Challenges in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Clinical Pediatrics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 April 2023) | Viewed by 8286

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Section of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine (BCM), Houston, TX 77030, USA
Interests: lung inflammatory processes; bronchopulmonary dysplasia

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common chronic lung disease in premature infants and is caused by lung inflammation and abnormal lung development. Despite the improved management of acute respiratory failure in preterm infants, BPD lacks curative therapies and remains the most common chronic respiratory morbidity affecting 18,000 infants annually in the United States. BPD is also the most expensive neonatal disease in the United States; the hospitalization cost incurred by an infant with BPD in the first year of life is twice that of infants without BPD. Furthermore, the affected infants have significant long-term pulmonary, cardiovascular, and neurodevelopmental abnormalities, imposing social and economic burdens.  Additionally, pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common morbidity of BPD. Importantly, the presence of PH increases both the short- and long-term morbidities and mortality in BPD infants. Therefore, there is a need to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of BPD and employ strategies to better predict, diagnose, treat, and prognosticate the disease. This Special Issue will focus on the most up-to-date knowledge and research and recent advances in the BPD, mainly from human studies. We welcome submissions of studies focused on pathogenesis, pathology, diagnostics and artificial intelligence, management strategies, and long-term outcomes of BPD infants with and without PH.

Dr. Binoy Shivanna
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • bronchopulmonary dysplasia
  • pulmonary hypertension
  • pathophysiology
  • pathogenesis
  • adaptive immunity
  • artificial intelligence
  • lung imaging
  • microbiome
  • therapies
  • morbidities

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Review

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22 pages, 7128 KiB  
Review
Navigating Diagnostic and Treatment Challenges of Pulmonary Hypertension in Infants with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
by Nidhy P. Varghese, Gabriel Altit, Megan M. Gubichuk and Roopa Siddaiah
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(12), 3417; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13123417 - 11 Jun 2024
Viewed by 589
Abstract
Advances in perinatal intensive care have significantly enhanced the survival rates of extremely low gestation-al-age neonates but with continued high rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Nevertheless, as the survival of these infants improves, there is a growing awareness of associated abnormalities in pulmonary [...] Read more.
Advances in perinatal intensive care have significantly enhanced the survival rates of extremely low gestation-al-age neonates but with continued high rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Nevertheless, as the survival of these infants improves, there is a growing awareness of associated abnormalities in pulmonary vascular development and hemodynamics within the pulmonary circulation. Premature infants, now born as early as 22 weeks, face heightened risks of adverse development in both pulmonary arterial and venous systems. This risk is compounded by parenchymal and airway abnormalities, as well as factors such as inflammation, fibrosis, and adverse growth trajectory. The presence of pulmonary hypertension in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD-PH) has been linked to an increased mortality and substantial morbidities, including a greater susceptibility to later neurodevelopmental challenges. BPD-PH is now recognized to be a spectrum of disease, with a multifactorial pathophysiology. This review discusses the challenges associated with the identification and management of BPD-PH, both of which are important in minimizing further disease progression and improving cardiopulmonary morbidity in the BPD infant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia)
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17 pages, 845 KiB  
Review
Bridging the Gap: Exploring Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia through the Lens of Biomedical Informatics
by Jennifer Kim, Mariela Villarreal, Shreyas Arya, Antonio Hernandez and Alvaro Moreira
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(4), 1077; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13041077 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1075
Abstract
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a chronic lung disease predominantly affecting premature infants, poses substantial clinical challenges. This review delves into the promise of biomedical informatics (BMI) in reshaping BPD research and care. We commence by highlighting the escalating prevalence and healthcare impact of BPD, [...] Read more.
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a chronic lung disease predominantly affecting premature infants, poses substantial clinical challenges. This review delves into the promise of biomedical informatics (BMI) in reshaping BPD research and care. We commence by highlighting the escalating prevalence and healthcare impact of BPD, emphasizing the necessity for innovative strategies to comprehend its intricate nature. To this end, we introduce BMI as a potent toolset adept at managing and analyzing extensive, diverse biomedical data. The challenges intrinsic to BPD research are addressed, underscoring the inadequacies of conventional approaches and the compelling need for data-driven solutions. We subsequently explore how BMI can revolutionize BPD research, encompassing genomics and personalized medicine to reveal potential biomarkers and individualized treatment strategies. Predictive analytics emerges as a pivotal facet of BMI, enabling early diagnosis and risk assessment for timely interventions. Moreover, we examine how mobile health technologies facilitate real-time monitoring and enhance patient engagement, ultimately refining BPD management. Ethical and legal considerations surrounding BMI implementation in BPD research are discussed, accentuating issues of privacy, data security, and informed consent. In summation, this review highlights BMI’s transformative potential in advancing BPD research, addressing challenges, and opening avenues for personalized medicine and predictive analytics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia)
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15 pages, 314 KiB  
Review
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology
by Nilesh Dankhara, Ira Holla, Sumana Ramarao and Renjithkumar Kalikkot Thekkeveedu
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4207; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134207 - 22 Jun 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4608
Abstract
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), also known as chronic lung disease, is the most common respiratory morbidity in preterm infants. “Old” or “classic” BPD, as per the original description, is less common now. “New BPD”, which presents with distinct clinical and pathological features, is more [...] Read more.
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), also known as chronic lung disease, is the most common respiratory morbidity in preterm infants. “Old” or “classic” BPD, as per the original description, is less common now. “New BPD”, which presents with distinct clinical and pathological features, is more frequently observed in the current era of advanced neonatal care, where extremely premature infants are surviving because of medical advancements. The pathogenesis of BPD is complex and multifactorial and involves both genetic and environmental factors. This review provides an overview of the pathology of BPD and discusses the influence of several prenatal and postnatal factors on its pathogenesis, such as maternal factors, genetic susceptibility, ventilator-associated lung injury, oxygen toxicity, sepsis, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), and nutritional deficiencies. This in-depth review draws on existing literature to explore these factors and their potential contribution to the development of BPD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia)
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Other

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8 pages, 240 KiB  
Brief Report
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: Ongoing Challenges from Definitions to Clinical Care
by Sushma Nuthakki, Kaashif Ahmad, Gloria Johnson and Milenka Cuevas Guaman
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(11), 3864; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12113864 - 5 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1465
Abstract
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common complication of extreme prematurity. Its etiology is multifactorial and is attributed to genetic susceptibility to prenatal and postnatal factors. As advancements in neonatology have led to the increased survival of premature infants, a parallel increase in [...] Read more.
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common complication of extreme prematurity. Its etiology is multifactorial and is attributed to genetic susceptibility to prenatal and postnatal factors. As advancements in neonatology have led to the increased survival of premature infants, a parallel increase in the incidence of BPD has occurred. Over time, the definition and diagnostic criteria for BPD have evolved, as have management strategies. However, challenges continue to exist in the management of these infants, which is not surprising given the complexity of the disease. We summarize the key diagnostic criteria and provide insight into the challenges related to various aspects of BPD definitions, data comparisons, and clinical care implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia)
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