The Development and Optimization of Innovative Systems, Processes, and Materials for the Production, Conversion, and Storage of Energy (Volume 2)

A special issue of Inventions (ISSN 2411-5134). This special issue belongs to the section "Inventions and Innovation in Electrical Engineering/Energy/Communications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2023) | Viewed by 11940

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will follow the publications of “The Development and Optimization of Innovative Systems, Processes, and Materials for the Production, Conversion, and Storage of Energy”, which presented six interesting papers.

The production, conversion, and storage of energy are currently gaining remarkable significance because of the increase in environmental and energy security issues. Consequently, a significant proportion of actual research is focused on developing beneficial and efficient systems, processes, and materials for electrochemical and thermochemical devices and integrated systems able to produce, convert, and store energy, favoring the use of renewable sources for distributed generation and transport and, at the same time, reducing fuel consumption and emissions. Therefore, many studies have been carried out on the development and optimization of particular systems, such as high- and low-temperature batteries, supercapacitors, and fuel cells able to accumulate and deliver electrical energy as well as electrolyzers and storage materials for hydrogen production and re-use. The main desirable features in these devices are small size, high specific energy, low environmental impact, and low cost. In addition, with regard to hydrogen, much work is being carried out toward developing processes for its production from renewable sources such as thermochemical cycles powered by solar energy, biomass gasification, etc. In this process of rapid power system evolution, the use of integrated storage systems is particularly requested for improving the operational grid capacity, reducing costs (investment and management), and increasing the reliability and safety of modified systems using new technologies.

In particular, the purpose of this Special Issue is to publish high-quality research papers as well as review articles addressing recent advances in the development and optimization of innovative systems, processes, and materials for the production, conversion, and storage of energy. Potential topics include advanced electrode materials, batteries and fuel cell management and characterization, renewable energy and power systems, and integrated storage energy systems and materials.

Dr. Alessandro Dell'Era
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • energy
  • electrode materials
  • batteries
  • fuel cell
  • renewable energy
  • power systems
  • storage system

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 3058 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Use of Evolutionary Algorithms for Modeling and Simulation of Bifacial Photovoltaic Modules
by Gabriel Henrique Grala, Lucas Lima Provensi, Rafael Krummenauer, Oswaldo Curty da Motta Lima, Glaucio Pedro de Alcantara and Cid Marcos Gonçalves Andrade
Inventions 2023, 8(6), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8060134 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1437
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to employ and improve evolutionary algorithms, namely the genetic algorithm (GA) and the differential evolution algorithm (DE), to extract the parameters of the equivalent circuit model (ECM) of a bifacial photovoltaic module using the representative model of [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to employ and improve evolutionary algorithms, namely the genetic algorithm (GA) and the differential evolution algorithm (DE), to extract the parameters of the equivalent circuit model (ECM) of a bifacial photovoltaic module using the representative model of a diode with five parameters (1D5P). The objective is to simulate the characteristics of the I–V curves for various irradiation and temperature scenarios. A distinctive feature of this study is the exclusive use of the information in the technical sheet of the bifacial module to conduct the entire extraction and simulation process, eliminating the need to resort to external sources of data or experimental data. To validate the methods, a comparison was made between the simulation results and the data provided by the bifacial module manufacturer, contemplating different scenarios of irradiation and temperature. The DE was the most accurate algorithm for the 1D5P model, which presented a maximum average error of 1.57%. In comparison, the GA presented a maximum average error of 1.98% in the most distant scenario of STC conditions. Despite the errors inherent to the simulations, none of the algorithms presented relative errors greater than 8%, which represents a satisfactory modeling for the different operational conditions of the bifacial photovoltaic modules. Full article
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23 pages, 4036 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Power Generation Expansion in Island Systems with Extensive RES and Energy Storage
by Emmanuel Karapidakis, Christos Kalogerakis and Evangelos Pompodakis
Inventions 2023, 8(5), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8050127 - 11 Oct 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1503
Abstract
Insular networks constitute ideal fields for investment in renewables and storage due to their excellent wind and solar potential, as well the high generation cost of thermal generators in such networks. Nevertheless, in order to ensure the stability of insular networks, network operators [...] Read more.
Insular networks constitute ideal fields for investment in renewables and storage due to their excellent wind and solar potential, as well the high generation cost of thermal generators in such networks. Nevertheless, in order to ensure the stability of insular networks, network operators impose strict restrictions on the expansion of renewables. Storage systems render ideal solutions for overcoming the aforementioned restrictions, unlocking additional renewable capacity. Among storage technologies, hybrid battery-hydrogen demonstrates beneficial characteristics thanks to the complementary features that battery and hydrogen exhibit regarding efficiency, self-discharge, cost, etc. This paper investigates the economic feasibility of a private investment in renewables and hybrid hydrogen-battery storage, realized on the interconnected island of Crete, Greece. Specifically, an optimization formulation is proposed to optimize the capacity of renewables and hybrid battery-hydrogen storage in order to maximize the profit of investment, while simultaneously reaching a minimum renewable penetration of 80%, in accordance with Greek decarbonization goals. The numerical results presented in this study demonstrate that hybrid hydrogen-battery storage can significantly reduce electricity production costs in Crete, potentially reaching as low as 64 EUR/MWh. From an investor’s perspective, even with moderate compensation tariffs, the energy transition remains profitable due to Crete’s abundant wind and solar resources. For instance, with a 40% subsidy and an 80 EUR/MWh compensation tariff, the net present value can reach EUR 400 million. Furthermore, the projected cost reductions for electrolyzers and fuel cells by 2030 are expected to enhance the profitability of hybrid renewable-battery-hydrogen projects. In summary, this research underscores the sustainable and economically favorable prospects of hybrid hydrogen-battery storage systems in facilitating Crete’s energy transition, with promising implications for investors and the wider renewable energy sector. Full article
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22 pages, 6664 KiB  
Article
Liquid Natural Gas Cold Energy Recovery for Integration of Sustainable District Cooling Systems: A Thermal Performance Analysis
by Yang Luo, Xuesong Lu, Yi Chen, John Andresen and Mercedes Maroto-Valer
Inventions 2023, 8(5), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8050121 - 25 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1696
Abstract
This paper investigates the heat transfer properties of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in a corrugated plate heat exchanger and explores its application in cold energy recovery for enhanced energy efficiency. The study aims to integrate this technology into a 500 MW gas-fired power [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the heat transfer properties of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in a corrugated plate heat exchanger and explores its application in cold energy recovery for enhanced energy efficiency. The study aims to integrate this technology into a 500 MW gas-fired power plant and a district cooling system to contribute to sustainable city development. Using computational fluid dynamics simulations and experimental validation, the heat transfer behaviour of LNG in the corrugated plate heat exchanger is examined, emphasising the significance of the gas film on the channel wall for efficient heat transfer between LNG and water/ethylene glycol. The study analyses heat exchange characteristics below and above the critical point of LNG. Below the critical point, the LNG behaves as an incompressible fluid, whereas above the critical point, the compressible supercritical state enables a substantial energy recovery and temperature rise at the outlet, highlighting the potential for cold energy recovery. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of cold energy recovery above the critical point, leading to significant energy savings and improved efficiency compared to conventional systems. Optimal operational parameters, such as the number of channels and flow rate ratios, are identified for successful cold energy recovery. This research provides valuable insights for sustainable city planning and the transition towards low-carbon energy systems, contributing to the overall goal of creating environmentally friendly and resilient urban environments. Full article
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23 pages, 1865 KiB  
Article
Contribution to the Development of a Smart Ultrasound Scanner: Design and Analysis of the High-Voltage Power Supply of the Transmitter
by Nicolas Daniel Mbele Ndzana, Claude Bernard Lekini Nkodo, Aristide Tolok Nelem, Mathieu Jean Pierre Pesdjock, Yannick Antoine Abanda, Achille Melingui, Odile Fernande Zeh and Pierre Ele
Inventions 2023, 8(5), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8050113 - 3 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1327
Abstract
A smart ultrasound scanner plays an important role in the transition to point-of-care imaging. DC–DC bipolar converters are essential in the generation of the ultrasound burst signal as they power the piezoelectric transducer. The conventional bipolar converter has minimal output gain and high-voltage [...] Read more.
A smart ultrasound scanner plays an important role in the transition to point-of-care imaging. DC–DC bipolar converters are essential in the generation of the ultrasound burst signal as they power the piezoelectric transducer. The conventional bipolar converter has minimal output gain and high-voltage stress, and the longer duty cycle on the semiconductors produces high conduction losses and reduces the efficiency of the system. The transmitter supply voltage is minimal, necessitating the use of high-gain bipolar converters. This proposed study is concerned with the development of an improved high-output voltage gain symmetric bipolar DC–DC converter topology which may be suitable for applications such as powering a smart ultrasound scanner transmitter. The proposed converter combines the conventional single-ended primary inductor converter (SEPIC) with a voltage multiplier cell (VMC) to improve voltage gain, transistor duty cycle, efficiency, and reliability. The present study describes the working principle of the proposed converter. The analysis of the voltage gain is carried out in continuous current mode (CCM) and discontinuous current mode (DCM), taking into account the nonidealities of the device. The simulation of the proposed system is carried out in the numerical environment Matlab/Simulink in order to verify its characteristics. A prototype model is realized and the experimental study presented validates the theoretical arguments and simulations. Due to the advantages of continuous input current, self-balancing bipolar outputs, and small component size, the proposed converter is a suitable choice for smart ultrasound transmitters. Full article
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14 pages, 42777 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Anodization Conditions on TiO2 Nanotubes Features Obtained Using Aqueous Electrolytes with Xanthan Gum
by Robinson Aguirre Ocampo and Félix Echeverría Echeverría
Inventions 2023, 8(5), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8050109 - 29 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1018
Abstract
Titanium surfaces were anodized to create nanotube structures utilizing an aqueous electrolyte made of xanthan gum (XG) and sodium fluoride. The purpose of employing this type of anodizing solution was to investigate the impact of XG addition on the morphology and organization of [...] Read more.
Titanium surfaces were anodized to create nanotube structures utilizing an aqueous electrolyte made of xanthan gum (XG) and sodium fluoride. The purpose of employing this type of anodizing solution was to investigate the impact of XG addition on the morphology and organization of nanotubes. As far as we know, this is the first time that TiO2 nanotubes, made using aqueous electrolytes with XG as an additive, have been reported. The organization of the nanotubes was measured using the regularity ratio (RR) from the fast Fourier transformation (FFT) pictures. Contrary to the nanotubes formed in aqueous solutions without XG, the addition of XG to the aqueous electrolyte improved the nanotube organization, with no effect on packability. Based on the findings of this experimental work, organized and homogeneous nanotubular structures might be produced utilizing an inexpensive and non-toxic aqueous electrolyte. Full article
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20 pages, 5216 KiB  
Article
Short-Term Solar Insolation Forecasting in Isolated Hybrid Power Systems Using Neural Networks
by Pavel Matrenin, Vadim Manusov, Muso Nazarov, Murodbek Safaraliev, Sergey Kokin, Inga Zicmane and Svetlana Beryozkina
Inventions 2023, 8(5), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8050106 - 23 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1280
Abstract
Solar energy is an unlimited and sustainable energy source that holds great importance during the global shift towards environmentally friendly energy production. However, integrating solar power into electrical grids is challenging due to significant fluctuations in its generation. This research aims to develop [...] Read more.
Solar energy is an unlimited and sustainable energy source that holds great importance during the global shift towards environmentally friendly energy production. However, integrating solar power into electrical grids is challenging due to significant fluctuations in its generation. This research aims to develop a model for predicting solar radiation levels using a hybrid power system in the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast of Tajikistan. This study determined the optimal hyperparameters of a multilayer perceptron neural network to enhance the accuracy of solar radiation forecasting. These hyperparameters included the number of neurons, learning algorithm, learning rate, and activation functions. Since there are numerous combinations of hyperparameters, the neural network training process needed to be repeated multiple times. Therefore, a control algorithm of the learning process was proposed to identify stagnation or the emergence of erroneous correlations during model training. The results reveal that different seasons require different hyperparameter values, emphasizing the need for the meticulous tuning of machine learning models and the creation of multiple models for varying conditions. The absolute percentage error of the achieved mean for one-hour-ahead forecasting ranges from 0.6% to 1.7%, indicating a high accuracy compared to the current state-of-the-art practices in this field. The error for one-day-ahead forecasting is between 2.6% and 7.2%. Full article
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23 pages, 9138 KiB  
Article
Study on the Liquid Cooling Method of Longitudinal Flow through Cell Gaps Applied to Cylindrical Close-Packed Battery
by Wei Li, Wei Shi, Shusheng Xiong, Hai Huang and Guodong Chen
Inventions 2023, 8(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8040100 - 11 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1389
Abstract
The increasing popularity of electric vehicles presents both opportunities and challenges for the advancement of lithium battery technology. A new longitudinal-flow heat dissipation theory for cylindrical batteries is proposed in order to increase the energy density and uniform temperature performance of cylindrical lithium-ion [...] Read more.
The increasing popularity of electric vehicles presents both opportunities and challenges for the advancement of lithium battery technology. A new longitudinal-flow heat dissipation theory for cylindrical batteries is proposed in order to increase the energy density and uniform temperature performance of cylindrical lithium-ion battery packs while also shrinking their size by roughly 10%. First, a genetic algorithm is used to identify a single cell’s thermal properties. Based on this, modeling and simulation are used to examine the thermal properties of the longitudinal-flow-cooled battery pack. It is found that the best coolant flow scheme has one inlet and one outlet from the end face, taking into account the cooling effect of the battery pack and engineering viability. Lastly, thermal dummy cells (TDCs) are used to conduct a validation test of the liquid cooling strategy. Additionally, the simulation and test results demonstrate that the liquid cooling solution can restrict the battery pack’s maximum temperature rise under the static conditions of a continuous, high-current discharge at a rate of 3C to 20 °C and under the dynamic conditions of the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) to 2 °C. In applications where the space requirements for the battery pack are quite strict, the longitudinal-flow cooling method has some advantages. Full article
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20 pages, 9367 KiB  
Article
Expansion Work Recovery of Hydrogen for a FC-Truck-Tentative Design of an Expansion Machine
by Alfred Rufer
Inventions 2023, 8(4), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8040089 - 5 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1205
Abstract
Hydrogen powered vehicles use high-pressure reservoirs from which the gas is transferred to the low-pressure fuel-cell via a classical pressure reduction valve. In these systems no expansion work is recovered and the question is addressed of the potential to increase global efficiency by [...] Read more.
Hydrogen powered vehicles use high-pressure reservoirs from which the gas is transferred to the low-pressure fuel-cell via a classical pressure reduction valve. In these systems no expansion work is recovered and the question is addressed of the potential to increase global efficiency by using an expansion machine between the reservoir and the electrochemical reactor. This paper investigates the feasibility of such an expansion machine, and evaluates the mechanical constraints in terms of forces, torques and produced power by numeric simulation. It further evaluates the energetic contribution to the whole conversion chain from the hydrogen reservoir to the common electrical network on board. A low-energy contribution of the expansion system addresses the question of the real benefit of such an investment. Full article
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