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Special Issue "Selected Papers from the 6th National Plant Protein Research Congress"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Plant Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2017).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Yikun He Website E-Mail
College of Life Sciences, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100000, China
Interests: plant proteome; plant molecular biology; plant protein; biological function
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Xuchu Wang Website E-Mail
Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Haikou 571101, China
Interests: plant genome; plant proteome; plant transcriptome; post-translational modifications
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Shaojun Dai Website E-Mail
College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 201418, China
Interests: plant metabolome; quantitative proteomics; bioinformatics; plant protein

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will present a selection of contributions from “The 6th National Plant Protein Research Congress” (http://www.plantprotein.org.cn/en/) convened by the Botanic Society of China, in Haikou, 18–20 December, 2016. The following non-exhaustive list of topics are welcomed:

  • plant protein
  • plant genome
  • plant transcriptome
  • plant proteome
  • plant metabolome
  • bioinformatics
  • quantitative proteomics
  • post-translational modifications
  • biological function

All speakers and attendees at this conference can submit a manuscript for publication. For further information contact the Editorial Office ([email protected]).

Prof. Dr. Yikun He
Prof. Dr. Xuchu Wang
Prof. Dr. Shaojun Dai
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Published Papers (23 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Proteomics Analyses of Pollination Response in Endangered Orchid Species Dendrobium Chrysanthum
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2496; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122496 - 23 Nov 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
Pollination is a crucial stage in plant reproductive process. The self-compatibility (SC) and self-incompatibility (SI) mechanisms determined the plant genetic diversity and species survival. D. chrysanthum is a highly valued ornamental and traditional herbal orchid in Asia but has been declared endangered. The [...] Read more.
Pollination is a crucial stage in plant reproductive process. The self-compatibility (SC) and self-incompatibility (SI) mechanisms determined the plant genetic diversity and species survival. D. chrysanthum is a highly valued ornamental and traditional herbal orchid in Asia but has been declared endangered. The sexual reproduction in D. chrysanthum relies on the compatibility of pollination. To provide a better understanding of the mechanism of pollination, the differentially expressed proteins (DEP) between the self-pollination (SP) and cross-pollination (CP) pistil of D. chrysanthum were investigated using proteomic approaches—two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry technique. A total of 54 DEP spots were identified in the two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) maps between the SP and CP. Gene ontology analysis revealed an array of proteins belonging to following different functional categories: metabolic process (8.94%), response to stimulus (5.69%), biosynthetic process (4.07%), protein folding (3.25%) and transport (3.25%). Identification of these DEPs at the early response stage of pollination will hopefully provide new insights in the mechanism of pollination response and help for the conservation of the orchid species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 6th National Plant Protein Research Congress)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Phosphoproteomic Analysis Provides Insight into the Response to Short-Term Drought Stress in Ammopiptanthus mongolicus Roots
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2158; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18102158 - 17 Oct 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses that negatively affects plant growth and development. Ammopiptanthus mongolicus is an ecologically important shrub in the mid-Asia desert region and used as a model for abiotic tolerance research in trees. Protein phosphorylation participates in the [...] Read more.
Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses that negatively affects plant growth and development. Ammopiptanthus mongolicus is an ecologically important shrub in the mid-Asia desert region and used as a model for abiotic tolerance research in trees. Protein phosphorylation participates in the regulation of various biological processes, however, phosphorylation events associated with drought stress signaling and response in plants is still limited. Here, we conducted a quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of the response of A. mongolicus roots to short-term drought stress. Data are available via the iProx database with project ID IPX0000971000. In total, 7841 phosphorylation sites were found from the 2019 identified phosphopeptides, corresponding to 1060 phosphoproteins. Drought stress results in significant changes in the abundance of 103 phosphopeptides, corresponding to 90 differentially-phosphorylated phosphoproteins (DPPs). Motif-x analysis identified two motifs, including [pSP] and [RXXpS], from these DPPs. Functional enrichment and protein-protein interaction analysis showed that the DPPs were mainly involved in signal transduction and transcriptional regulation, osmotic adjustment, stress response and defense, RNA splicing and transport, protein synthesis, folding and degradation, and epigenetic regulation. These drought-corresponsive phosphoproteins, and the related signaling and metabolic pathways probably play important roles in drought stress signaling and response in A. mongolicus roots. Our results provide new information for understanding the molecular mechanism of the abiotic stress response in plants at the posttranslational level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 6th National Plant Protein Research Congress)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrogen Peroxide Response in Leaves of Poplar (Populus simonii × Populus nigra) Revealed from Physiological and Proteomic Analyses
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2085; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18102085 - 02 Oct 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is one of the most abundant reactive oxygen species (ROS), which plays dual roles as a toxic byproduct of cell metabolism and a regulatory signal molecule in plant development and stress response. Populus simonii × Populus [...] Read more.
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is one of the most abundant reactive oxygen species (ROS), which plays dual roles as a toxic byproduct of cell metabolism and a regulatory signal molecule in plant development and stress response. Populus simonii × Populus nigra is an important cultivated forest species with resistance to cold, drought, insect and disease, and also a key model plant for forest genetic engineering. In this study, H2O2 response in P. simonii × P. nigra leaves was investigated using physiological and proteomics approaches. The seedlings of 50-day-old P. simonii × P. nigra under H2O2 stress exhibited stressful phenotypes, such as increase of in vivo H2O2 content, decrease of photosynthetic rate, elevated osmolytes, antioxidant accumulation, as well as increased activities of several ROS scavenging enzymes. Besides, 81 H2O2-responsive proteins were identified in the poplar leaves. The diverse abundant patterns of these proteins highlight the H2O2-responsive pathways in leaves, including 14-3-3 protein and nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK)-mediated signaling, modulation of thylakoid membrane structure, enhancement of various ROS scavenging pathways, decrease of photosynthesis, dynamics of proteins conformation, and changes in carbohydrate and other metabolisms. This study provides valuable information for understanding H2O2-responsive mechanisms in leaves of P. simonii × P. nigra. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 6th National Plant Protein Research Congress)
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Open AccessArticle
Genome-Wide Identification of the PHD-Finger Family Genes and Their Responses to Environmental Stresses in Oryza sativa L.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 2005; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18092005 - 19 Sep 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
The PHD-finger family has been demonstrated to be involved in regulating plant growth and development. However, little information is given for its role in environmental stress responses. Here, we identified a total of 59 PHD family genes in the rice genome. These OsPHDs [...] Read more.
The PHD-finger family has been demonstrated to be involved in regulating plant growth and development. However, little information is given for its role in environmental stress responses. Here, we identified a total of 59 PHD family genes in the rice genome. These OsPHDs genes were located on eleven chromosomes and synteny analysis only revealed nine duplicated pairs within the rice PHD family. Phylogenetic analysis of all OsPHDs and PHDs from other species revealed that they could be grouped into two major clusters. Furthermore, OsPHDs were clustered into eight groups and members from different groups displayed a great divergence in terms of gene structure, functional domains and conserved motifs. We also found that with the exception of OsPHD6, all OsPHDs were expressed in at least one of the ten tested tissues and OsPHDs from certain groups were expressed in specific tissues. Moreover, our results also uncovered differential responses of OsPHDs expression to environmental stresses, including ABA (abscisic acid), water deficit, cold and high Cd. By using quantitative real-time PCR, we further confirmed the differential expression of OsPHDs under these stresses. OsPHD1/7/8/13/33 were differentially expressed under water deficit and Cd stresses, while OsPHD5/17 showed altered expression under water deficit and cold stresses. Moreover, OsPHD3/44/28 displayed differential expression under ABA and Cd stresses. In conclusion, our results provide valuable information on the rice PHD family in plant responses to environmental stress, which will be helpful for further characterizing their biological roles in responding to environmental stresses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 6th National Plant Protein Research Congress)
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Open AccessArticle
iTRAQ-Based Proteomics Analysis and Network Integration for Kernel Tissue Development in Maize
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 1840; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18091840 - 24 Aug 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Grain weight is one of the most important yield components and a developmentally complex structure comprised of two major compartments (endosperm and pericarp) in maize (Zea mays L.), however, very little is known concerning the coordinated accumulation of the numerous proteins involved. [...] Read more.
Grain weight is one of the most important yield components and a developmentally complex structure comprised of two major compartments (endosperm and pericarp) in maize (Zea mays L.), however, very little is known concerning the coordinated accumulation of the numerous proteins involved. Herein, we used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based comparative proteomic method to analyze the characteristics of dynamic proteomics for endosperm and pericarp during grain development. Totally, 9539 proteins were identified for both components at four development stages, among which 1401 proteins were non-redundant, 232 proteins were specific in pericarp and 153 proteins were specific in endosperm. A functional annotation of the identified proteins revealed the importance of metabolic and cellular processes, and binding and catalytic activities for the tissue development. Three and 76 proteins involved in 49 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways were integrated for the specific endosperm and pericarp proteins, respectively, reflecting their complex metabolic interactions. In addition, four proteins with important functions and different expression levels were chosen for gene cloning and expression analysis. Different concordance between mRNA level and the protein abundance was observed across different proteins, stages, and tissues as in previous research. These results could provide useful message for understanding the developmental mechanisms in grain development in maize. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 6th National Plant Protein Research Congress)
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Open AccessArticle
iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics Analysis on Rice Anther Responding to High Temperature
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 1811; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18091811 - 23 Aug 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
As one of the most important crops, rice provides the major food for more than half of the world population. However, its production is limited by many environmental factors, among which high temperature stress (HS) frequently occurs during anthesis and reduces its spikelet [...] Read more.
As one of the most important crops, rice provides the major food for more than half of the world population. However, its production is limited by many environmental factors, among which high temperature stress (HS) frequently occurs during anthesis and reduces its spikelet fertility. To explore the mechanism of HS tolerance in rice, we conducted a comparative proteomics analysis on the anthers between HS resistant and sensitive cultivars under different levels of high temperature. Under the same HS treatment, the resistant cultivar showed much higher spikelet fertility than the sensitive cultivar. Proteomic data showed that HS lead to the degradation of ribosomal proteins in the sensitive cultivar but not in the resistant one, which might result in the injury of protein biosynthetic machinery. In contrast, HS induced the increase of sHSP, β-expansins and lipid transfer proteins in the resistant cultivar, which might contribute to its ability to tolerate HS. The results provide some new insights into the mechanism of rice HS response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 6th National Plant Protein Research Congress)
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of Reference and Biomarker Proteins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Cultured under Different Stress Conditions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1822; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18081822 - 22 Aug 2017
Cited by 9
Abstract
Reference proteins and biomarkers are important for the quantitative evaluation of protein abundance. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was grown under five stress conditions (dark, cold, heat, salt, and glucose supplementation), and the OD750 and total protein contents were evaluated on days 0, 1, 2, [...] Read more.
Reference proteins and biomarkers are important for the quantitative evaluation of protein abundance. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was grown under five stress conditions (dark, cold, heat, salt, and glucose supplementation), and the OD750 and total protein contents were evaluated on days 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 of culture. Antibodies for 20 candidate proteins were generated, and the protein expression patterns were examined by western blotting. Reference protein(s) for each treatment were identified by calculating the Pearson’s correlation coefficient (PCC) between target protein abundance and total protein content. Histone H3, beta tubulin 1 (TUB-1), ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (RBCL), and mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase subunit 6 (ATPs-6) were the top reference proteins, because they were expressed stably under multiple stress conditions. The average relative-fold change (ARF) value of each protein was calculated to identify biomarkers. Heat shock protein 90B (HSP90B), flagellar associated protein (FAP127) and ATP synthase CF0 A subunit (ATPs-A) were suitable biomarkers for multiple treatments, while receptor of activated protein kinase C1 (RCK1), biotin carboxylase (BCR1), mitochondrial phosphate carrier protein (MPC1), and rubisco large subunit N-methyltransferase (RMT1) were suitable biomarkers for the dark, cold, heat, and glucose treatments, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 6th National Plant Protein Research Congress)
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Open AccessArticle
Identification and Functional Divergence Analysis of WOX Gene Family in Paper Mulberry
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1782; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18081782 - 16 Aug 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
The WOX (WUSCHEL-related homeobox) is a plant-specific transcription factor involved in plant development and stress response. However, few studies have been reported on the WOX gene in woody plants. In this study, 10 BpWOX genes were isolated from paper mulberry by RACE-PCR and [...] Read more.
The WOX (WUSCHEL-related homeobox) is a plant-specific transcription factor involved in plant development and stress response. However, few studies have been reported on the WOX gene in woody plants. In this study, 10 BpWOX genes were isolated from paper mulberry by RACE-PCR and categorized into three clades through phylogenetic analysis, ancient, intermediate and WUS clade. Among them, five members had the transcriptional activity detected by yeast one-hybrid and seven were uniquely localized to the nucleus through green fluorescent protein (GFP) observation. The expression patterns of BpWOX genes in different tissues and under diverse treatments were quantified by the qRT-PCR method. Results showed that BpWUS was expressed in the apical bud, stem and root, BpWOX5 and BpWOX7 functioned only in the root tip, and three BpWOXs regulated leaf development redundantly. BpWOX9 and BpWOX10 were induced by indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or jasmonic acid (JA), while BpWOX2 was repressed by five phytohormones. Interestingly, most BpWOX genes were responsive to the abiotic stress stimuli of drought, salt, cold, and cadmium (CdCl2). Together, our study revealed that BpWOXs were functionally divergent during paper mulberry development and environmental adaptation, which might be related to their evolutionary relationships. Our work will benefit the systematic understanding of the precise function of WOX in plant development and environmental stress responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 6th National Plant Protein Research Congress)
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Open AccessArticle
Differential Proteomic Analysis Reveals the Effect of Calcium on Malus baccata Borkh. Leaves under Temperature Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1755; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18081755 - 11 Aug 2017
Abstract
In the cool apple-producing areas of northern China, air temperature during early spring changes in a rapid and dramatic manner, which affects the growth and development of apple trees at the early stage of the growing season. Previous studies have shown that the [...] Read more.
In the cool apple-producing areas of northern China, air temperature during early spring changes in a rapid and dramatic manner, which affects the growth and development of apple trees at the early stage of the growing season. Previous studies have shown that the treatment of calcium can increase the cold tolerance of Malus baccata Borkh., a widely-used rootstock apple tree in northern China. To better understand the physiological function of calcium in the response of M. baccata to temperature stress, we analyzed the effect of calcium treatment (2% CaCl2) on M. baccata leaves under temperature stress. Physiological analysis showed that temperature stress aggravated membrane lipid peroxidation, reduced chlorophyll content and induced photo-inhibition in leaves, whereas these indicators of stress injuries were alleviated by the application of calcium. An isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomics approach was used in this study. Among the 2114 proteins that were detected in M. baccata leaves, 41, 25, and 34 proteins were differentially regulated by the increasing, decreasing, and changing temperature treatments, respectively. Calcium treatment induced 9 and 15 proteins after increasing and decreasing temperature, respectively, in comparison with non-treated plants. These calcium-responsive proteins were mainly related to catalytic activity, binding, and structural molecule activity. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that the changes in abundance of the proteins under increasing temperature and changing temperature treatments were similar, and the changes in protein abundance under decreasing temperature and increasing temperature with calcium treatment were similar. The findings of this study will allow a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the role of calcium in M. baccata leaves under temperature stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 6th National Plant Protein Research Congress)
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Open AccessArticle
The Variation Analysis of DNA Methylation in Wheat Carrying Gametocidal Chromosome 3C from Aegilops triuncialis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1738; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18081738 - 10 Aug 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
Gametocidal (Gc) chromosomes can ensure their preferential transmission by killing the gametes without themselves through causing chromosome breakage and therefore have been exploited as an effective tool for genetic breeding. However, to date very little is known about the molecular mechanism of Gc [...] Read more.
Gametocidal (Gc) chromosomes can ensure their preferential transmission by killing the gametes without themselves through causing chromosome breakage and therefore have been exploited as an effective tool for genetic breeding. However, to date very little is known about the molecular mechanism of Gc action. In this study, we used methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique to assess the extent and pattern of cytosine methylation alterations at the whole genome level between two lines of wheat Gc addition line and their common wheat parent. The results indicated that the overall levels of cytosine methylation of two studied Gc addition lines (CS–3C and CS–3C3C, 48.68% and 48.65%, respectively) were significantly increased when compared to common wheat CS (41.31%) and no matter fully methylated or hemimethylated rates enhanced in Gc addition lines. A set of 30 isolated fragments that showed different DNA methylation or demethylation patterns between the three lines were sequenced and the results indicated that 8 fragments showed significant homology to known sequences, of which three were homologous to MITE transposon (Miniature inverted–repeat transposable elements), LTR-retrotransposon WIS-1p and retrotransposon Gypsy, respectively. Overall, our results showed that DNA methylation could play a role in the Gc action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 6th National Plant Protein Research Congress)
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Open AccessArticle
High Salt Tolerance of a Bradyrhizobium Strain and Its Promotion of the Growth of Stylosanthes guianensis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1625; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18081625 - 28 Jul 2017
Cited by 6
Abstract
Salinity is a serious limiting factor for the growth of rhizobia. Some rhizobia are tolerant to salt stress and promote plant growth, but the mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly characterized. The growth responses and osmoprotectants in four Bradyrhizobium strains were examined under [...] Read more.
Salinity is a serious limiting factor for the growth of rhizobia. Some rhizobia are tolerant to salt stress and promote plant growth, but the mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly characterized. The growth responses and osmoprotectants in four Bradyrhizobium strains were examined under salt stress in this study. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry were conducted to investigate protein profiles in rhizobia exposed to salt stress. Subsequently, salt tolerance in stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis) inoculated with rhizobia was further detected in hydroponics. Results showed that the Bradyrhizobium strain RJS9-2 exhibited higher salt tolerance than the other three Bradyrhizobium strains. RJS9-2 was able to grow at 0.35 M NaCl treatment, while the other three Bradyrhizobium strains did not grow at 0.1 M NaCl treatment. Salt stress induced IAA production, and accumulation of proline, betaine, ectoine, and trehalose was observed in RJS9-2 but not in PN13-1. Proteomics analysis identified 14 proteins regulated by salt stress in RJS9-2 that were mainly related to the ABC transporter, stress response, and protein metabolism. Furthermore, under saline conditions, the nodule number, plant dry weight, and N concentration in stylo plants inoculated with RJS9-2 were higher than those in plants inoculated with PN13-1. These results suggest that the tolerance of RJS9-2 to salt stress may be achieved by the coordination of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production, osmoprotectant accumulation, and protein expression, thus promoting stylo growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 6th National Plant Protein Research Congress)
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Open AccessArticle
The AGPase Family Proteins in Banana: Genome-Wide Identification, Phylogeny, and Expression Analyses Reveal Their Involvement in the Development, Ripening, and Abiotic/Biotic Stress Responses
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1581; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18081581 - 25 Jul 2017
Cited by 9
Abstract
ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) is the first rate-limiting enzyme in starch biosynthesis and plays crucial roles in multiple biological processes. Despite its importance, AGPase is poorly studied in starchy fruit crop banana (Musa acuminata L.). In this study, eight MaAGPase genes have been [...] Read more.
ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) is the first rate-limiting enzyme in starch biosynthesis and plays crucial roles in multiple biological processes. Despite its importance, AGPase is poorly studied in starchy fruit crop banana (Musa acuminata L.). In this study, eight MaAGPase genes have been identified genome-wide in M. acuminata, which could be clustered into the large (APL) and small (APS) subunits. Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis revealed temporal and spatial expression variations of MaAPLs and MaAPSs and their differential responses to abiotic/biotic stresses in two banana genotypes, Fen Jiao (FJ) and BaXi Jiao (BX). MaAPS1 showed generally high expression at various developmental and ripening stages and in response to abiotic/biotic stresses in both genotypes. MaAPL-3 and -2a were specifically induced by abiotic stresses including cold, salt, and drought, as well as by fungal infection in FJ, but not in BX. The presence of hormone-related and stress-relevant cis-acting elements in the promoters of MaAGPase genes suggests that MaAGPases may play an important role in multiple biological processes. Taken together, this study provides new insights into the complex transcriptional regulation of AGPases, underlying their key roles in promoting starch biosynthesis and enhancing stress tolerance in banana. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 6th National Plant Protein Research Congress)
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Open AccessArticle
BRS1 Function in Facilitating Lateral Root Emergence in Arabidopsis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1549; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18071549 - 18 Jul 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
The BRS1 (BRI1 Suppressor 1) gene encodes a serine carboxypeptidase that plays a critical role in the brassinosteroid signaling pathway. However, its specific biological function remains unclear. In this study, the developmental role of BRS1 was investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found [...] Read more.
The BRS1 (BRI1 Suppressor 1) gene encodes a serine carboxypeptidase that plays a critical role in the brassinosteroid signaling pathway. However, its specific biological function remains unclear. In this study, the developmental role of BRS1 was investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that overexpressing BRS1 resulted in significantly more lateral roots in different Arabidopsis ecotypes (WS2 and Col-0) and in brassinosteroid mutants (bri1-5 and det2-28). Further research showed that BRS1 facilitates the process whereby lateral root primordia break through the endodermis, cortex, and epidermis. Consistent with this, BRS1 was found to be highly expressed in the root endodermis and accumulated in the extracellular space around the dome of the lateral root primordia. Taken together, these results highlight the role of BRS1 in the process of lateral root emergence and provide new insight into the role of serine carboxypeptidases in plant root development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 6th National Plant Protein Research Congress)
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Open AccessArticle
A Quantitative Acetylomic Analysis of Early Seed Development in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1376; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18071376 - 27 Jun 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
PKA (protein lysine acetylation) is a critical post-translational modification that regulates various developmental processes, including seed development. However, the acetylation events and dynamics on a proteomic scale in this process remain largely unknown, especially in rice early seed development. We report the first [...] Read more.
PKA (protein lysine acetylation) is a critical post-translational modification that regulates various developmental processes, including seed development. However, the acetylation events and dynamics on a proteomic scale in this process remain largely unknown, especially in rice early seed development. We report the first quantitative acetylproteomic study focused on rice early seed development by employing a mass spectral-based (MS-based), label-free approach. A total of 1817 acetylsites on 1688 acetylpeptides from 972 acetylproteins were identified in pistils and seeds at three and seven days after pollination, including 268 acetyproteins differentially acetylated among the three stages. Motif-X analysis revealed that six significantly enriched motifs, such as (DxkK), (kH) and (kY) around the acetylsites of the identified rice seed acetylproteins. Differentially acetylated proteins among the three stages, including adenosine diphosphate (ADP) -glucose pyrophosphorylases (AGPs), PDIL1-1 (protein disulfide isomerase like 1-1), hexokinases, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) and numerous other regulators that are extensively involved in the starch and sucrose metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and photosynthesis pathways during early seed development. This study greatly expanded the rice acetylome dataset, and shed novel insight into the regulatory roles of PKA in rice early seed development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 6th National Plant Protein Research Congress)
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Open AccessArticle
Cotton Ascorbate Oxidase Promotes Cell Growth in Cultured Tobacco Bright Yellow-2 Cells through Generation of Apoplast Oxidation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1346; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18071346 - 23 Jun 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
Ascorbate oxidase (AO) plays an important role in cell growth through the modulation of reduction/oxidation (redox) control of the apoplast. Here, a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) apoplastic ascorbate oxidase gene (GhAO1) was obtained from fast elongating fiber tissues. GhAO1 belongs [...] Read more.
Ascorbate oxidase (AO) plays an important role in cell growth through the modulation of reduction/oxidation (redox) control of the apoplast. Here, a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) apoplastic ascorbate oxidase gene (GhAO1) was obtained from fast elongating fiber tissues. GhAO1 belongs to the multicopper oxidase (MCO) family and includes a signal peptide and several transmembrane regions. Analyses of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) and enzyme activity showed that GhAO1 was expressed abundantly in 15-day post-anthesis (dpa) wild-type (WT) fibers in comparison with fuzzless-lintless (fl) mutant ovules. Subcellular distribution analysis in onion cells demonstrated that GhAO1 is localized in the cell wall. In transgenic tobacco bright yellow-2 (BY-2) cells with ectopic overexpression of GhAO1, the enhancement of cell growth with 1.52-fold increase in length versus controls was indicated, as well as the enrichment of both total ascorbate in whole-cells and dehydroascorbate acid (DHA) in apoplasts. In addition, promoted activities of AO and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR) in apoplasts and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) in whole-cells were displayed in transgenic tobacco BY-2 cells. Accumulation of H2O2, and influenced expressions of Ca2+ channel genes with the activation of NtMPK9 and NtCPK5 and the suppression of NtTPC1B were also demonstrated in transgenic tobacco BY-2 cells. Finally, significant induced expression of the tobacco NtAO gene in WT BY-2 cells under indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) treatment appeared; however, the sensitivity of the NtAO gene expression to IAA disappeared in transgenic BY-2 cells, revealing that the regulated expression of the AO gene is under the control of IAA. Taken together, these results provide evidence that GhAO1 plays an important role in fiber cell elongation and may promote cell growth by generating the oxidation of apoplasts, via the auxin-mediated signaling pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 6th National Plant Protein Research Congress)
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Open AccessArticle
Identifying the Genes Regulated by AtWRKY6 Using Comparative Transcript and Proteomic Analysis under Phosphorus Deficiency
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 1046; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18051046 - 12 May 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
Phosphorus (P) is an important mineral nutrient for plant growth and development. Overexpressing AtWRKY6 (35S:WRKY6-9) was more sensitive and wrky6 (wrky6-1) was more resistant under low Pi conditions. To better understand the function of AtWRKY6 under low phosphate stress conditions, we [...] Read more.
Phosphorus (P) is an important mineral nutrient for plant growth and development. Overexpressing AtWRKY6 (35S:WRKY6-9) was more sensitive and wrky6 (wrky6-1) was more resistant under low Pi conditions. To better understand the function of AtWRKY6 under low phosphate stress conditions, we applied two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to analyse differentially expressed proteins in the shoots and roots between wild type, 35S:WRKY6-9 and wrky6-1 after phosphorus deficiency treatment for three days. The results showed 88 differentially abundant protein spots, which were identified between the shoots and roots of 35S:WRKY6-9 and wrky6-1 plants. In addition, 59 differentially expressed proteins were identified in the leaves and roots of 35S:WRKY6-9 plants. After analysis, 9 genes with W-box elements in their promoter sequences were identified in the leaves, while 6 genes with W-box elements in their promoter sequences were identified in the roots. A total of 8 genes were identified as potential target genes according to the quantitative PCR (QPCR) and two dimension difference gel electrophoresis, (2D-DIGE) results, including ATP synthase, gln synthetase, nitrilase, 14-3-3 protein, carbonic anhydrases 2, and tryptophan synthase. These results provide important information concerning the AtWRKY6 regulation network and reveal potential vital target genes of AtWRKY6 under low phosphorus stress. two dimension difference gel electrophoresis, 2D-DIGE Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 6th National Plant Protein Research Congress)
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Open AccessArticle
Expression of Root Genes in Arabidopsis Seedlings Grown by Standard and Improved Growing Methods
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 951; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18050951 - 03 May 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
Roots of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grown in the laboratory using the traditional plant-growing culture system (TPG) were covered to maintain them in darkness. This new method is based on a dark chamber and is named the improved plant-growing method (IPG). We measured the [...] Read more.
Roots of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grown in the laboratory using the traditional plant-growing culture system (TPG) were covered to maintain them in darkness. This new method is based on a dark chamber and is named the improved plant-growing method (IPG). We measured the light conditions in dark chambers, and found that the highest light intensity was dramatically reduced deeper in the dark chamber. In the bottom and side parts of dark chambers, roots were almost completely shaded. Using the high-throughput RNA sequencing method on the whole RNA extraction from roots, we compared the global gene expression levels in roots of seedlings from these two conditions and identified 141 differently expressed genes (DEGs) between them. According to the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) enrichment, the flavone and flavonol biosynthesis and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways were most affected among all annotated pathways. Surprisingly, no genes of known plant photoreceptors were identified as DEGs by this method. Considering that the light intensity was decreased in the IPG system, we collected four sections (1.5 cm for each) of Arabidopsis roots grown in TPG and IPG conditions, and the spatial-related differential gene expression levels of plant photoreceptors and polar auxin transporters, including CRY1, CRY2, PHYA, PHYB, PHOT1, PHOT2, and UVR8 were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Using these results, we generated a map of the spatial-related expression patterns of these genes under IPG and TPG conditions. The expression levels of light-related genes in roots is highly sensitive to illumination and it provides a background reference for selecting an improved culture method for laboratory-maintained Arabidopsis seedlings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 6th National Plant Protein Research Congress)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Proteomics of Rubber Latex Revealed Multiple Protein Species of REF/SRPP Family Respond Diversely to Ethylene Stimulation among Different Rubber Tree Clones
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 958; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18050958 - 02 May 2017
Cited by 12
Abstract
Rubber elongation factor (REF) and small rubber particle protein (SRPP) are two key factors for natural rubber biosynthesis. To further understand the roles of these proteins in rubber formation, six different genes for latex abundant REF or SRPP proteins, including REF138,175,258 and [...] Read more.
Rubber elongation factor (REF) and small rubber particle protein (SRPP) are two key factors for natural rubber biosynthesis. To further understand the roles of these proteins in rubber formation, six different genes for latex abundant REF or SRPP proteins, including REF138,175,258 and SRPP117,204,243, were characterized from Hevea brasiliensis Reyan (RY) 7-33-97. Sequence analysis showed that REFs have a variable and long N-terminal, whereas SRPPs have a variable and long C-terminal beyond the REF domain, and REF258 has a β subunit of ATPase in its N-terminal. Through two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), each REF/SRPP protein was separated into multiple protein spots on 2-DE gels, indicating they have multiple protein species. The abundance of REF/SRPP proteins was compared between ethylene and control treatments or among rubber tree clones with different levels of latex productivity by analyzing 2-DE gels. The total abundance of each REF/SRPP protein decreased or changed a little upon ethylene stimulation, whereas the abundance of multiple protein species of the same REF/SRPP changed diversely. Among the three rubber tree clones, the abundance of the protein species also differed significantly. Especially, two protein species of REF175 or REF258 were ethylene-responsive only in the high latex productivity clone RY 8-79 instead of in RY 7-33-97 and PR 107. Some individual protein species were positively related to ethylene stimulation and latex productivity. These results suggested that the specific protein species could be more important than others for rubber production and post-translational modifications might play important roles in rubber biosynthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 6th National Plant Protein Research Congress)
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Open AccessArticle
Regulation of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Purple Leaves of Zijuan Tea (Camellia sinensis var. kitamura)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 833; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040833 - 19 Apr 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
Plant anthocyanin biosynthesis is well understood, but the regulatory mechanism in purple foliage tea remains unclear. Using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ), 815 differential proteins were identified in the leaves of Zijuan tea, among which 20 were associated with the [...] Read more.
Plant anthocyanin biosynthesis is well understood, but the regulatory mechanism in purple foliage tea remains unclear. Using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ), 815 differential proteins were identified in the leaves of Zijuan tea, among which 20 were associated with the regulation of anthocyanin metabolism. We found that the abundances of anthocyanin synthesis-related enzymes such as chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and anthocyanin synthetase, as well as anthocyanin accumulation-related UDP-glucosyl transferase and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in the purple leaves were all significantly higher than those in the green leaves. The abundances of the transcription factors bHLH and HY5, regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis at transcriptional level were also obviously higher in purple leaves than those in green leaves. In addition, bifunctional 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase and chorismate mutase in purple leaves were distinctly higher in abundance compared to green leaves, which provided sufficient phenylalanine substrate for anthocyanin synthesis. Furthermore, lignin synthesis was found to be reduced due to the lower abundances of cinnamoyl-CoA reductase 1, peroxidase 15 and laccase-6, which resulted in increase of intermediates flow into anthocyanin synthesis pathway. The physiological data were consistent with proteomic results. These four aspects of biosynthetic regulation contribute to anthocyanin accumulation in purple leaves of Zijuan tea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 6th National Plant Protein Research Congress)
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Open AccessArticle
Overexpression of S-Adenosyl-l-Methionine Synthetase 2 from Sugar Beet M14 Increased Arabidopsis Tolerance to Salt and Oxidative Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 847; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040847 - 18 Apr 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
The sugar beet monosomic addition line M14 is a unique germplasm that contains genetic materials from Beta vulgaris L. and Beta corolliflora Zoss, and shows tolerance to salt stress. Our study focuses on exploring the molecular mechanism of the salt tolerance of the [...] Read more.
The sugar beet monosomic addition line M14 is a unique germplasm that contains genetic materials from Beta vulgaris L. and Beta corolliflora Zoss, and shows tolerance to salt stress. Our study focuses on exploring the molecular mechanism of the salt tolerance of the sugar beet M14. In order to identify differentially expressed genes in M14 under salt stress, a subtractive cDNA library was generated by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). A total of 36 unique sequences were identified in the library and their putative functions were analyzed. One of the genes, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase (SAMS), is the key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a precursor of polyamines. To determine the potential role of SAMS in salt tolerance, we isolated BvM14-SAMS2 from the salt-tolerant sugar beet M14. The expression of BvM14-SAMS2 in leaves and roots was greatly induced by salt stress. Overexpression of BvM14-SAMS2 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced salt and H2O2 tolerance. Furthermore, we obtained a knock-down T-DNA insertion mutant of AtSAMS3, which shares the highest homology with BvM14-SAMS2. Interestingly, the mutant atsam3 showed sensitivity to salt and H2O2 stress. We also found that the antioxidant system and polyamine metabolism play an important role in salt and H2O2 tolerance in the BvM14-SAMS2-overexpressed plants. To our knowledge, the function of the sugar beet SAMS has not been reported before. Our results have provided new insights into SAMS functions in sugar beet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 6th National Plant Protein Research Congress)
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Open AccessArticle
Transcriptome Sequencing of Dianthus spiculifolius and Analysis of the Genes Involved in Responses to Combined Cold and Drought Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 849; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040849 - 17 Apr 2017
Cited by 10
Abstract
Dianthus spiculifolius, a perennial herbaceous flower and a member of the Caryophyllaceae family, has strong resistance to cold and drought stresses. To explore the transcriptional responses of D. spiculifolius to individual and combined stresses, we performed transcriptome sequencing of seedlings under normal [...] Read more.
Dianthus spiculifolius, a perennial herbaceous flower and a member of the Caryophyllaceae family, has strong resistance to cold and drought stresses. To explore the transcriptional responses of D. spiculifolius to individual and combined stresses, we performed transcriptome sequencing of seedlings under normal conditions or subjected to cold treatment (CT), simulated drought treatment (DT), or their combination (CTDT). After de novo assembly of the obtained reads, 112,015 unigenes were generated. Analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) showed that 2026, 940, and 2346 genes were up-regulated and 1468, 707, and 1759 were down-regulated in CT, DT, and CTDT samples, respectively. Among all the DEGs, 182 up-regulated and 116 down-regulated genes were identified in all the treatment groups. Analysis of metabolic pathways and regulatory networks associated with the DEGs revealed overlaps and cross-talk between cold and drought stress response pathways. The expression profiles of the selected DEGs in CT, DT, and CTDT samples were characterized and confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. These DEGs and metabolic pathways may play important roles in the response of D. spiculifolius to the combined stress. Functional characterization of these genes and pathways will provide new targets for enhancement of plant stress tolerance through genetic manipulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 6th National Plant Protein Research Congress)
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Open AccessReview
Heat-Responsive Photosynthetic and Signaling Pathways in Plants: Insight from Proteomics
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2191; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18102191 - 20 Oct 2017
Cited by 11
Abstract
Heat stress is a major abiotic stress posing a serious threat to plants. Heat-responsive mechanisms in plants are complicated and fine-tuned. Heat signaling transduction and photosynthesis are highly sensitive. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanism in heat stressed-signaling transduction and photosynthesis [...] Read more.
Heat stress is a major abiotic stress posing a serious threat to plants. Heat-responsive mechanisms in plants are complicated and fine-tuned. Heat signaling transduction and photosynthesis are highly sensitive. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanism in heat stressed-signaling transduction and photosynthesis is necessary to protect crop yield. Current high-throughput proteomics investigations provide more useful information for underlying heat-responsive signaling pathways and photosynthesis modulation in plants. Several signaling components, such as guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein, nucleoside diphosphate kinase, annexin, and brassinosteroid-insensitive I-kinase domain interacting protein 114, were proposed to be important in heat signaling transduction. Moreover, diverse protein patterns of photosynthetic proteins imply that the modulations of stomatal CO2 exchange, photosystem II, Calvin cycle, ATP synthesis, and chlorophyll biosynthesis are crucial for plant heat tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 6th National Plant Protein Research Congress)
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Open AccessReview
Salinity Response in Chloroplasts: Insights from Gene Characterization
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 1011; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18051011 - 08 May 2017
Cited by 12
Abstract
Salinity is a severe abiotic stress limiting agricultural yield and productivity. Plants have evolved various strategies to cope with salt stress. Chloroplasts are important photosynthesis organelles, which are sensitive to salinity. An understanding of molecular mechanisms in chloroplast tolerance to salinity is of [...] Read more.
Salinity is a severe abiotic stress limiting agricultural yield and productivity. Plants have evolved various strategies to cope with salt stress. Chloroplasts are important photosynthesis organelles, which are sensitive to salinity. An understanding of molecular mechanisms in chloroplast tolerance to salinity is of great importance for genetic modification and plant breeding. Previous studies have characterized more than 53 salt-responsive genes encoding important chloroplast-localized proteins, which imply multiple vital pathways in chloroplasts in response to salt stress, such as thylakoid membrane organization, the modulation of photosystem II (PS II) activity, carbon dioxide (CO2) assimilation, photorespiration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, osmotic and ion homeostasis, abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and signaling, and gene expression regulation, as well as protein synthesis and turnover. This review presents an overview of salt response in chloroplasts revealed by gene characterization efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 6th National Plant Protein Research Congress)
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