surgery Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(4), 1139; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9041139 - 16 Apr 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is linked with increased morbidity, mortality rate and financial liability. About 20–50% of patients experience POAF after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Numerous review articles and meta-analyses have investigated links between patient clinical risk factors, demographic conditions, and [...] Read more.
Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is linked with increased morbidity, mortality rate and financial liability. About 20–50% of patients experience POAF after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Numerous review articles and meta-analyses have investigated links between patient clinical risk factors, demographic conditions, and pre-, peri- and post-operative biomarkers to forecast POAF incidence in CABG patients. This narrative review, for the first time, summarize the role of micro-RNAs, circular-RNAs and other gene expressions that have shown experimental evidence to accurately predict the POAF incidence in cardiac surgery patients after CABG. We envisage that identifying specific genomic markers for predicting POAF might be a significant step for the prevention and effective management of this type of post-operative complication and may provide critical perspective into arrhythmogenic substrate responsible for POAF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspective in Atrial Fibrillation)
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