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Special Issue "Plant Viruses and Virus-Induced Diseases"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Plant Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 October 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Miguel A. Aranda

Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura (CEBAS) – Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Campus Universitario de Espinardo, Edificio 25, 30100 Murcia, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +34 968396200 (ext. 6355)
Fax: +34 968396213
Interests: genetic resistance to control plant pathogenic viruses; cap-independent translation of viral and host mRNAs; viral factories: description, composition and function; ecology and evolutionary dynamics of emergent plant viruses
Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yongliang Zhang

State Key Laboratory of Agro-Biotechnology and Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Soil Microbiology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +86 10 62733190
Fax: +86 10 62732012
Interests: virus replication; structure of viral replication factories; viral trafficking; plant virus-based biotechnology; identification and investigation of host genes that are involved in viral pathogenesis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The contribution of plant virology to the advancement of plant sciences has been outstanding in recent decades. These years of discoveries have shown us that viruses constitute excellent probes to dissect basic plant biological processes, including transcriptional, post-transcriptional and translational control of gene expression, macromolecular trafficking and transport routes, basal and induced plant defence mechanisms, and many other areas of the plant architecture, development, physiology and metabolism. Plant viruses, on their own, are fascinating entities, having evolved an incredible array of smart strategies to express their genes from very compact genomes. Using very few building blocks, often a single polypeptide and a nucleic acid molecule, plant viruses produce transmission and persistence particles with amazing properties and an incredible biotechnological potential. Last, but not least, plant viruses cause global and regional economic losses in agriculture, being responsible for a significant proportion of devastating emergent and re-emergent plant diseases; plant virology has provided important solutions, but there is still more to come.

This Special Issue is open to all researchers studying plant viruses and virus-induced diseases at any level, from molecular to ecological scale, including evolutionary aspects of plant viruses and virus-induced diseases. Papers are welcome as original research articles, as well as review papers dealing with recent advancements and current understanding of various aspects of plant virology.

Prof. Dr. Miguel A. Aranda
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yongliang Zhang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Description, characterization and functions of plant virus factories.
  • Trafficking and transport routes used by plant viruses.
  • Transcriptional, post-transcriptional and translational control of host gene expression exerted by plant viruses.
  • Basal and induced plant defence mechanisms against viruses.
  • Plant/virus/vector interactions leading to virus transmission.
  • Development of plant viruses as nanoparticles, expression vectors or genetic engineering tools.
  • Eco-evolutionary aspects determining emergence or re-emergence of plant viruses.
  • Novel diagnosis approaches.
  • Novel strategies for the efficient and sustainable control of plant virus-induced diseases.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Begomoviruses Sampled during Severe Epidemics in Tomato Cultivars Carrying the Ty-1 Gene
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2614; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092614
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 25 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 3 September 2018
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Abstract
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV, genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) is a major species that causes a tomato disease for which resistant tomato hybrids (mainly carriers of the Ty-1/Ty-3 gene) are being used widely. We have characterized begomoviruses severely affecting resistant
[...] Read more.
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV, genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) is a major species that causes a tomato disease for which resistant tomato hybrids (mainly carriers of the Ty-1/Ty-3 gene) are being used widely. We have characterized begomoviruses severely affecting resistant tomato crops in Southeast Spain. Circular DNA was prepared from samples by rolling circle amplification, and sequenced by massive sequencing (2015) or cloning and Sanger sequencing (2016). Thus, 23 complete sequences were determined, all belonging to the TYLCV Israel strain (TYLCV-IL). Massive sequencing also revealed the absence of other geminiviral and beta-satellite sequences. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the Spanish isolates belonged to two groups, one related to early TYLCV-IL isolates in the area (Group 1), and another (Group 2) closely related to El Jadida (Morocco) isolates, suggesting a recent introduction. The most parsimonious evolutionary scenario suggested that the TYLCV isolates of Group 2 are back recombinant isolates derived from TYLCV-IS76, a recombinant virus currently predominating in Moroccan epidemics. Thus, an infectious Group 2 clone (TYLCV-Mu15) was constructed and used in in planta competition assays against TYLCV-IS76. TYLCV-Mu15 predominated in single infections, whereas TYLCV-IS76 did so in mixed infections, providing credibility to a scenario of co-occurrence of both types of isolates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses and Virus-Induced Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Ultrastructural Analysis of Prune Dwarf Virus Intercellular Transport and Pathogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2570; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092570
Received: 5 August 2018 / Revised: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 29 August 2018
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Abstract
Prune dwarf virus (PDV) is an important viral pathogen of plum, sweet cherry, peach, and many herbaceous test plants. Although PDV has been intensively investigated, mainly in the context of phylogenetic relationship of its genes and proteins, many gaps exist in our knowledge
[...] Read more.
Prune dwarf virus (PDV) is an important viral pathogen of plum, sweet cherry, peach, and many herbaceous test plants. Although PDV has been intensively investigated, mainly in the context of phylogenetic relationship of its genes and proteins, many gaps exist in our knowledge about the mechanism of intercellular transport of this virus. The aim of this work was to investigate alterations in cellular organelles and the cell-to-cell transport of PDV in Cucumis sativus cv. Polan at ultrastructural level. To analyze the role of viral proteins in local transport, double-immunogold assays were applied to localize PDV coat protein (CP) and movement protein (MP). We observe structural changes in chloroplasts, mitochondria, and cellular membranes. We prove that PDV is transported as viral particles via MP-generated tubular structures through plasmodesmata. Moreover, the computer-run 3D modeling reveals structural resemblances between MPs of PDV and of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), implying similarities of transport mechanisms for both viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses and Virus-Induced Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle The Aphid-Transmitted Turnip yellows virus Differentially Affects Volatiles Emission and Subsequent Vector Behavior in Two Brassicaceae Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2316; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082316
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
PDF Full-text (1375 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Aphids are important pests which cause direct damage by feeding or indirect prejudice by transmitting plant viruses. Viruses are known to induce modifications of plant cues in ways that can alter vector behavior and virus transmission. In this work, we addressed whether the
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Aphids are important pests which cause direct damage by feeding or indirect prejudice by transmitting plant viruses. Viruses are known to induce modifications of plant cues in ways that can alter vector behavior and virus transmission. In this work, we addressed whether the modifications induced by the aphid-transmitted Turnip yellows virus (TuYV) in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana also apply to the cultivated plant Camelina sativa, both belonging to the Brassicaceae family. In most experiments, we observed a significant increase in the relative emission of volatiles from TuYV-infected plants. Moreover, due to plant size, the global amounts of volatiles emitted by C. sativa were higher than those released by A. thaliana. In addition, the volatiles released by TuYV-infected C. sativa attracted the TuYV vector Myzus persicae more efficiently than those emitted by non-infected plants. In contrast, no such preference was observed for A. thaliana. We propose that high amounts of volatiles rather than specific metabolites are responsible for aphid attraction to infected C. sativa. This study points out that the data obtained from the model pathosystem A. thaliana/TuYV cannot be straightforwardly extrapolated to a related plant species infected with the same virus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses and Virus-Induced Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Spatiotemporal Changes in Xylan-1/Xyloglucan and Xyloglucan Xyloglucosyl Transferase (XTH-Xet5) as a Step-In of Ultrastructural Cell Wall Remodelling in Potato–Potato Virus Y (PVYNTN) Hypersensitive and Susceptible Reaction
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2287; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082287
Received: 13 May 2018 / Revised: 28 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 4 August 2018
PDF Full-text (6339 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
One type of monitoring system in a plant cell is the cell wall, which intensively changes its structure during interaction with pathogen-stress factors. The wall plays a role as a dynamic and controlled structure, although it is not fully understood how relevant these
[...] Read more.
One type of monitoring system in a plant cell is the cell wall, which intensively changes its structure during interaction with pathogen-stress factors. The wall plays a role as a dynamic and controlled structure, although it is not fully understood how relevant these modifications are to the molecular mechanisms during plant–virus interactions. In this work we localise the non-cellulosic polysaccharides such as xyloglucan, xylan (xylan-1) and xyloglucosyl transferase (XTH-Xet5), the enzyme that participates in the metabolism of xyloglucan. This provided us with information about the in situ distribution of the components of the hemicellulotic cell wall matrix in hypersensitive and susceptible potato–PVYNTN interactions. The loosening of the cell wall was accompanied by an increase in xylan depositions during susceptible interactions, whereas, during the hypersensitive response, when the cell wall was reinforced, the xylan content decreased. Moreover, the PVY inoculation significantly redirected XTH-Xet5 depositions, regardless of types of interactions, compared to mock-inoculated tissues. Furthermore, the immunogold localisation clearly revealed the domination of Xet5 in the cell wall and in vesicles in the susceptible host. In contrast, in the resistant host increased levels of Xet5 were observed in cytoplasm, in the cell wall and in the trans-Golgi network. These findings show that the hypersensitive reaction activated XTH-Xet5 in the areas of xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase (XET) synthesis, which was then actively transported to cytoplasm, cell wall and to vacuoles. Our results provide novel insight into cell wall reorganisation during PVYNTN infection as a response to biotic stress factors. These novel findings help us to understand the mechanisms of defence responses that are incorporated into the cell wall signalling network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses and Virus-Induced Diseases)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Role of the Genetic Background in Resistance to Plant Viruses
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 2856; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19102856
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 20 September 2018
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Abstract
In view of major economic problems caused by viruses, the development of genetically resistant crops is critical for breeders but remains limited by the evolution of resistance-breaking virus mutants. During the plant breeding process, the introgression of traits from Crop Wild Relatives results
[...] Read more.
In view of major economic problems caused by viruses, the development of genetically resistant crops is critical for breeders but remains limited by the evolution of resistance-breaking virus mutants. During the plant breeding process, the introgression of traits from Crop Wild Relatives results in a dramatic change of the genetic background that can alter the resistance efficiency or durability. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis on 19 Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) studies of resistance to viruses in plants. Frequent epistatic effects between resistance genes indicate that a large part of the resistance phenotype, conferred by a given QTL, depends on the genetic background. We next reviewed the different resistance mechanisms in plants to survey at which stage the genetic background could impact resistance or durability. We propose that the genetic background may impair effector-triggered dominant resistances at several stages by tinkering the NB-LRR (Nucleotide Binding-Leucine-Rich Repeats) response pathway. In contrast, effects on recessive resistances by loss-of-susceptibility—such as eIF4E-based resistances—are more likely to rely on gene redundancy among the multigene family of host susceptibility factors. Finally, we show how the genetic background is likely to shape the evolution of resistance-breaking isolates and propose how to take this into account in order to breed plants with increased resistance durability to viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses and Virus-Induced Diseases)
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