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Special Issue "Pediatric Rhinosinusitis and Asthma"

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Otolaryngology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Sara Torretta

Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico; Dept. of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: children; otolaryngology; upper airways; infections; otitis; adenoids

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Paediatric rhinosinusitis is frequently encountered in clinical practice and asthma may coexist in many cases. These conditions probably share common underlining pathophysiological mechanisms mediated by eosinophilic and T-helper 2 inflammatory pathways, and it is well known that an impairment in the nasosinusal homeostasis predisposes to acute exacerbation of asthmatic disease. However, the complex link between the upper and the lower airways is not completely understood, and the optimal management of children with rhinosinusitis and asthma requires a coordinated multidisciplinary approach that includes of paediatric, otorhinolaryngological, and allergology consultations.

For an upcoming Special Issue of the Journal of Clinical Medicine (PubMed indexed), we invite investigators to contribute with review articles focused on discussing the relationship between rhinosinusitis and asthma in children, as well as the more proper diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in these patients. Potential topics may include, but are not limited to:

  • Microbiological aspects of acute and chronic rhinosinusitis
  • The link between paediatric rhinosinusitis and asthma
  • Nitric oxide and biological mediators in paediatric rhinosinusitis and asthma
  • The allergology basis of paediatric rhinosinusitis and asthma
  • Imaging in the diagnostic management of paediatric rhinosinusitis
  • Medical treatment of paediatric rhinosinusitis
  • Surgical treatment paediatric rhinosinusitis
  • Chronic rhinosinusitis in children with systemic disease

Dr. Sara Torretta
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Clinical Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • children
  • rhinosinusitis
  • asthma
  • allergy
  • nitric oxide
  • endoscopic sinus surgery
  • nasal polyposis

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Review

Open AccessReview
Surgical Treatment of Paediatric Chronic Rhinosinusitis
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(5), 684; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8050684
Received: 1 March 2019 / Revised: 26 April 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 15 May 2019
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Abstract
Rhinosinusitis (RS) is a common disease in children, significantly affecting their quality of life. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is frequently linked to other respiratory diseases, including asthma. Children affected by CRS may be candidates for surgery in the case of failure of maximal medical [...] Read more.
Rhinosinusitis (RS) is a common disease in children, significantly affecting their quality of life. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is frequently linked to other respiratory diseases, including asthma. Children affected by CRS may be candidates for surgery in the case of failure of maximal medical therapy comprising three to six weeks of broad-spectrum systemic antibiotics with adjunctive therapies. Although endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is the surgical treatment of choice in adult patients with CRS, different surgical procedures are scheduled for refractory paediatric CRS and include adenoidectomy, paediatric ESS (PESS), and balloon catheter sinuplasty (BCS). The present paper discusses the indications and limitations of each treatment option in children with CRS. Given the amount of current evidence, it is reasonable to suggest that, in young and otherwise healthy children with refractory CRS, an adenoidectomy (eventually combined with BCS) should be offered as the first-line surgical treatment. Nevertheless, this approach may be considered ineffective in some patients who should be candidates for traditional ESS. In older children, those with asthma, or in the case of peculiar conditions, traditional ESS should be considered as the primary treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Rhinosinusitis and Asthma)
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Open AccessReview
Role of Biofilms in Children with Chronic Adenoiditis and Middle Ear Disease
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(5), 671; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8050671
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 26 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 May 2019 / Published: 13 May 2019
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Abstract
Chronic adenoiditis occurs frequently in children, and it is complicated by the subsequent development of recurrent or chronic middle ear diseases, such as recurrent acute otitis media, persistent otitis media with effusion and chronic otitis media, which may predispose a child to long-term [...] Read more.
Chronic adenoiditis occurs frequently in children, and it is complicated by the subsequent development of recurrent or chronic middle ear diseases, such as recurrent acute otitis media, persistent otitis media with effusion and chronic otitis media, which may predispose a child to long-term functional sequalae and auditory impairment. Children with chronic adenoidal disease who fail to respond to traditional antibiotic therapy are usually candidates for surgery under general anaesthesia. It has been suggested that the ineffectiveness of antibiotic therapy in children with chronic adenoiditis is partially related to nasopharyngeal bacterial biofilms, which play a role in the development of chronic nasopharyngeal inflammation due to chronic adenoiditis, which is possibly associated with chronic or recurrent middle ear disease. This paper reviews the current evidence concerning the involvement of bacterial biofilms in the development of chronic adenoiditis and related middle ear infections in children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Rhinosinusitis and Asthma)
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Open AccessReview
Microbiological Aspects of Acute and Chronic Pediatric Rhinosinusitis
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(2), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8020149
Received: 15 December 2018 / Revised: 19 January 2019 / Accepted: 26 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (206 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The microbiology of acute and chronic rhinosinusitis has been extensively studied, but there are still some differences of view concerning the etiology of the former, and many disagreements regarding the microbiology of the latter. Establishing the concomitant distribution of the causative micro-organisms in [...] Read more.
The microbiology of acute and chronic rhinosinusitis has been extensively studied, but there are still some differences of view concerning the etiology of the former, and many disagreements regarding the microbiology of the latter. Establishing the concomitant distribution of the causative micro-organisms in cases that involve multiple sinuses is scientifically and practically important. The main problems are the variety of aerobes and anaerobes that may be involved, and the fact that different tracts of the sinuses of the same patient may be simultaneously affected. Rhinosinusitis may also involve the formation of biofilm, which may play a significant role in its pathogenesis and persistence. Biofilms have a number of advantages in terms of bacterial survival, and their perpetuation can create a certain degree of instability in host-bacteria interactions. Sinonasal microflora may further complicate pathogenesis and the identification of the pathogen(s) involved. Furthermore, the concentration, uniformity, and type/number of strains of nasal microbiota may vary from one site to another. The relative and total micro-organism counts can also be affected by various factors, and microbiota can modulate the course of both acute and chronic rhinosinusitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Rhinosinusitis and Asthma)
Open AccessReview
Sinonasal-Related Orbital Infections in Children: A Clinical and Therapeutic Overview
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(1), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8010101
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1258 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sinonasal-related orbital infections (SROIs) are typically pediatric diseases that occur in 3–4% of children with acute rhinosinusitis. They are characterised by various clinical manifestations, such as peri-orbital and orbital cellulitis or orbital and sub-periosteal abscesses that may develop anteriorly or posteriorly to the [...] Read more.
Sinonasal-related orbital infections (SROIs) are typically pediatric diseases that occur in 3–4% of children with acute rhinosinusitis. They are characterised by various clinical manifestations, such as peri-orbital and orbital cellulitis or orbital and sub-periosteal abscesses that may develop anteriorly or posteriorly to the orbital septum. Posterior septal complications are particularly dangerous, as they may lead to visual loss and life-threatening events, such as an intracranial abscess and cavernous sinus thrombosis. Given the possible risk of permanent visual loss due to optic neuritis or orbital nerve ischemia, SROIs are considered ophthalmic emergencies that need to be promptly recognised and treated in an urgent-care setting. The key to obtaining better clinical outcomes in children with SROIs is a multi-disciplinary assessment by pediatricians, otolaryngologists, ophthalmologists, radiologists, and in selected cases, neurosurgeons, neurologists, and infectious disease specialists. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric SROIs, and to make some practical recommendations for attending clinicians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Rhinosinusitis and Asthma)
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J. Clin. Med. EISSN 2077-0383 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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