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Role of Biofilms in Children with Chronic Adenoiditis and Middle Ear Disease

Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Policlinico of Milan, Via Francesco Sforza, 35, 20122 Milano, Italy
Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy
Clinical Chemistry and Microbiology Laboratory, IRCCS Galeazzi Institute and LITA Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, 20161 Milano, Italy
Department of Clinical Science, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy
Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(5), 671;
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 26 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 May 2019 / Published: 13 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Rhinosinusitis and Asthma)
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Chronic adenoiditis occurs frequently in children, and it is complicated by the subsequent development of recurrent or chronic middle ear diseases, such as recurrent acute otitis media, persistent otitis media with effusion and chronic otitis media, which may predispose a child to long-term functional sequalae and auditory impairment. Children with chronic adenoidal disease who fail to respond to traditional antibiotic therapy are usually candidates for surgery under general anaesthesia. It has been suggested that the ineffectiveness of antibiotic therapy in children with chronic adenoiditis is partially related to nasopharyngeal bacterial biofilms, which play a role in the development of chronic nasopharyngeal inflammation due to chronic adenoiditis, which is possibly associated with chronic or recurrent middle ear disease. This paper reviews the current evidence concerning the involvement of bacterial biofilms in the development of chronic adenoiditis and related middle ear infections in children. View Full-Text
Keywords: Biofilm; adenoids; nasopharynx; upper respiratory tract infections; otitis Biofilm; adenoids; nasopharynx; upper respiratory tract infections; otitis

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Torretta, S.; Drago, L.; Marchisio, P.; Ibba, T.; Pignataro, L. Role of Biofilms in Children with Chronic Adenoiditis and Middle Ear Disease. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 671.

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