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Special Issue "Saliva Proteomics for Biomedicine"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021) | Viewed by 5504

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Antonio Lucacchini
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Guest Editor
Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy
Interests: proteomics; posttranslational modification; signal transduction; cancer; rheumatic disease; diabetes; biomarkers
Dr. Laura Giusti
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Guest Editor
School of Pharmacy, University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino, Italy
Interests: proteomics and biomarkers; endocrine diseases; cancer; proteomics and nutraceuticals
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Claudia Desiderio
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Guest Editor
Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche "Giulio Natta" (SCITEC), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome, Italy
Interests: proteomics; posttranslational modification; cancer; biomarker; capillary electrophoresis; mass spectrometry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Saliva is a biofluid that contains a mixture of proteins (e.g., enzymes, immunoglobulins), small organic compounds, and electrolytes; its importance of its role in the health of the oral cavity is well-known.

Saliva contains a number of biomolecules considered to be omics constituents that reflect physiological and biochemical processes and nutritional or pathological status.

Saliva represents an easy-to-obtain sample that can be procured in a noninvasive, simple, safe, and stress-free procedure. Further advantages include the ease of handling and storage and the fact that such sampling can be applied to large groups of subjects. For these reasons, saliva receives attention as an interesting biological specimen with practical and physiological advantages over blood and other biological fluids, in particular for infants and children.

Saliva proteomics offers to define the entire protein complex of saliva, along with protein expression, modifications, and interactions, both in physiological and pathological conditions. One objective of saliva proteomics is to identify putative biomarkers for improving the diagnosis and the efficacy of treatment of different diseases.

The aim of this Special Issue is to collect original and review articles on all aspects of research on saliva proteomics, from basic research to biomedical applications. Such research may support clinical decision-making.

Prof. Antonio Lucacchini
Dr. Laura Giusti
Dr. Claudia Desiderio
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • saliva diagnostics
  • cancer
  • autoimmune diseases
  • oral disease
  • CNS disorders
  • aging
  • fibromyalgia
  • psychological stress
  • post-translational modifications
  • salivary microbiome
  • nonhuman saliva

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
Characterization of Extracellular Vesicle Cargo in Sjögren’s Syndrome through a SWATH-MS Proteomics Approach
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 4864; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094864 - 04 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1157
Abstract
Primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) is a complex heterogeneous disease characterized by a wide spectrum of glandular and extra-glandular manifestations. In this pilot study, a SWATH-MS approach was used to monitor extracellular vesicles-enriched saliva (EVs) sub-proteome in pSS patients, to compare it with whole [...] Read more.
Primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) is a complex heterogeneous disease characterized by a wide spectrum of glandular and extra-glandular manifestations. In this pilot study, a SWATH-MS approach was used to monitor extracellular vesicles-enriched saliva (EVs) sub-proteome in pSS patients, to compare it with whole saliva (WS) proteome, and assess differential expressed proteins between pSS and healthy control EVs samples. Comparison between EVs and WS led to the characterization of compartment-specific proteins with a moderate degree of overlap. A total of 290 proteins were identified and quantified in EVs from healthy and pSS patients. Among those, 121 proteins were found to be differentially expressed in pSS, 82% were found to be upregulated, and 18% downregulated in pSS samples. The most representative functional pathways associated to the protein networks were related to immune-innate response, including several members of S100 protein family, annexin A2, resistin, serpin peptidase inhibitors, azurocidin, and CD14 monocyte differentiation antigen. Our results highlight the usefulness of EVs for the discovery of novel salivary-omic biomarkers and open novel perspectives in pSS for the identification of proteins of clinical relevance that could be used not only for the disease diagnosis but also to improve patients’ stratification and treatment-monitoring. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD025649. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Saliva Proteomics for Biomedicine)
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Article
Salivary Proteome Changes in Response to Acute Psychological Stress Due to an Oral Exam Simulation in University Students: Effect of an Olfactory Stimulus
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 4295; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094295 - 21 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1194
Abstract
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays a crucial role both in acute and chronic psychological stress eliciting changes in many local and systemic physiological and biochemical processes. Salivary secretion is also regulated by ANS. In this study, we explored salivary proteome changes produced [...] Read more.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays a crucial role both in acute and chronic psychological stress eliciting changes in many local and systemic physiological and biochemical processes. Salivary secretion is also regulated by ANS. In this study, we explored salivary proteome changes produced in thirty-eight University students by a test stress, which simulated an oral exam. Students underwent a relaxation phase followed by the stress test during which an electrocardiogram was recorded. To evaluate the effect of an olfactory stimulus, half of the students were exposed to a pleasant odor diffused in the room throughout the whole session. Saliva samples were collected after the relaxation phase (T0) and the stress test (T1). State anxiety was also evaluated at T0 and T1. Salivary proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and patterns at different times were compared. Spots differentially expressed were trypsin digested and identified by mass spectrometry. Western blot analysis was used to validate proteomic results. Anxiety scores and heart rate changes indicated that the fake exam induced anxiety. Significant changes of α-amylase, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (PIGR), and immunoglobulin α chain (IGHA) secretion were observed after the stress test was performed in the two conditions. Moreover, the presence of pleasant odor reduced the acute social stress affecting salivary proteome changes. Therefore, saliva proteomic analysis was a useful approach to evaluate the rapid responses associated to an acute stress test also highlighting known biomarkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Saliva Proteomics for Biomedicine)
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Review

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Review
Salivary Trefoil Factor Family (TFF) Peptides and Their Roles in Oral and Esophageal Protection: Therapeutic Potential
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(22), 12221; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222212221 - 12 Nov 2021
Viewed by 892
Abstract
Human saliva is a complex body fluid with more than 3000 different identified proteins. Besides rheological and lubricating properties, saliva supports wound healing and acts as an antimicrobial barrier. TFF peptides are secreted from the mucous acini of the major and minor salivary [...] Read more.
Human saliva is a complex body fluid with more than 3000 different identified proteins. Besides rheological and lubricating properties, saliva supports wound healing and acts as an antimicrobial barrier. TFF peptides are secreted from the mucous acini of the major and minor salivary glands and are typical constituents of normal saliva; TFF3 being the predominant peptide compared with TFF1 and TFF2. Only TFF3 is easily detectable by Western blotting. It occurs in two forms, a disulfide-linked homodimer (Mr: 13k) and a high-molecular-mass heterodimer with IgG Fc binding protein (FCGBP). TFF peptides are secretory lectins known for their protective effects in mucous epithelia; the TFF3 dimer probably has wound-healing properties due to its weak motogenic effect. There are multiple indications that FCGBP and TFF3-FCGBP play a key role in the innate immune defense of mucous epithelia. In addition, homodimeric TFF3 interacts in vitro with the salivary agglutinin DMBT1gp340. Here, the protective roles of TFF peptides, FCGBP, and DMBT1gp340 in saliva are discussed. TFF peptides are also used to reduce radiotherapy- or chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. Thus, TFF peptides, FCGBP, and DMBT1gp340 are promising candidates for better formulations of artificial saliva, particularly improving wound healing and antimicrobial effects even in the esophagus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Saliva Proteomics for Biomedicine)
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Review
Saliva Proteomics as Fluid Signature of Inflammatory and Immune-Mediated Skin Diseases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(13), 7018; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22137018 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1396
Abstract
Saliva is easy to access, non-invasive and a useful source of information useful for the diagnosis of serval inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases. Following the advent of genomic technologies and -omic research, studies based on saliva testing have rapidly increased and human salivary proteome [...] Read more.
Saliva is easy to access, non-invasive and a useful source of information useful for the diagnosis of serval inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases. Following the advent of genomic technologies and -omic research, studies based on saliva testing have rapidly increased and human salivary proteome has been partially characterized. As a proteomic protocol to analyze the whole saliva proteome is not currently available, the most common aim of the proteomic analysis is to discriminate between physiological and pathological conditions. The salivary proteome has been initially investigated in several diseases: oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral leukoplakia, chronic graft-versus-host disease, and Sjögren’s syndrome. Otherwise, salivary proteomics studies in the dermatological field are still in the initial phase, thus the aim of this review is to collect the best research evidence on the role of saliva proteomics analysis in immune-mediated skin diseases to understand the direction of research in this field. The results of PRISMA analysis reported herein suggest that human saliva analysis could provide significant data for the diagnosis and prognosis of several immune-mediated and inflammatory skin diseases in the next future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Saliva Proteomics for Biomedicine)
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