Pregnancy Complications: Causes, Diagnosis, and Current Treatment

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Obstetrics & Gynecology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 5127

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
1. Institute for Biomedical Research of Murcia, IMIB-Arrixaca, El Palmar, 30120 Murcia, Spain
2. Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Murcia, 30120 Murcia, Spain
Interests: preeclampsia; fetal growth restriction; fetal medicine; prenatal diagnosis; pregnancy complications; pregnancy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue aims to explore the causes, diagnosis, and current treatment options for various pregnancy complications from a clinical perspective. Pregnancy complications pose significant challenges to both maternal and fetal health, requiring a comprehensive understanding of their underlying causes and effective management strategies. This Special Issue will feature in-depth discussions on a wide range of pregnancy complications, including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, placenta previa, preterm labor, and fetal growth restriction. Through a collection of expert articles, this Special Issue seeks to provide healthcare professionals with up-to-date knowledge and evidence-based practices to optimize the care and outcomes for pregnant women experiencing complications.

Dr. Catalina De Paco-Matallana
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • pregnancy complications
  • causes
  • diagnosis
  • current treatment
  • gestational diabetes
  • preeclampsia
  • placenta previa
  • preterm labor
  • fetal growth restriction
  • maternal–fetal health

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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20 pages, 581 KiB  
Article
Association of Pregnant Women’s Perinatal Depression with Sociodemographic, Anthropometric and Lifestyle Factors and Perinatal and Postnatal Outcomes: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Constantina Jacovides, Sousana K. Papadopoulou, Eleni Pavlidou, Antonios Dakanalis, Olga Alexatou, Theofanis Vorvolakos, Eleftherios Lechouritis, Elena Papacosta, Maria Chrysafi, Maria Mitsiou, Maria Mentzelou, Rena I. Kosti and Constantinos Giaginis
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(7), 2096; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13072096 - 03 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Background: In recent decades, the incidence of depression has gradually increased in the general population globally. Depression is also common during gestation and could result in detrimental gestational complications for both the mother and the fetus. The survey presented aimed to evaluate whether [...] Read more.
Background: In recent decades, the incidence of depression has gradually increased in the general population globally. Depression is also common during gestation and could result in detrimental gestational complications for both the mother and the fetus. The survey presented aimed to evaluate whether pregnant women’s perinatal depression could be associated with socio-demographic, anthropometry and lifestyle factors, and perinatal and postnatal outcomes. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey conducted on 5314 pregnant women. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were recorded by relevant questionnaires via face-to-face interviews. Anthropometric parameters were measured by qualified personnel. Perinatal depressive symptomatology status was evaluated by Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI-II) questionnaire. Results: Depressive symptoms throughout gestation were found in 35.1% of the enrolled women. Perinatal depression was significantly associated with lower educational and economic level, pre-pregnancy regular smoking and reduced levels of Mediterranean diet adherence levels, a higher prevalence of gestational diabetes and preterm birth, as well as a higher incidence of delivering by caesarean section and abnormal childbirth weight. Perinatal depression was also significantly associated with a higher prevalence of maternal postpartum depression and lower prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding practices, as well as with a higher incidence of childhood asthma. Conclusions: Pregnant women’s perinatal depression appears to be associated with various socio-demographic, anthropometry, and lifestyle characteristics and with a higher frequency of several adverse pregnancy complications. The present findings emphasize the importance of pregnant women’s perinatal mental health, highlighting the need to develop and apply public strategies and policies for psychological counseling and support of future mothers to minimize probable risk factors that may trigger perinatal depression. Novel well-organized, follow-up surveys of enhanced validity are highly recommended to establish more definitive conclusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pregnancy Complications: Causes, Diagnosis, and Current Treatment)
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13 pages, 1066 KiB  
Article
Impact of Pre-Gestational BMI and Gestational Weight Gain on Fetal Development Outcomes in Adolescent Pregnant Women
by Orly Grobeisen-Duque, Oscar Villavicencio-Carrisoza, Carlos Daniel Mora-Vargas, Carolina Penelope Arteaga-Lopez, Maria Guadalupe Martinez-Salazar, Alejandro Rosas-Balan, Moises León-Juárez, Maria Isabel Villegas-Mota, Veronica Zaga-Clavellina, Ma. Guadalupe Aguilera-Arreola and Addy Cecilia Helguera-Repetto
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(7), 1839; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13071839 - 22 Mar 2024
Viewed by 494
Abstract
Background. Gestational weight gain (GWG) constitutes an essential aspect of the gestational process. Due to factors such as pregestational body mass index (BMI), nutritional intake, level of physical activity, and psychological aspects, the recommended GWG may not be achieved, leading to adverse neonatal [...] Read more.
Background. Gestational weight gain (GWG) constitutes an essential aspect of the gestational process. Due to factors such as pregestational body mass index (BMI), nutritional intake, level of physical activity, and psychological aspects, the recommended GWG may not be achieved, leading to adverse neonatal outcomes. Adolescents, due to their physiological and mental developmental stage, are at a higher risk of inappropriate GWG. Our aim is to highlight the importance of GWG in our population and to determine the correlation with perinatal outcomes. Methods. Pregnant adolescents who attended a tertiary care institution for prenatal care were included; maternal data such as preBMI and GWG were used to determine maternal and neonatal outcomes using the chi-square test and OR determination. Results. A total of 202 adolescent pregnant patients were included, comprising those with inadequate GWG (n = 70), adequate GWG (n = 85), and excessive GWG (n = 47). A statistically significant association was found between low BMI and inadequate GWG. Patients with inadequate GWG demonstrated a correlation with IUGR and low birth weight, while patients with excessive GWG gave birth to macrosomic neonates. Conclusion. We concluded that previous habits play a significant role in determining weight gain throughout pregnancy. GWG has a direct impact on neonatal growth and development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pregnancy Complications: Causes, Diagnosis, and Current Treatment)
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10 pages, 1116 KiB  
Article
Maternal Visceral Fat in Prediction of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
by Jirat Detsrisuwan, Suchaya Luewan, Supatra Sirichotiyakul and Theera Tongsong
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020493 - 16 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Objective: To determine the diagnostic performance of maternal abdominal visceral adipose tissue thickness, measured by ultrasound, in predicting gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Patients and methods: A prospective diagnostic study was conducted on low-risk pregnant women attending our antenatal care clinic. All underwent abdominal [...] Read more.
Objective: To determine the diagnostic performance of maternal abdominal visceral adipose tissue thickness, measured by ultrasound, in predicting gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Patients and methods: A prospective diagnostic study was conducted on low-risk pregnant women attending our antenatal care clinic. All underwent abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) measurement by two-dimension transabdominal ultrasound twice, at late first trimester (gestational age: GA 11–14 weeks) and second trimester (GA 18–22 weeks). All patients underwent a two-step approach for screening and diagnosis of GDM between GA 24 and 28 weeks. Results: A total of 141 women were recruited into the study; including 32 (22.7%) women with GDM, and 109 (77.3%) women of non-GDM, between GA 24 and 28 weeks. The means VAT at the 1st, 2nd trimester and the difference of VAT of GDM group were 4.0 ± 0.27 cm, 5.7 ± 1.12 cm, and 1.6 ± 0.91 cm respectively. The means VAT at 1st, 2nd trimester and the difference of VAT of non-GDM group were 3.8 ± 1.01 cm, 5.4 ± 1.07 cm, and 1.6 ± 1.12 cm respectively. There were no significant differences of VAT measurements (1st, 2nd and the difference) between both groups. The VAT thickness was slightly greater in the GDM group but the mean differences between 1st and 2nd trimester were comparable between the two groups. The diagnostic performance of VAT, maternal age and body mass index (BMI) in predicting GDM was comparable. Conclusion: Measurement of maternal visceral adipose thickness in early pregnancy is not effective in predicting GDM among Thai women, which is different from most studies conducted on western women. However, a trend of higher VAT in the GDM group was noted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pregnancy Complications: Causes, Diagnosis, and Current Treatment)
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13 pages, 267 KiB  
Article
Gestational Weight Gain, Pregnancy Related Complications and the Short-Term Risks for the Offspring
by Milan Lackovic, Milena Jankovic, Sladjana Mihajlovic, Zagorka Milovanovic, Marija Rovcanin, Nikola Mitic and Dejan Nikolic
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020445 - 13 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Background and objectives: Maternal obesity influences pregnancy course in several different manners, and imbalanced nutrition during pregnancy may lead to various adverse pregnancy outcomes. Additionally, nutritional status during pregnancy may have implications for the health of the offspring and may possibly influence early [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Maternal obesity influences pregnancy course in several different manners, and imbalanced nutrition during pregnancy may lead to various adverse pregnancy outcomes. Additionally, nutritional status during pregnancy may have implications for the health of the offspring and may possibly influence early motor development in children. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG) on pregnancy outcomes and infant’s motor development within the first twelve months of life. Materials and methods: The study included 200 participants divided in two groups based on their gestational weight gain. Maternal, perinatal, and neonatal factors were analyzed, and early motor development was assessed using the Alberta infant motor scale (AIMS). Results: EGWG was significantly associated with: pre-pregnancy BMI (p < 0.001), family history for cardiovascular diseases (p = 0.013) and diabetes mellitus (p = 0.045), hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (p = 0.003), gestational diabetes mellitus (p < 0.001), gestational anemia (p = 0.001), vitamin D deficiency (p = 0.001), metformin use (p = 0.045), pre-labor premature rupture of membranes (p = 0.031), amniotic fluid index (p = 0.047), and APGAR score in the first five min of life (p = 0.007). Scored by AIMS, EGWG was significantly associated with parameters of early motor development at the age of three AIMS total (p < 0.001), six AIMS total (p < 0.001), nine AIMS total (p < 0.001), and twelve AIMS total (p < 0.001) months of infant’s life. Conclusions: The link between EGWG and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in offspring is a complex and multifaceted issue. Our results imply significant alterations in early motor development in the group of infants born from mothers who gained weight excessively during pregnancy. Further studies are needed to unravel the intricacies of this relationship and inform strategies for preventive interventions and supportive care during pregnancy and infancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pregnancy Complications: Causes, Diagnosis, and Current Treatment)

Review

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20 pages, 2266 KiB  
Review
Recent Insights and Recommendations for Preventing Excessive Gestational Weight Gain
by Magdalena Niebrzydowska-Tatus, Aleksandra Pełech, Anna K. Rekowska, Małgorzata Satora, Angelika Masiarz, Zuzanna Kabała, Żaneta Kimber-Trojnar and Marcin Trojnar
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(5), 1461; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13051461 - 02 Mar 2024
Viewed by 869
Abstract
Recommendations for weight gain during pregnancy are based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Pregnancy is a risk factor for excessive weight gain and many endocrine problems, making it difficult to return to pre-pregnancy weight and increasing the risk of postpartum obesity and, [...] Read more.
Recommendations for weight gain during pregnancy are based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Pregnancy is a risk factor for excessive weight gain and many endocrine problems, making it difficult to return to pre-pregnancy weight and increasing the risk of postpartum obesity and, consequently, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Both excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG) and obesity are associated with an increased risk of gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, cesarean section, shoulder dystocia, and neonatal macrosomia. In the long term, EGWG is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, particularly from diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, and some cancers. This study aims to present recommendations from various societies regarding weight gain during pregnancy, dietary guidance, and physical activity. In addition, we discuss the pathophysiology of this complication and the differential diagnosis in pregnant women with EGWG. According to our research, inadequate nutrition might contribute more significantly to the development of EGWG than insufficient physical activity levels in pregnant women. Telehealth systems seem to be a promising direction for future EGWG prevention by motivating women to exercise. Although the importance of adequate pre-pregnancy weight and weight gain during pregnancy is well known, an increasing number of women gain excessive weight during pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pregnancy Complications: Causes, Diagnosis, and Current Treatment)
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Other

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22 pages, 467 KiB  
Systematic Review
Advancements in Nutritional Strategies for Gestational Diabetes Management: A Systematic Review of Recent Evidence
by Juan Carlos Sánchez-García, Ines Saraceno López-Palop, Beatriz Piqueras-Sola, Jonathan Cortés-Martín, Elena Mellado-García, Inmaculada Muñóz Sánchez and Raquel Rodríguez-Blanque
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13010037 - 20 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1154
Abstract
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as hyperglycaemia first detected at any time during pregnancy with values lower than those determined by the WHO for diabetes diagnosis in adults. This pathology, with a worldwide prevalence of 13.4%, causes significant maternal and foetal risks. [...] Read more.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as hyperglycaemia first detected at any time during pregnancy with values lower than those determined by the WHO for diabetes diagnosis in adults. This pathology, with a worldwide prevalence of 13.4%, causes significant maternal and foetal risks. The first line of treatment consists of maintaining normo-glycaemia through an adequate diet and lifestyle changes. The aim is to synthesize the scientific evidence updating the nutritional recommendations for the effective management of GDM. A systematic review of the scientific literature was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines. Randomized clinical trials published within the last five years and providing information on nutritional recommendations to achieve an effective management of gestational diabetes were selected. The databases searched were PubMed, the WOS Core Collection, SCOPUS, and CINAHL, using the MeSH terms: “Diabetes, Gestational”; “Nutrition Assessment (nutrition*)”; “Diet”; “Eating”; and “Food”; with the Boolean operators “AND” and “OR”. The PEDro scale (Physiotherapy Evidence Database) was used to assess the scientific quality of the studies, with a mean score of 8.9, indicating an average good scientific quality. Results: A total of 809 papers were collected, of which, after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 14 randomized clinical trials were selected. Probiotic supplementation and co-supplementation with vitamin D have been found to be the most beneficial options for both mothers with GDM and neonates, but the most effective regimens are not known. Diets enriched with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and oat bran, as well as some recommendations focused on carbohydrates also seem effective, as well as diets designed for this group of women with GDM such as “CHOICE”. Conclusions: Although there are numerous proposals that have been published in recent years focused on the diet of women with GDM in order to improve their results and those of their children, it is the supplementation with probiotics and the co-supplementation with vitamin D that is most agreed upon as beneficial; however, more research is needed into which protocols are most effective. Other proposals that could also be beneficial should be further studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pregnancy Complications: Causes, Diagnosis, and Current Treatment)
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