New Diagnostic, Pharmacological and Therapeutic Trends in Dentistry

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Dentistry, Oral Surgery and Oral Medicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 June 2023) | Viewed by 15357

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Multidisciplinary Department of Medical-Surgical and Dental Specialties, University of Campania, Luigi Vanvitelli, 80138 Naples, Italy
Interests: temporomandibular disorders; TED; temporomandibular joint; orofacial pain; dentistry; telemedicine; tele dentistry; implant; prosthesis; oral surgery
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Guest Editor
Medical Oncology, Department of Precision Medicine, Università degli Studi della Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, 80131 Naples, Italy
Interests: biomaterials; cell biology; cancer cells; cancer cell biology; genetics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last decade, there has been a surge in technological and pharmacological innovations in dentistry. Novelties have been translational in both the diagnostic and therapeutic fields. Although dentistry may appear to be a limited field, these innovations have involved all of its subspecialties. Numerous diagnostic and therapeutic protocols have been approved for oral diseases, particularly in the management of oral cancer and autoimmune diseases. The goal was to identify multidisciplinary treatment strategies to maximize oncological control and minimize the impact of therapy. New devices have been used for early diagnoses, such as high-frequency ultrasonography, optical coherence tomography, and confocal microscopy. Furthermore, the advent of biomarkers has allowed the development of liquid biopsy—using blood and saliva—which represents a potential alternative to solid biopsy for diagnosis and prognosis. Additionally, the use of chemotherapy, including immunotherapy, in oral squamous cell carcinoma has expanded considerably in the past several years. This decade has also been characterized by the advent of “digital dentistry”. The advent of digital technology has improved the accuracy, precision, and skills of dentists. Moreover, it has allowed new and more efficient doctor–patient communication. In implantology, the development of digital technology has favored better planning and modification of surgical techniques, with an improvement in treatment protocols that include implant positioning in post-extraction sites and various prosthetic-loading protocols. The latest technological and therapeutic developments have also involved orthodontics, both as the implementation of diagnostic tools for digital occlusal analysis in orthodontics and in orthognathic surgical treatment. Additionally, the field of dental materials has seen recent evolution. Nanotechnology is currently driving the dental materials industry towards substantial growth, and this has also led to profound changes in prosthetics, restorative dentistry, and endodontics.

Dr. Giuseppe Minervini
Dr. Valentina Belli
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • diagnosis
  • target drug
  • oral diseases
  • digital dentistry
  • dental materials
  • prognosis
  • surgical treatment
  • oral medicine
  • orthodontics
  • dental materials
  • oral surgery

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 521 KiB  
Article
The Impact of COVID-19 on the Oral Bacterial Flora in Patients Wearing Complete Dentures and on the Level of Exhaled Nitric Oxide as a Marker of Inflammation
by Magdalena Wyszyńska, Aleksandra Czelakowska, Przemysław Rosak, Jacek Kasperski, Maria Łopacińska, Amir Ghanem, Anna Mertas and Małgorzata Skucha-Nowak
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(17), 5556; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12175556 - 26 Aug 2023
Viewed by 968
Abstract
Background: Exhaled nitric oxide is helpful in the diagnosis of the inflammation process. The study aimed to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 disease on the oral bacterial flora of patients using complete dentures with a diagnostic device that measures the level of [...] Read more.
Background: Exhaled nitric oxide is helpful in the diagnosis of the inflammation process. The study aimed to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 disease on the oral bacterial flora of patients using complete dentures with a diagnostic device that measures the level of NO in exhaled air. Materials and Methods: The study included patients using upper and lower acrylic complete dentures. All patients participating in the study were vaccinated against COVID-19. The patients were divided into two groups. A dental examination was conducted in each group. The NO concentration was measured using the Vivatmo Pro device. An oral microbiological examination was performed by taking a swab from the bottom of the mouth. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in the distribution of NO in relation to the number of bacteria from isolated families in the study and control groups and no statistically significant correlations between the level of NO and the number of bacteria from all families in the control and study group. Significantly higher NO values were present in the vaccinated and COVID-19-positive history population compared to the vaccinated and with no COVID-19 history population (patients with no clinical symptoms of infection or unaware they had COVID-19). Conclusions: There are statistically significant differences in NO distribution in the considered populations: vaccinated and sick, and vaccinated and with a negative history of COVID-19. The measurement of NO in exhaled air can be a complementary, non-invasive diagnostic and inflammation monitoring method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Diagnostic, Pharmacological and Therapeutic Trends in Dentistry)
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12 pages, 710 KiB  
Article
Identifying Risk Factors Associated with Major Complications and Refractory Course in Patients with Osteomyelitis of the Jaw: A Retrospective Study
by Mathilde Fenelon, Steven Gernandt, Romain Aymon and Paolo Scolozzi
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(14), 4715; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12144715 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1659
Abstract
Despite improved knowledge regarding the diagnosis and treatment of osteomyelitis of the jaw (OMJ), it remains a clinical challenge for oral and maxillofacial surgeons. This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with severe forms of OMJ, i.e., related to the occurrence of [...] Read more.
Despite improved knowledge regarding the diagnosis and treatment of osteomyelitis of the jaw (OMJ), it remains a clinical challenge for oral and maxillofacial surgeons. This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with severe forms of OMJ, i.e., related to the occurrence of major complications or the refractory course of the disease. A retrospective study was performed based on the medical records of all patients diagnosed with OMJ from the past 20 years. Collected data included demographic information, medical and dental history, clinical, radiological, and bacterial findings as well as treatment modalities. The main outcome variables were the onset of major complications and treatment results. Fifty-four patients were included. Our results showed that alcohol and smoking habits, as well as malnutrition, were significantly associated with the occurrence of major complications. We also established that dental implant-induced OMJ should be considered an aggressive subtype of OMJ. Finally, clinical bone exposure was significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes, whereas dental causes or radiological evidence of periosteal reaction were predictive of successful outcomes. Identifying such factors could be useful in preventing serious complications and informing patients about the refractory course of the disease based on the presence of these factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Diagnostic, Pharmacological and Therapeutic Trends in Dentistry)
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10 pages, 1230 KiB  
Article
Comparative Evaluation of the Accuracy of Gingival Thickness Measurement by Clinical Evaluation and Intraoral Ultrasonography
by Parisa Soltani, Jaber Yaghini, Kosar Rafiei, Mojdeh Mehdizadeh, Niccolò Giuseppe Armogida, Luigi Esposito and Gianrico Spagnuolo
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4395; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134395 - 29 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1502
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the accuracy of gingival thickness measurement by two methods of clinical evaluation and intraoral ultrasonography. The gingival thickness was measured in the midbuccal area of the right maxillary lateral incisor and first molar teeth in 30 individuals. For [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the accuracy of gingival thickness measurement by two methods of clinical evaluation and intraoral ultrasonography. The gingival thickness was measured in the midbuccal area of the right maxillary lateral incisor and first molar teeth in 30 individuals. For clinical measurement, a #15 K-file with rubber stops was vertically inserted 2 mm apical to the gingival margin and the length of the file in the tissue was measured using a digital caliper. Ultrasonographic measurement was performed using an intraoral probe on the gingival surface in the midbuccal area, at the entry point of the file. Statistical analysis was performed by paired t-test, correlation coefficient, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (α = 0.05). In the anterior region, the mean gingival thicknesses using ultrasonography (1.517 ± 0.293 mm) and clinical evaluation (1.610 ± 0.272 mm) were not significantly different (p = 0.434). In the posterior region, the mean gingival thicknesses were significantly different between ultrasonography (1.372 ± 0.442 mm) and clinical evaluation (1.626 ± 0.310 mm) (p = 0.006). The area under ROC curve values for ultrasonographic measurements in the anterior and posterior regions were 0.681 and 0.597, respectively. The use of ultrasonography with an intraoral probe has acceptable accuracy for the determination of gingival thickness, especially for the anterior regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Diagnostic, Pharmacological and Therapeutic Trends in Dentistry)
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11 pages, 2202 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Validity of an Optoelectronic Integrated Cone Beam Computed Tomography Jaw Tracking System
by Hayo C. van der Helm, Arjan J. A. Dieters, Pieter U. Dijkstra, Wicher J. van der Meer and Anne Marie Kuijpers-Jagtman
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(12), 4145; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12124145 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1148
Abstract
Jaw motion tracking functionalities of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)-scanners can visualize, record, and analyze movements of the mandible. In this explorative study, the validity of the 4D-Jaw Motion module (4D-JM) of the ProMax 3D Mid CBCT scanner (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland) was tested [...] Read more.
Jaw motion tracking functionalities of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)-scanners can visualize, record, and analyze movements of the mandible. In this explorative study, the validity of the 4D-Jaw Motion module (4D-JM) of the ProMax 3D Mid CBCT scanner (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland) was tested in vitro. The validity of the 4D-JM was accepted if values differed less than 0.6 mm (three voxels sizes) from the gold standard. Three dry human skulls were used. CBCT scans, the gold standard, were taken in eight jaw positions and exported as three-dimensional (3D) models. Individualized 3D-printed dental wafers ensured the correct positioning of the mandible. Jaw positions were recorded with the 4D-JM tracking device and exported as 3D models. The coordinates of six reference points for both superimposed 3D models were obtained. The differences in the x, y and z-axis and the corresponding vector differences between gold standard 3D models and 4D-JM models were calculated. For the mandible 10% and for the maxilla 90% of the vector differences fell within 0.6 mm of the gold standard. With an increasing vertical jaw opening, larger differences between the gold standard and the 4D-JM 3D models were found. The smallest differences of the mandible were observed on the x axis. In this study, the 4D-JM validity was not acceptable by the authors’ predefined standards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Diagnostic, Pharmacological and Therapeutic Trends in Dentistry)
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11 pages, 260 KiB  
Article
The Use of Equimolar Mixtures of Nitrous Oxide and Oxygen in Oral Surgery—A Retrospective Study of Patients in a Swiss University Hospital Setting
by Alexandre Perez, Steven Gernandt and Paolo Scolozzi
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(12), 4117; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12124117 - 18 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 939
Abstract
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the success of procedural conscious sedation using inhaled equimolar nitrous oxide–oxygen (NOIS—EMONO) in patients undergoing routine dental and oral surgery procedures in a Swiss university hospital setting. Materials and methods: The authors conducted a [...] Read more.
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the success of procedural conscious sedation using inhaled equimolar nitrous oxide–oxygen (NOIS—EMONO) in patients undergoing routine dental and oral surgery procedures in a Swiss university hospital setting. Materials and methods: The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients that underwent NOIS-supported procedures between 2018 and 2022 at the oral surgery department of the University Hospital of Geneva (HUG), Switzerland. The primary outcome was the measurement of the procedure’s success and efficacy as defined by the European Society of Anesthesiology. Secondary objectives included the analysis of the types of treatments performed, their indications, patient behavior, and the patient–clinician satisfaction score. Results: 55 patients were included in the study; 85% underwent surgical procedures, and the remaining 15% underwent restorative and preventive procedures. The overall treatment success rate was 98.2% and 97.9% for surgically treated patients. Out of the patients, 62% appeared relaxed, calm, and serene, while 16% expressed pain or fear during the procedure. Infiltrative administration of local anesthesia caused stress in 22% of patients. This portion was significantly lower in sub-cohorts who received local topical anesthetics (0%) or a combination of systemic and local topical analgesics (7%). Patients (75%) and clinicians (91%) were satisfied with the procedure. Conclusion: Inhaled equimolar nitrous oxide–oxygen procedural sedation used during dental procedures and oral surgery results in high treatment success and satisfaction rates. The administration of additional topical anesthetics helps to reduce the anxiety and stress related to infiltrative anesthesia. Further dedicated studies and prospective trials are needed to confirm these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Diagnostic, Pharmacological and Therapeutic Trends in Dentistry)
13 pages, 9286 KiB  
Article
Kinesio Taping as an Adjunct Therapy in Postoperative Care after Extraction of Impacted Third Lower Molars—A Randomized Pilot Study
by Piotr Pławecki, Karolina Pierwocha, Wojciech Terlecki, Anna Kawulok, Mateusz Bogacz, Agnieszka Balicz, Magdalena Jędrusik-Pawłowska, Magdalena Dąbrowska-Galas and Tadeusz Morawiec
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(7), 2694; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12072694 - 4 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1886
Abstract
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly administered according to protocol for the management of complications such as pain, swelling, and trismus following the removal of the third impacted lower molar; however, treatment with NSAIDs may result in multiple adverse effects. The aim of [...] Read more.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly administered according to protocol for the management of complications such as pain, swelling, and trismus following the removal of the third impacted lower molar; however, treatment with NSAIDs may result in multiple adverse effects. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of kinesio taping (KT) and the use of NSAIDs in the treatment of postoperative complications after extraction of an impacted third lower molar. Material and methods: The study comprised a group of 30 patients, randomly divided into the test group (with KT, n = 15) or the control group (without KT, n = 15). The surgery was performed according to standard procedures. In the test group, KT was applied immediately after surgery. Pain, swelling, and trismus were assessed. The VAS scale was used to assess pain. Swelling was measured based on six reference points on the face using a tailor’s meter, and a caliper was used to measure the distance between the upper and lower medial incisors of the upper and lower teeth to determine the extent of trismus. Measurements were performed three times: on the day of the surgery, on the second day following the surgery, and on the 7th day after the surgery. Results: Pain intensity (day of procedures), maximum mouth opening (on the seventh day after the surgery), and the use of NSAIDs (day of surgery) were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the test group than in the control group. Conclusions: Kinesio taping in addition to NSAIDs was found to be more effective than NSAIDs alone in increasing the degree of jaw opening, decreasing pain intensity, and reducing the non-steroid anti-inflammatory dosage in patients after impacted mandibular wisdom teeth surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Diagnostic, Pharmacological and Therapeutic Trends in Dentistry)
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10 pages, 1971 KiB  
Article
Three Visual–Diagnostic Methods for the Detection of Enamel Cracks: An In Vitro Study
by Tim Hausdörfer, Lisa Harms, Philipp Kanzow and Michael Hülsmann
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(3), 973; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12030973 - 27 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1904
Abstract
Tooth fractures are a common cause of tooth loss, frequently starting as enamel cracks. However, methods for the detection of enamel cracks are poorly investigated. The aim of the study was the validation of three clinical methods for the detection of enamel cracks: [...] Read more.
Tooth fractures are a common cause of tooth loss, frequently starting as enamel cracks. However, methods for the detection of enamel cracks are poorly investigated. The aim of the study was the validation of three clinical methods for the detection of enamel cracks: dental operating microscope (DOM), near-infrared transillumination (NIR), and fiber-optic transillumination (FOTI), with hard-tissue slices serving as controls. A total of 89 extracted teeth, set up as diagnostic models, were investigated, and the maximum crack depth was scored by two examiners. The actual crack depth was determined microscopically (25×) using horizontal sections. The accuracy of each method was analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Across all tooth surfaces, the area under the curve (AUC) amounted to 0.57 (DOM), 0.70 (FOTI), and 0.67 (NIR). For crack detection on vestibular/oral surfaces, the AUC was 0.61 (DOM), 0.78 (FOTI), and 0.74 (NIR); for proximal surfaces, it was 0.59 (DOM), 0.65 (FOTI), and 0.67 (NIR). However, the actual crack depth was underestimated with each method (p < 0.001). Under in vitro conditions, FOTI and NIR are suitable for detection of enamel cracks, especially on vestibular and oral tooth surfaces. However, an exact estimation of crack depth is not possible. Therefore, FOTI and NIR seem to be helpful for the clinical detection of enamel cracks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Diagnostic, Pharmacological and Therapeutic Trends in Dentistry)
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9 pages, 1410 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Masticatory Muscles in Adult Patients with Maxillary Hypoplasia Treated with Surgically Assisted Rapid Maxillary Expansion (SARME): A Retrospective Study
by Andrea Abate, Valentina Lanteri, Loris Marcolongo, Luca Solimei and Cinzia Maspero
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(2), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12020607 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1779
Abstract
Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate modifications in electromyographic activity of temporal and masseter muscles before and after surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME) in adult subjects. Materials and Methods: Data from 20 patients with unilateral posterior crossbite were [...] Read more.
Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate modifications in electromyographic activity of temporal and masseter muscles before and after surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME) in adult subjects. Materials and Methods: Data from 20 patients with unilateral posterior crossbite were selected retrospectively from the Orthodontics Department of the University of Genoa and the Department of Biomedical Surgical and Dental Sciences of the University of Milan, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico Milan. Inclusion criteria were set as skeletal class I; adult patients (age > 18); good general health; patients with a transverse maxillary deficiency with unilateral posterior crossbite and maxillary constriction ≥ 5 mm; Superficial electromyographic (EMG) examinations at T0 and T1. Exclusion criteria were smoking, metabolic bone diseases (e.g., hyperparathyroidism, vitamin C deficiency), chronic use of corticoids before or during treatment, parafunctional habits (e.g., bruxism), and temporomandibular joint dysfunction. The Shapiro–Wilk test was performed to check whether the data were normally distributed. Differences for each variable before and after SARME were analyzed with a paired t-test (p < 0.05). Results: The statistical analysis demonstrated no statistically significant differences between the EMG values taken before and after SARME regarding the standardized electrical activity of the masticatory muscles (masseter and anterior temporalis (p > 0.05)). Conclusions: Considering the specific conditions of this study, it can be concluded that SARME did not alter the EMG activity of the masseter and temporal muscles. The present study has shown that the masticatory musculature evaluated after approximately 8 months of therapy can adapt well to SARME. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Diagnostic, Pharmacological and Therapeutic Trends in Dentistry)
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Review

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17 pages, 1136 KiB  
Review
Root Canal Infection and Its Impact on the Oral Cavity Microenvironment in the Context of Immune System Disorders in Selected Diseases: A Narrative Review
by Jarosław Sobieszczański, Sebastian Mertowski, Katarzyna Sarna-Boś, Piotr Stachurski, Ewelina Grywalska and Renata Chałas
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(12), 4102; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12124102 - 17 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2092
Abstract
The oral cavity has a specific microenvironment, and structures such as teeth are constantly exposed to chemical and biological factors. Although the structure of the teeth is permanent, due to exposure of the pulp and root canal system, trauma can have severe consequences [...] Read more.
The oral cavity has a specific microenvironment, and structures such as teeth are constantly exposed to chemical and biological factors. Although the structure of the teeth is permanent, due to exposure of the pulp and root canal system, trauma can have severe consequences and cause the development of local inflammation caused by external and opportunistic pathogens. Long-term inflammation can affect not only the local pulp and periodontal tissues but also the functioning of the immune system, which can trigger a systemic reaction. This literature review presents the current knowledge on root canal infections and their impact on the oral microenvironment in the context of immune system disorders in selected diseases. The result of the analysis of the literature is the statement that periodontal-disease-caused inflammation in the oral cavity may affect the development and progression of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or Sjogren’s syndrome, as well as affecting the faster progression of conditions in which inflammation occurs such as, among others, chronic kidney disease or inflammatory bowel disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Diagnostic, Pharmacological and Therapeutic Trends in Dentistry)
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