The Development and Optimization of Innovative Systems, Processes, and Materials for the Production, Conversion, and Storage of Energy

A special issue of Inventions (ISSN 2411-5134). This special issue belongs to the section "Inventions and Innovation in Energy and Thermal/Fluidic Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2022) | Viewed by 16285

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The production, conversion, and storage of energy are currently gaining remarkable significance as a consequence of the increase in environmental and energy security issues. Consequently, a significant proportion of actual research is focused on developing beneficial and efficient systems, processes, and materials for electrochemical and thermochemical devices and integrated systems able to produce, convert, and store energy, favoring the use of renewable sources for distributed generation and transport and, at the same time, reducing fuel consumption and emissions. Therefore, many studies have been carried out on the development and optimization of particular systems such as high- and low-temperature batteries, supercapacitors, and fuel cells able to accumulate and deliver electrical energy as well as electrolyzers and storage materials for hydrogen production and re-use. The main desirable features in these devices are small size, high specific energy, low environmental impact, and low costs. In addition, with regard to hydrogen, much is being done toward developing processes for its production from renewable sources such as thermochemical cycles powered by solar energy, biomass gasification, etc. In this process of rapid power system evolution, the use of integrated storage systems is particularly requested for improving the operational grid capacity, reducing costs (investment and management), and increasing the reliability and safety of modified systems using new technologies.

In particular, the purpose of this Special Issue is to publish high-quality research papers as well as review articles addressing recent advances on the “The Development and Optimization of Innovative Systems, Processes, and Materials for the Production, Conversion, and Storage of Energy”.

Potential topics include advanced electrode materials, batteries and fuel cell management and characterization, renewable energy and power systems, and integrated storage energy systems and materials.

Prof. Dr. Alessandro Dell'Era
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Energy
  • Electrode materials
  • Batteries
  • Fuel cell
  • Renewable energy
  • Power systems
  • Storage system

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 157 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial for Special Issue “the Development and Optimization of Innovative Systems, Processes and Materials for the Production, Conversion, and Storage of Energy”
by Alessandro Dell’Era
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040100 - 4 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1072
Abstract
This Editorial is dedicated to a Special Issue focused on the development and optimization of innovative systems, processes and materials for the production, conversion and storage of energy [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

19 pages, 2362 KiB  
Article
Gradient Heatmetry and PIV Investigation of Heat Transfer and Flow near Circular Cylinders
by Vladimir Seroshtanov and Andrey Gusakov
Inventions 2022, 7(3), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7030080 - 7 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3174
Abstract
This paper presents an experimental investigation of convective heat transfer around circular cylinders installed one after another. The experimental approach based on the combined application of gradient heatmetry and particle image velocimetry. The method made it possible to measure velocity fields and heat [...] Read more.
This paper presents an experimental investigation of convective heat transfer around circular cylinders installed one after another. The experimental approach based on the combined application of gradient heatmetry and particle image velocimetry. The method made it possible to measure velocity fields and heat flux simultaneously. Investigation of the flow characteristics and the heat transfer coefficient distribution over a system of cylinders was carried out for various Reynolds numbers in the range of Re = (4…40) × 103. In addition, the distance between the cylinders varied in the experiment. The results showed the the influence of the re-circulation bubble length and the features of vortex formation on the flow pattern and characteristics for the configuration under study in the entire range of regimes. The results were compared with experimental and numerical data from previous literature and found to be in good agreement. Our innovative method based on gradient heatmetry showed high information content and a fairly high accuracy of measurement. Full article
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14 pages, 4173 KiB  
Article
Equivalent Scheme of the Fuel Cell Taking into Account the Influence of Eddy Currents and A Practical Way to Determine Its Parameters
by Alexander Pavlenko, Yuri Burtsev, Ivan Vasyukov, Vladimir Puzin and Andrew Gummel
Inventions 2022, 7(3), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7030072 - 22 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1467
Abstract
The aim of this work is to develop a dynamic equivalent scheme of the fuel cell, taking into account eddy currents in the conductive parts of the structure, to offer a practical way to determine the parameters of this circuit and also to [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is to develop a dynamic equivalent scheme of the fuel cell, taking into account eddy currents in the conductive parts of the structure, to offer a practical way to determine the parameters of this circuit and also to show the adequacy of the scheme and parameters by numerical simulation and comparison with experiment. Fuel cells, as a rule, are connected to the voltage converters, which create a high-frequency component of the main fuel cell current and eddy currents in the conductive parts. The problem is that the effect of these currents on the characteristics of the fuel cell-based power plants has not been studied. To determine the parameters of the proposed equivalent scheme, we use experiments and calculations of transient modes of the fuel cell. The main result of the work is the possibility and feasibility of calculating circuits with fuel cells, taking into account the influence of eddy currents. This effect depends both on the design of the fuel cell and on the parameters of the circuit to which it is connected. From this it follows that, in general, it is necessary to take into account the influence of eddy currents of the fuel cell. The refusal of this accounting is possible, but in each specific case it must be justified. Full article
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11 pages, 2890 KiB  
Article
Computer Flow Simulation and Verification for Turbine Blade Channel Formed by the C-90-22 A Profile
by Sergey Osipov, Ivan Shcherbatov, Andrey Vegera, Pavel Bryzgunov and Bulat Makhmutov
Inventions 2022, 7(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7030068 - 4 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2399
Abstract
Currently, software products for numerical simulation of fluid dynamics processes (Ansys, Star CCM+, Comsol) are widely used in the power engineering industry when designing new equipment. However, computer simulation methods embedded in proprietary software products make specialists choose grid settings, boundary conditions, and [...] Read more.
Currently, software products for numerical simulation of fluid dynamics processes (Ansys, Star CCM+, Comsol) are widely used in the power engineering industry when designing new equipment. However, computer simulation methods embedded in proprietary software products make specialists choose grid settings, boundary conditions, and a solver providing the minimal deviation from experimental data with the maximal calculation speed. This paper analyzes the influence of the main grid settings and boundary conditions in the Ansys software package on the error in the computer simulation of flows in standard elements of power equipment and gives recommendations for their optimal choice. As standard elements were considered blade turbine channels formed by C-90-22 A profiles. Full article
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18 pages, 4204 KiB  
Article
Using Drones for Thermal Imaging Photography and Building 3D Images to Analyze the Defects of Solar Modules
by Kuo-Chien Liao, Hom-Yu Wu and Hung-Ta Wen
Inventions 2022, 7(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7030067 - 2 Aug 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3343
Abstract
In this research, drones were used to capture thermal images and detect different types of failure of solar modules, and MATLAB® image analysis was also conducted to evaluate the health of the solar modules. The processes included image acquisition and transmission by [...] Read more.
In this research, drones were used to capture thermal images and detect different types of failure of solar modules, and MATLAB® image analysis was also conducted to evaluate the health of the solar modules. The processes included image acquisition and transmission by drone, grayscale conversion, filtering, 3D image construction, and analysis. The analyzed targets were the solar modules installed on buildings. The results showed that the employment of drones to monitor solar module farms could significantly improve inspection efficiency. Moreover, by combining the mean and median filtering techniques, an innovative box filtering method was successfully created. Additionally, this study compared the differences between the mean, median, and box filtering techniques, and proved that the 3D image improved by box filtering is a more convenient and accurate way to check the health of solar modules than the mean and median filtering methods. In addition, this new method can simplify the maintenance process, as it helps maintenance personnel to determine whether to replace the solar modules on site, achieving the goal of power generation efficiency enhancement. It is worth noting that 3D image recognition technology can enhance the clarity of thermal images, thereby providing maintenance personnel with better defect diagnosis capability. It is also able to provide the temperature value of the defect zone, and to indicate the scale of defects through the cumulative temperature chart, so the 3D image is qualified as a quantitative and qualitative indicator. The analysis of the transmitted image is innovative that it not only can locate the defect area of the module, but also can display the temperature of the module, providing more information for maintenance personnel. Full article
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16 pages, 2243 KiB  
Article
Development of a Mathematical Model for Solid Fuel Gasification and Its Sensitivity Analysis
by Ivan Komarov, Nikolay Rogalev, Sergey Osipov, Olga Zlyvko and Daria Kharlamova
Inventions 2022, 7(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7030065 - 29 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1741
Abstract
Within the framework of this study, a brief review of the gasification technology was carried out, the best types of blowing agents and gasification methods used in terms of efficiency and environmental safety were identified, and a mathematical model of a steam–oxygen gasifier [...] Read more.
Within the framework of this study, a brief review of the gasification technology was carried out, the best types of blowing agents and gasification methods used in terms of efficiency and environmental safety were identified, and a mathematical model of a steam–oxygen gasifier was developed in the MS Excel software package. The authors paid special attention to the consideration of the effect of changing the input parameters of the syngas, such as the temperature and relative mass flow rate of steam and oxygen, on the heat of the combustion of the produced syngas. As a result of the research, methods for increasing the heat of the combustion of the syngas and the conditions for using the described methods were formulated. The work also revealed the optimal ratios of the blowing agents and solid fuel supplied for gasification and presented the output parameters of the produced generator gas, including the heat of combustion of the gas, the gas temperature, and the gasification efficiency. Computer simulation models of the gasifier and gasification process were the basis for the analysis of a combined cycle (CC) facility with an integrated solid fuel gasifier. The heat flow thermodynamic analysis shows that the gasification steam bleeding from the turbine is the best solution for the improvement of cycle efficiency. Full article
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19 pages, 2856 KiB  
Article
Technological Solutions in the Field of Production and Use of Hydrogen Fuel to Increase the Thermal Efficiency of Steam Turbine TPPs
by Ivan Komarov, Nikolay Rogalev, Andrey Rogalev, Vladimir Kindra, Evgeny Lisin and Sergey Osipov
Inventions 2022, 7(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7030063 - 26 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1925
Abstract
The paper discusses technological solutions in the field of production and use of hydrogen fuel, the combustion of which, in a steam-oxygen environment, can significantly increase the initial parameters of the steam turbine cycle and, thus, increase the thermal efficiency of traditional steam [...] Read more.
The paper discusses technological solutions in the field of production and use of hydrogen fuel, the combustion of which, in a steam-oxygen environment, can significantly increase the initial parameters of the steam turbine cycle and, thus, increase the thermal efficiency of traditional steam turbine thermal power plants. A study of technologies for the industrial production of hydrogen has been carried out. An analysis of the technical and economic features of hydrogen production technologies for use in the electric power industry showed that the most promising method is electrolysis, which makes it possible to obtain inexpensive hydrogen during hours of low demand for electricity or cogeneration of heat and electricity when electricity is a by-product. It is shown that in order to increase the power and efficiency of steam turbine TPPs, it is important to use external steam superheating from an external source of thermal energy, thus providing intermediate overheating of the working fluid by connecting an additional cycle with a higher equivalent initial temperature to the main steam turbine cycle. We have established that if we use hydrogen as a thermal energy source, the absolute efficiency of the steam turbine cycle can be increased up to 54%, taking into account the regenerative heating of feed water. In this case, at an overheating temperature equal to tnn = 760 °C, the absolute efficiency of the cycle is virtually equal to that of a CCGT unit operating at the initial gas temperature t0 = 1350 °C. At the same time, while maintaining the boiler performance, the rated capacity of the steam turbine power unit is increased by 12%. In addition, the study pays attention to the problem of increasing the power consumption of TPPs for the auxiliaries, as required to compress hydrogen and oxygen up to a pressure higher than that in the steam pipeline where the combustion chamber is installed. Our calculations have allowed us to conclude that, for the case of installing the combustion chamber in live steam, the share of additional power spent for auxiliaries should be 7%, whereas the main share of power is consumed for compressing hydrogen—94%. Despite the identified shortcomings, an economic analysis of the process of hydrogen production at TPP by electrolysis and its further use for intermediate overheating in steam turbines in order to increase their efficiency showed the effectiveness of this solution. Full article
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