Special Issue "Structural Health Monitoring of Civil Infrastructures"

A special issue of Infrastructures (ISSN 2412-3811). This special issue belongs to the section "Infrastructures and Structural Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 August 2022 | Viewed by 8282

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Carlo Rainieri
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
National Research Council of Italy – Construction Technologies Institute, Corso Nicolangelo Protopisani 70, 80146 Naples, Italy
Interests: smart structures; smart materials; structural health monitoring; operational modal analysis; earthquake engineering
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Andy Nguyen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Southern Queensland, Raceview, Queensland, Australia
Interests: smart structures and systems; structural health monitoring; structural strengthening and rehabilitation
Prof. Dr. You Dong
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
Interests: risk and resilience; structural engineering; lifecycle engineering; climate change; sustainability
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Dmitri Tcherniak
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Brüel & Kjær Sound & Vibration Measurement A/S, Nærum, Denmark
Interests: structural dynamics; signal processing; NVH

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Timely detection of damage is critical to ensuring the safe operation of bridges, wind turbines, and civil infrastructures more generally, allowing early warnings to be issued and to avoid significant life, economic, and secondary losses. Moreover, monitoring can provide relevant information for structural management and maintenance. While two dominant competing philosophies for civil Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) have emerged in the last decades (data driven vs. model-based approaches), several aspects are still worthy of investigation, including the selection of effective damage features and their automatic extraction from response measurements as well as sensitivity to environmental and operational factors, the appropriate setting of statistical models and thresholds in data-driven approaches, the role of system identification and model updating for damage assessment, the optimization techniques to use for a reliable solution of the inverse problem, the prediction of the remaining useful life of structures, and the support to decision making.

The goal of this Special Issue is to discuss the latest achievements in the field of data processing procedures for SHM of civil infrastructures, and multidisciplinary contributions are especially encouraged. Potential topics for submissions include but are not limited to:

  • Optimal sensor layout and automated damage feature extraction (including automated modal parameter identification)
  • Influence of environmental and operational variability on SHM reliability and compensation methods
  • Data mining and data fusion approaches for civil SHM
  • Damage feature selection and comparative assessment of damage sensitivity of different damage indexes
  • Approaches for damage detection, location, extension, and classification from response measurements
  • Techniques for robust solution of the inverse problem in model-based SHM techniques
  • Artificial intelligence in civil SHM
  • Comparative assessment of data-driven and model-based SHM approaches in the context of a given damage scenario
  • Residual life prediction
  • Role of SHM in decision making, including early warning, emergency management, and support to structural maintenance in service conditions
Dr. Carlo Rainieri
Dr. Andy Nguyen
Dr. You Dong
Dr. Dmitri Tcherniak
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Infrastructures is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • structural health monitoring
  • influence of environmental factors
  • damage features
  • inverse problems
  • artificial intelligence
  • residual life

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
Signal Processing Methodology of Response Data from a Historical Arch Bridge toward Reliable Modal Identification
Infrastructures 2022, 7(5), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7050074 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 760
Abstract
The paper is part of a case study concerning the structural assessment of a historical infrastructure in the local territory, a road three-span reinforced concrete arch bridge over a river, built by the end of World War I (1917). The purpose of the [...] Read more.
The paper is part of a case study concerning the structural assessment of a historical infrastructure in the local territory, a road three-span reinforced concrete arch bridge over a river, built by the end of World War I (1917). The purpose of the paper is twofold: first, in-situ acquired response data are systematically analysed by specific signal processing techniques, to form a devoted methodological procedure and to extract useful information toward possible interpretation of the current structural conditions; second, the deciphered information is elaborated, in view of obtaining peculiar conceptualisations of detailed features of the structural response, as meant to achieve quantitative descriptions and modelling, for final Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) and intervention purposes. The proposed methodology, integrating self-implemented and adapted classical signal processing methods, and refined techniques, such as Wavelet analysis and ARMA models, assembles a rather general, systematic methodological approach to signal processing, highlighting the capability to extract useful and fundamental information from acquired response data, also endowed of a non-stationary character, toward final structural interpretation, identification and modelling, thus enabling for developing a reliable and effective SHM platform, on strategic ageing infrastructures. For the present case study, non-stationary characteristics of the response signals are revealed and flattened out, to identify the underlying fundamental frequencies of the infrastructure and to advance particular interpretations of its current structural behaviour, in forming an enlarging structural consciousness of the bridge at hand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Health Monitoring of Civil Infrastructures)
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Article
Field-Deployable Fiber Optic Sensor System for Structural Health Monitoring of Steel Girder Highway Bridges
Infrastructures 2022, 7(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7020016 - 26 Jan 2022
Viewed by 831
Abstract
Structural health monitoring of highway bridges is a vital but currently challenging aspect of infrastructure engineering due to the number of sensors required, power requirements, and harsh environmental conditions. The purpose of this study is to develop a structural health monitoring system using [...] Read more.
Structural health monitoring of highway bridges is a vital but currently challenging aspect of infrastructure engineering due to the number of sensors required, power requirements, and harsh environmental conditions. The purpose of this study is to develop a structural health monitoring system using fiber optic sensors based on fiber Bragg gratings that addresses these issues and is field deployable. Prototype systems were installed on two steel girder bridges. The first bridge used sensors adhered to the web and flange. The second bridge used a flange-only array of mechanically mounted sensors. The results demonstrated the accuracy of the fiber Bragg grating sensors and indicated that fewer multiplexed fiber optic cables and loosely routed cables were needed to maintain signal integrity. Adhered sensors were prone to lose their bond due to the curing conditions in the field. The findings suggest that the proposed system may be best used in a hybrid deployment, where a diagnostic field test with conventional sensors is used to determine the baseline bridge response and fiber optic sensors are periodically installed for short-term monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Health Monitoring of Civil Infrastructures)
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Article
Comparative Assessment of Criticality Indices Extracted from Acoustic and Electrical Signals Detected in Marble Specimens
Infrastructures 2022, 7(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7020015 - 24 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 765
Abstract
The quantitative determination of the current load carrying capability of already loaded structural elements and the possibility to detect proper indices that could be considered as signals for timely warning that the load carrying capacity is exhausted is the subject of this study. [...] Read more.
The quantitative determination of the current load carrying capability of already loaded structural elements and the possibility to detect proper indices that could be considered as signals for timely warning that the load carrying capacity is exhausted is the subject of this study. More specifically, it aims to explore the possibility of detecting signals that can be considered as indices warning about upcoming fracture and then to compare quantitatively such signals provided by different techniques. The novelty of the present study lies exactly in this quantitative comparison of the pre-failure signals provided by various sensing techniques and various methods of analysis of the experimental data. To achieve this target, advantage is taken of data concerning the acoustic and electrical activities produced while marble specimens are subjected to mechanical loading. The respective signals are detected and recorded by means of the acoustic emissions technique and that of the pressure stimulated currents. The signals detected by the acoustic emissions technique are analyzed in terms of three formulations, i.e., the b-value, the F-function and the parameters variance κ1, entropy S and entropy under time reversal S_ according to the natural time analysis. The signals detected by the pressure stimulated currents technique are analyzed by means of the intensity of the electric current recorded. The study indicates that all quantities considered provide promising pre-failure indicators. Furthermore, when the specimen is subjected to near-to-failure load levels, the temporal evolution of three of the quantities studied (b-value, F-function, pressure stimulated currents) is governed by a specific power law. The onset of validity of this law designates some differentiation of the damage mechanisms activated. Quantitative differences are observed between the time instants at which this power law starts dictating the evolution of the above parameters, indicating the imperative need for further investigation, despite the quite encouraging results of the present study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Health Monitoring of Civil Infrastructures)
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Article
Designing a Structural Health Monitoring System Accounting for Temperature Compensation
Infrastructures 2022, 7(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7010005 - 30 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 821
Abstract
Structural health monitoring is effective if it allows us to identify the condition state of a structure with an appropriate level of confidence. The estimation of the uncertainty of the condition state is relatively straightforward a posteriori, i.e., when monitoring data are available. [...] Read more.
Structural health monitoring is effective if it allows us to identify the condition state of a structure with an appropriate level of confidence. The estimation of the uncertainty of the condition state is relatively straightforward a posteriori, i.e., when monitoring data are available. However, monitoring observations are not available when designing a monitoring system; therefore, the expected uncertainty must be estimated beforehand. This paper proposes a framework to evaluate the effectiveness of a monitoring system accounting for temperature compensation. This method is applied to the design process of a structural health monitoring system for civil infrastructure. In particular, the focus is on the condition-state parameters representing the structural long-term response trend, e.g., due to creep and shrinkage effects, and the tension losses in prestressed concrete bridges. The result is a simple-to-use equation that estimates the expected uncertainty of a long-term response trend of temperature-compensated response measurements in the design phase. The equation shows that the condition-state uncertainty is affected by the measurement and model uncertainties, the start date and duration of the monitoring activity, and the sampling frequency. We validated our approach on a real-life case study: the Colle Isarco viaduct. We verified whether the pre-posterior estimation of expected uncertainty, performed with the experimented approach, is consistent with the real uncertainty estimated a posteriori based on the monitoring data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Health Monitoring of Civil Infrastructures)
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Article
Modification of Variance-Based Sensitivity Indices for Stochastic Evaluation of Monitoring Measures
Infrastructures 2021, 6(11), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures6110149 - 23 Oct 2021
Viewed by 548
Abstract
In complex engineering models, various uncertain parameters affect the computational results. Most of them can only be estimated or assumed quite generally. In such a context, measurements are interesting to determine the most decisive parameters accurately. While measurements can reduce parameters’ variance, structural [...] Read more.
In complex engineering models, various uncertain parameters affect the computational results. Most of them can only be estimated or assumed quite generally. In such a context, measurements are interesting to determine the most decisive parameters accurately. While measurements can reduce parameters’ variance, structural monitoring might improve general assumptions on distributions and their characteristics. The decision on variables being measured often relies on experts’ practical experience. This paper introduces a method to stochastically estimate the potential benefits of measurements by modified sensitivity indices. They extend the established variance-based sensitivity indices originally suggested by Sobol’. They do not quantify the importance of a variable but the importance of its variance reduction. The numerical computation is presented and exemplified on a reference structure, a 50-year-old pre-stressed concrete bridge in Germany, where the prediction of the fatigue lifetime of the pre-stressing steel is of concern. Sensitivity evaluation yields six important parameters (e.g., shape of the S–N curve, temperature loads, creep, and shrinkage). However, taking into account individual monitoring measures and suited measurements identified by the modified sensitivity indices, creep and shrinkage, temperature loads, and the residual pre-strain of the tendons turn out to be most efficient. They grant the highest gains of accuracy with respect to the lifetime prediction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Health Monitoring of Civil Infrastructures)
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Article
Aspects of Vibration-Based Methods for the Prestressing Estimate in Concrete Beams with Internal Bonded or Unbonded Tendons
Infrastructures 2021, 6(6), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures6060083 - 02 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1223
Abstract
The estimate of internal prestressing in concrete beams is essential for the assessment of their structural reliability. Many scholars have tackled multiple and diverse methods to estimate the measurable effects of prestressing. Among them, many experimented with dynamics-based techniques; however, these clash with [...] Read more.
The estimate of internal prestressing in concrete beams is essential for the assessment of their structural reliability. Many scholars have tackled multiple and diverse methods to estimate the measurable effects of prestressing. Among them, many experimented with dynamics-based techniques; however, these clash with the theoretical independence of the natural frequencies of the forces of internally prestressed beams. This paper examines the feasibility of a hybrid approach based on dynamic identification and the knowledge of the elastic modulus. Specifically, the author considered the effect of the axial deformation on the beam length and the weight per unit of volume. It is questioned whether the uncertainties related to the estimate of the elastic modulus and the first natural frequency yield reasonable estimates of the internal prestressing. The experimental testing of a set of full-scale concrete girders with known design prestressing supports a discussion about its practicability. The author found that the uncertainty in estimating the natural frequencies and elastic modulus significantly undermines a reliable estimate of the prestressing state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Health Monitoring of Civil Infrastructures)
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Article
The Way Forward for Indirect Structural Health Monitoring (iSHM) Using Connected and Automated Vehicles in Europe
Infrastructures 2021, 6(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures6030043 - 13 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1252
Abstract
Europe’s aging transportation infrastructure requires optimized maintenance programs. However, data and monitoring systems may not be readily available to support strategic decisions or they may require costly installations in terms of time and labor requirements. In recent years, the possibility of monitoring bridges [...] Read more.
Europe’s aging transportation infrastructure requires optimized maintenance programs. However, data and monitoring systems may not be readily available to support strategic decisions or they may require costly installations in terms of time and labor requirements. In recent years, the possibility of monitoring bridges by indirectly sensing relevant parameters from traveling vehicles has emerged—an approach that would allow for the elimination of the costly installation of sensors and monitoring campaigns. The advantages of cooperative, connected, and automated mobility (CCAM), which is expected to become a reality in Europe towards the end of this decade, should therefore be considered for the future development of iSHM strategies. A critical review of methods and strategies for CCAM, including Intelligent Transportation Systems, is a prerequisite for moving towards the goal of identifying the synergies between CCAM and civil infrastructures, in line with future developments in vehicle automation. This study presents the policy framework of CCAM in Europe and discusses the policy enablers and bottlenecks of using CCAM in the drive-by monitoring of transport infrastructure. It also highlights the current direction of research within the iSHM paradigm towards the identification of technologies and methods that could benefit from the use of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Health Monitoring of Civil Infrastructures)
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Review

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Review
Latest Advances in Finite Element Modelling and Model Updating of Cable-Stayed Bridges
Infrastructures 2022, 7(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7010008 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1041
Abstract
As important links in the transport infrastructure system, cable-stayed bridges are among the most popular candidates for implementing structural health monitoring (SHM) technology. The primary aim of SHM for these bridges is to ensure their structural integrity and satisfactory performance by monitoring their [...] Read more.
As important links in the transport infrastructure system, cable-stayed bridges are among the most popular candidates for implementing structural health monitoring (SHM) technology. The primary aim of SHM for these bridges is to ensure their structural integrity and satisfactory performance by monitoring their behaviour over time. Finite element (FE) model updating is a well-recognised approach for SHM purposes, as an accurate model serves as a baseline reference for damage detection and long-term monitoring efforts. One of the many challenges is the development of the initial FE model that can accurately reflect the dynamic characteristics and the overall behaviour of a bridge. Given the size, slenderness, use of long cables, and high levels of structural redundancy, precise initial models of long-span cable-stayed bridges are desirable to better facilitate the model updating process and to improve the accuracy of the final updated model. To date, very few studies offer in-depth discussions on the modelling approaches for cable-stayed bridges and the methods used for model updating. As such, this article presents the latest advances in finite element modelling and model updating methods that have been widely adopted for cable-stayed bridges, through a critical literature review of existing research work. An overview of current SHM research is presented first, followed by a comprehensive review of finite element modelling of cable-stayed bridges, including modelling approaches of the deck girder and cables. A general overview of model updating methods is then given before reviewing the model updating applications to cable-stayed bridges. Finally, an evaluation of all available methods and assessment for future research outlook are presented to summarise the research achievements and current limitations in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Health Monitoring of Civil Infrastructures)
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