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Special Issue "Plant Viruses and Virus-Induced Diseases"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Plant Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2019) | Viewed by 24681

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Miguel A. Aranda
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura (CEBAS) – Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Campus Universitario de Espinardo, Edificio 25, 30100 Murcia, Spain
Interests: genetic resistance to control plant pathogenic viruses; cap-independent translation of viral and host mRNAs; viral factories: description, composition and function; ecology and evolutionary dynamics of emergent plant viruses
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yongliang Zhang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Agro-Biotechnology and Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Soil Microbiology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
Interests: virus replication; structure of viral replication factories; viral trafficking; plant virus-based biotechnology; identification and investigation of host genes that are involved in viral pathogenesis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The contribution of plant virology to the advancement of plant sciences has been outstanding in recent decades. These years of discoveries have shown us that viruses constitute excellent probes to dissect basic plant biological processes, including transcriptional, post-transcriptional and translational control of gene expression, macromolecular trafficking and transport routes, basal and induced plant defence mechanisms, and many other areas of the plant architecture, development, physiology and metabolism. Plant viruses, on their own, are fascinating entities, having evolved an incredible array of smart strategies to express their genes from very compact genomes. Using very few building blocks, often a single polypeptide and a nucleic acid molecule, plant viruses produce transmission and persistence particles with amazing properties and an incredible biotechnological potential. Last, but not least, plant viruses cause global and regional economic losses in agriculture, being responsible for a significant proportion of devastating emergent and re-emergent plant diseases; plant virology has provided important solutions, but there is still more to come.

This Special Issue is open to all researchers studying plant viruses and virus-induced diseases at any level, from molecular to ecological scale, including evolutionary aspects of plant viruses and virus-induced diseases. Papers are welcome as original research articles, as well as review papers dealing with recent advancements and current understanding of various aspects of plant virology.

Prof. Dr. Miguel A. Aranda
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yongliang Zhang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • Description, characterization and functions of plant virus factories.
  • Trafficking and transport routes used by plant viruses.
  • Transcriptional, post-transcriptional and translational control of host gene expression exerted by plant viruses.
  • Basal and induced plant defence mechanisms against viruses.
  • Plant/virus/vector interactions leading to virus transmission.
  • Development of plant viruses as nanoparticles, expression vectors or genetic engineering tools.
  • Eco-evolutionary aspects determining emergence or re-emergence of plant viruses.
  • Novel diagnosis approaches.
  • Novel strategies for the efficient and sustainable control of plant virus-induced diseases.

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Article
The Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homolog D (RbohD) Cell and Tissue Distribution in Potato–Potato Virus Y (PVYNTN) Hypersensitive and Susceptible Reactions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(11), 2741; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20112741 - 04 Jun 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1910
Abstract
The respiratory burst oxidase homolog D (RbohD) acts as a central driving force of reactive oxygen species signaling in plant cells by integrating many different signal transduction pathways in plants, including incompatible interactions with pathogens. This study demonstrated the localization and distribution of [...] Read more.
The respiratory burst oxidase homolog D (RbohD) acts as a central driving force of reactive oxygen species signaling in plant cells by integrating many different signal transduction pathways in plants, including incompatible interactions with pathogens. This study demonstrated the localization and distribution of RbohD in two types of potato–potato virus Y (PVY) interactions: Compatible and incompatible (resistant). The results indicated a statistically significant induction of the RbohD antigen signal in both interaction types. In the hypersensitive response (resistant reaction) of potato with a high level of resistance to the potato tuber necrotic strain of PVY (PVYNTN), RbohD localization followed by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection was concentrated in the apoplast. In contrast, in the hypersensitive response of potato with a low resistance level to PVYNTN, the distribution of RbohD was concentrated more in the plant cell organelles than in the apoplast, resulting in the virus particles being present outside the inoculation area. Moreover, when compared to mock-inoculated plants and to the hypersensitive response, the PVYNTN-compatible potato interaction triggered high induction in the RbohD distribution, which was associated with necrotization. Our findings indicated that RbohD and hydrogen peroxide deposition was associated with the hypersensitive response, and both were detected in the vascular tissues and chloroplasts. These results suggest that the RbohD distribution is actively dependent on different types of PVY NTN-potato plant interactions. Additionally, the RbohD may be involved in the PVYNTN tissue limitation during the hypersensitive response, and it could be an active component of the systemic signal transduction in the susceptible host reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses and Virus-Induced Diseases)
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Article
Virus-Like Particle Facilitated Deposition of Hydroxyapatite Bone Mineral on Nanocellulose after Exposure to Phosphate and Calcium Precursors
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(8), 1814; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081814 - 12 Apr 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1893
Abstract
We produced and isolated tobacco mosaic virus-like particles (TMV VLPs) from bacteria, which are devoid of infectious genomes, and found that they have a net negative charge and can bind calcium ions. Moreover, we showed that the TMV VLPs could associate strongly with [...] Read more.
We produced and isolated tobacco mosaic virus-like particles (TMV VLPs) from bacteria, which are devoid of infectious genomes, and found that they have a net negative charge and can bind calcium ions. Moreover, we showed that the TMV VLPs could associate strongly with nanocellulose slurry after a simple mixing step. We sequentially exposed nanocellulose alone or slurries mixed with the TMV VLPs to calcium and phosphate salts and utilized physicochemical approaches to demonstrate that bone mineral (hydroxyapatite) was deposited only in nanocellulose mixed with the TMV VLPs. The TMV VLPs confer mineralization properties to the nanocellulose for the generation of new composite materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses and Virus-Induced Diseases)
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Article
Cryo-EM Structure of a Begomovirus Geminate Particle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(7), 1738; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20071738 - 08 Apr 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2251
Abstract
Tobacco curly shoot virus, a monopartite begomovirus associated with betasatellite, causes serious leaf curl diseases on tomato and tobacco in China. Using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy, we determined the structure of tobacco curly shoot virus (TbCSV) particle at 3.57 Å resolution and confirmed the [...] Read more.
Tobacco curly shoot virus, a monopartite begomovirus associated with betasatellite, causes serious leaf curl diseases on tomato and tobacco in China. Using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy, we determined the structure of tobacco curly shoot virus (TbCSV) particle at 3.57 Å resolution and confirmed the characteristic geminate architecture with single-strand DNA bound to each coat protein (CP). The CP–CP and DNA–CP interactions, arranged in a CP–DNA–CP pattern at the interface, were partially observed. This suggests the genomic DNA plays an important role in forming a stable interface during assembly of the geminate particle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses and Virus-Induced Diseases)
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Article
Induced Resistance Mechanism of Novel Curcumin Analogs Bearing a Quinazoline Moiety to Plant Virus
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 4065; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19124065 - 15 Dec 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1970
Abstract
Plant immune activators can protect crops from plant virus pathogens by activating intrinsic immune mechanisms in plants and are widely used in agricultural production. In our previous work, we found that curcumin analogs exhibit excellent biological activity against plant viruses, especially protective activity. [...] Read more.
Plant immune activators can protect crops from plant virus pathogens by activating intrinsic immune mechanisms in plants and are widely used in agricultural production. In our previous work, we found that curcumin analogs exhibit excellent biological activity against plant viruses, especially protective activity. Inspired by these results, the active substructure of pentadienone and quinazoline were spliced to obtain curcumin analogs as potential exogenously induced resistant molecule. Bioassay results showed that compound A13 exhibited excellent protective activity for tobacco to against Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) at 500 μg/mL, with a value of 70.4 ± 2.6% compared with control treatments, which was better than that of the plant immune activator chitosan oligosaccharide (49.0 ± 5.9%). The protective activity is due to compound A13 inducing tobacco resistance to TMV, which was related to defense-related enzymes, defense-related genes, and photosynthesis. This was confirmed by the up-regulated expression of proteins that mediate stress responses and oxidative phosphorylation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses and Virus-Induced Diseases)
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Article
A Thioredoxin Domain-Containing Protein Interacts with Pepino mosaic virus Triple Gene Block Protein 1
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 3747; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123747 - 25 Nov 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2206
Abstract
Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is a mechanically-transmitted tomato pathogen of importance worldwide. Interactions between the PepMV coat protein and triple gene block protein (TGBp1) with the host heat shock cognate protein 70 and catalase 1 (CAT1), respectively, have been previously reported by our [...] Read more.
Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is a mechanically-transmitted tomato pathogen of importance worldwide. Interactions between the PepMV coat protein and triple gene block protein (TGBp1) with the host heat shock cognate protein 70 and catalase 1 (CAT1), respectively, have been previously reported by our lab. In this study, a novel tomato interactor (SlTXND9) was shown to bind the PepMV TGBp1 in yeast-two-hybrid screening, in vitro pull-down and bimolecular fluorescent complementation (BiFC) assays. SlTXND9 possesses part of the conserved thioredoxin (TRX) active site sequence (W__PC vs. WCXPC), and TXND9 orthologues cluster within the TRX phylogenetic superfamily closest to phosducin-like protein-3. In PepMV-infected and healthy Nicotiana benthamiana plants, NbTXND9 mRNA levels were comparable, and expression levels remained stable in both local and systemic leaves for 10 days post inoculation (dpi), as was also the case for catalase 1 (CAT1). To localize the TXND9 in plant cells, a polyclonal antiserum was produced. Purified α-SlTXND9 immunoglobulin (IgG) consistently detected a set of three protein bands in the range of 27–35 kDa, in the 1000 and 30,000 g pellets, and the soluble fraction of extracts of healthy and PepMV-infected N. benthamiana leaves, but not in the cell wall. These bands likely consist of the homologous protein NbTXND9 and its post-translationally modified derivatives. On electron microscopy, immuno-gold labelling of ultrathin sections of PepMV-infected N. benthamiana leaves using α-SlTXND9 IgG revealed particle accumulation close to plasmodesmata, suggesting a role in virus movement. Taken together, this study highlights a novel tomato-PepMV protein interaction and provides data on its localization in planta. Currently, studies focusing on the biological function of this interaction during PepMV infection are in progress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses and Virus-Induced Diseases)
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Article
Characterization of Begomoviruses Sampled during Severe Epidemics in Tomato Cultivars Carrying the Ty-1 Gene
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2614; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092614 - 03 Sep 2018
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2469
Abstract
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV, genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) is a major species that causes a tomato disease for which resistant tomato hybrids (mainly carriers of the Ty-1/Ty-3 gene) are being used widely. We have characterized begomoviruses severely affecting resistant [...] Read more.
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV, genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) is a major species that causes a tomato disease for which resistant tomato hybrids (mainly carriers of the Ty-1/Ty-3 gene) are being used widely. We have characterized begomoviruses severely affecting resistant tomato crops in Southeast Spain. Circular DNA was prepared from samples by rolling circle amplification, and sequenced by massive sequencing (2015) or cloning and Sanger sequencing (2016). Thus, 23 complete sequences were determined, all belonging to the TYLCV Israel strain (TYLCV-IL). Massive sequencing also revealed the absence of other geminiviral and beta-satellite sequences. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the Spanish isolates belonged to two groups, one related to early TYLCV-IL isolates in the area (Group 1), and another (Group 2) closely related to El Jadida (Morocco) isolates, suggesting a recent introduction. The most parsimonious evolutionary scenario suggested that the TYLCV isolates of Group 2 are back recombinant isolates derived from TYLCV-IS76, a recombinant virus currently predominating in Moroccan epidemics. Thus, an infectious Group 2 clone (TYLCV-Mu15) was constructed and used in in planta competition assays against TYLCV-IS76. TYLCV-Mu15 predominated in single infections, whereas TYLCV-IS76 did so in mixed infections, providing credibility to a scenario of co-occurrence of both types of isolates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses and Virus-Induced Diseases)
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Article
Ultrastructural Analysis of Prune Dwarf Virus Intercellular Transport and Pathogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2570; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092570 - 29 Aug 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1804
Abstract
Prune dwarf virus (PDV) is an important viral pathogen of plum, sweet cherry, peach, and many herbaceous test plants. Although PDV has been intensively investigated, mainly in the context of phylogenetic relationship of its genes and proteins, many gaps exist in our knowledge [...] Read more.
Prune dwarf virus (PDV) is an important viral pathogen of plum, sweet cherry, peach, and many herbaceous test plants. Although PDV has been intensively investigated, mainly in the context of phylogenetic relationship of its genes and proteins, many gaps exist in our knowledge about the mechanism of intercellular transport of this virus. The aim of this work was to investigate alterations in cellular organelles and the cell-to-cell transport of PDV in Cucumis sativus cv. Polan at ultrastructural level. To analyze the role of viral proteins in local transport, double-immunogold assays were applied to localize PDV coat protein (CP) and movement protein (MP). We observe structural changes in chloroplasts, mitochondria, and cellular membranes. We prove that PDV is transported as viral particles via MP-generated tubular structures through plasmodesmata. Moreover, the computer-run 3D modeling reveals structural resemblances between MPs of PDV and of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), implying similarities of transport mechanisms for both viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses and Virus-Induced Diseases)
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Article
The Aphid-Transmitted Turnip yellows virus Differentially Affects Volatiles Emission and Subsequent Vector Behavior in Two Brassicaceae Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2316; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082316 - 07 Aug 2018
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2779
Abstract
Aphids are important pests which cause direct damage by feeding or indirect prejudice by transmitting plant viruses. Viruses are known to induce modifications of plant cues in ways that can alter vector behavior and virus transmission. In this work, we addressed whether the [...] Read more.
Aphids are important pests which cause direct damage by feeding or indirect prejudice by transmitting plant viruses. Viruses are known to induce modifications of plant cues in ways that can alter vector behavior and virus transmission. In this work, we addressed whether the modifications induced by the aphid-transmitted Turnip yellows virus (TuYV) in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana also apply to the cultivated plant Camelina sativa, both belonging to the Brassicaceae family. In most experiments, we observed a significant increase in the relative emission of volatiles from TuYV-infected plants. Moreover, due to plant size, the global amounts of volatiles emitted by C. sativa were higher than those released by A. thaliana. In addition, the volatiles released by TuYV-infected C. sativa attracted the TuYV vector Myzus persicae more efficiently than those emitted by non-infected plants. In contrast, no such preference was observed for A. thaliana. We propose that high amounts of volatiles rather than specific metabolites are responsible for aphid attraction to infected C. sativa. This study points out that the data obtained from the model pathosystem A. thaliana/TuYV cannot be straightforwardly extrapolated to a related plant species infected with the same virus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses and Virus-Induced Diseases)
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Article
Spatiotemporal Changes in Xylan-1/Xyloglucan and Xyloglucan Xyloglucosyl Transferase (XTH-Xet5) as a Step-In of Ultrastructural Cell Wall Remodelling in Potato–Potato Virus Y (PVYNTN) Hypersensitive and Susceptible Reaction
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2287; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082287 - 04 Aug 2018
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2165
Abstract
One type of monitoring system in a plant cell is the cell wall, which intensively changes its structure during interaction with pathogen-stress factors. The wall plays a role as a dynamic and controlled structure, although it is not fully understood how relevant these [...] Read more.
One type of monitoring system in a plant cell is the cell wall, which intensively changes its structure during interaction with pathogen-stress factors. The wall plays a role as a dynamic and controlled structure, although it is not fully understood how relevant these modifications are to the molecular mechanisms during plant–virus interactions. In this work we localise the non-cellulosic polysaccharides such as xyloglucan, xylan (xylan-1) and xyloglucosyl transferase (XTH-Xet5), the enzyme that participates in the metabolism of xyloglucan. This provided us with information about the in situ distribution of the components of the hemicellulotic cell wall matrix in hypersensitive and susceptible potato–PVYNTN interactions. The loosening of the cell wall was accompanied by an increase in xylan depositions during susceptible interactions, whereas, during the hypersensitive response, when the cell wall was reinforced, the xylan content decreased. Moreover, the PVY inoculation significantly redirected XTH-Xet5 depositions, regardless of types of interactions, compared to mock-inoculated tissues. Furthermore, the immunogold localisation clearly revealed the domination of Xet5 in the cell wall and in vesicles in the susceptible host. In contrast, in the resistant host increased levels of Xet5 were observed in cytoplasm, in the cell wall and in the trans-Golgi network. These findings show that the hypersensitive reaction activated XTH-Xet5 in the areas of xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase (XET) synthesis, which was then actively transported to cytoplasm, cell wall and to vacuoles. Our results provide novel insight into cell wall reorganisation during PVYNTN infection as a response to biotic stress factors. These novel findings help us to understand the mechanisms of defence responses that are incorporated into the cell wall signalling network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses and Virus-Induced Diseases)
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Review

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Review
Role of the Genetic Background in Resistance to Plant Viruses
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 2856; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19102856 - 20 Sep 2018
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 4418
Abstract
In view of major economic problems caused by viruses, the development of genetically resistant crops is critical for breeders but remains limited by the evolution of resistance-breaking virus mutants. During the plant breeding process, the introgression of traits from Crop Wild Relatives results [...] Read more.
In view of major economic problems caused by viruses, the development of genetically resistant crops is critical for breeders but remains limited by the evolution of resistance-breaking virus mutants. During the plant breeding process, the introgression of traits from Crop Wild Relatives results in a dramatic change of the genetic background that can alter the resistance efficiency or durability. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis on 19 Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) studies of resistance to viruses in plants. Frequent epistatic effects between resistance genes indicate that a large part of the resistance phenotype, conferred by a given QTL, depends on the genetic background. We next reviewed the different resistance mechanisms in plants to survey at which stage the genetic background could impact resistance or durability. We propose that the genetic background may impair effector-triggered dominant resistances at several stages by tinkering the NB-LRR (Nucleotide Binding-Leucine-Rich Repeats) response pathway. In contrast, effects on recessive resistances by loss-of-susceptibility—such as eIF4E-based resistances—are more likely to rely on gene redundancy among the multigene family of host susceptibility factors. Finally, we show how the genetic background is likely to shape the evolution of resistance-breaking isolates and propose how to take this into account in order to breed plants with increased resistance durability to viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses and Virus-Induced Diseases)
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