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Special Issue "Nanotoxicology and Nanosafety"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Toxicology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Ivo Iavicoli

Department of Public Health, University of Naples Federico II, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: occupational medicine; public health; nanosafety; active aging; occupational toxicology; industrial health; biological monitoring; occupational risk assessment; occupational diseases; occupational carcinogens
Guest Editor
Dr. Paul A. Schulte

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4676 Columbia Parkway, MS C-14, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nanotechnology; occupational safety and health; molecular epidemiology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This is to inform you of an opportunity to be part of a Special Issue of this journal, to advance the understanding of the human health effects of nanomaterials. Nanomaterials are widely used in commerce, science, and medicine and a large numbers of workers make and handle them, and are exposed to them. The knowledge of the adverse health effects of these nanomaterials is very limited. In this Special Issue, we hope to bring together significant research that advances the knowledge base on adverse effects of nanomaterials. Of particular interest will be papers that describe studies where exposure levels are similar to what workers are exposed to. In vitro and In vivo and human studies, as well as, mechanistic studies that contribute to the understanding of worker health effects are welcome. Additionally, papers that describe biomonitoring, risk assessments, bases for occupational exposure limit (OEL) development and evidence-based risk management are also being sought.  This Special Issue will focus on the publication of original manuscripts and critical reviews to advance the understanding of the possible health effects of nanomaterials and the means to protect workers exposed to them.

Prof. Ivo Iavicoli
Dr. Paul A. Schulte
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • adverse effects of nanomaterials on respiratory system
  • adverse effects of nanomaterials on cardiovascular system
  • adverse effects of nanomaterials on dermal system
  • adverse effects of nanomaterials on endocrine system
  • adverse effects of nanomaterials on gastrointestinal system
  • adverse effects of nanomaterials on immune system
  • adverse effects of nanomaterials on nervous system
  • adverse effects of nanomaterials on renal system
  • biological monitoring of engineered nanomaterials
  • environmental monitoring of engineered nanomaterials
  • molecular and cellular mechanisms of nanomaterial toxic action
  • nanomaterial biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and effect
  • nanomaterial dosimetry and particokinetics
  • nanomaterial toxicodynamics
  • nanomaterial toxicokinetics
  • nanotoxicology
  • nanosafety
  • occupational exposure limits of engineered nanomaterials
  • oxidative stress
  • risk assessment of engineered nanomaterials
  • risk management of engineered nanomaterials

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Metal Free Graphene Oxide (GO) Nanosheets and Pristine-Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (p-SWCNTs) Biocompatibility Investigation: A Comparative Study in Different Human Cell Lines
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1316; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051316
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 21 April 2018 / Accepted: 23 April 2018 / Published: 28 April 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (9311 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The in vitro biocompatibility of Graphene Oxide (GO) nanosheets, which were obtained by the electrochemical exfoliation of graphite electrodes in an electrolytic bath containing salts, was compared with the pristine Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (p-SWCNTs) under the same experimental conditions in different human [...] Read more.
The in vitro biocompatibility of Graphene Oxide (GO) nanosheets, which were obtained by the electrochemical exfoliation of graphite electrodes in an electrolytic bath containing salts, was compared with the pristine Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (p-SWCNTs) under the same experimental conditions in different human cell lines. The cells were treated with different concentrations of GO and SWCNTs for up to 48 h. GO did not induce any significant morphological or functional modifications (demonstrating a high biocompatibility), while SWNCTs were toxic at any concentration used after a few hours of treatment. The cell viability or cytotoxicity were detected by the trypan blue assay and the lactate dehydrogenase LDH quantitative enzymatic test. The Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis demonstrated the uptake and internalization of GO sheets into cells, which was localized mainly in the cytoplasm. Different results were observed in the same cell lines treated with p-SWCNTs. TEM and CLSM (Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy) showed that the p-SWCNTs induced vacuolization in the cytoplasm, disruption of cellular architecture and damage to the nuclei. The most important result of this study is our finding of a higher GO biocompatibility compared to the p-SWCNTs in the same cell lines. This means that GO nanosheets, which are obtained by the electrochemical exfoliation of a graphite-based electrode (carried out in saline solutions or other physiological working media) could represent an eligible nanocarrier for drug delivery, gene transfection and molecular cell imaging tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology and Nanosafety)
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Open AccessArticle Novel Nanoparticulate and Ionic Titanium Antigens for Hypersensitivity Testing
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1101; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19041101
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 6 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (14276 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Titanium is used in a wide variety of materials ranging from medical devices to materials used in everyday life. Adverse biological reactions that could occur in patients, consumers, and workers should be monitored and prevented. There is a lack of available agents to [...] Read more.
Titanium is used in a wide variety of materials ranging from medical devices to materials used in everyday life. Adverse biological reactions that could occur in patients, consumers, and workers should be monitored and prevented. There is a lack of available agents to test and predict titanium-related hypersensitivity. The aim of this study was to develop two bioavailable titanium substances in ionic and nanoparticulate form to serve as antigens for hypersensitivity testing in vitro. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 20 test subjects were stimulated with the antigens and secretion of monocytic and lymphatic cytokines and chemokines were measured by a multiplex bead assay. Lymphocyte stimulation indices were also determined in a subset of test subjects by measuring CD69 and HLA-DR expression by flow cytometry. Cytokine profiling revealed that both antigens increased production of typical monocyte and macrophage secreted cytokines after 24 h, with significant increases in IL-1β, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12, IL-2R, IL-6, GM-CSF, TNF-α, IL-1RA, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, IFN-α, and IL-15. Lymphatic cytokines and chemokines were not significantly induced by activation. After seven days of stimulation, ionic-Ti (2.5 μg/mL) caused proliferation (stimulation index > 2) of CD4+ cells and CD8+ cells in all persons tested (N = 6), while titanium dioxide nanoparticles (50 μg/mL) only caused significant proliferation of CD4+ cells. Our preliminary results show that the experimental titanium antigens, especially the ionic form, induce a general inflammatory response in vitro. A relevant cohort of test subjects is required to further elucidate their potential for predictive hypersensitivity testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology and Nanosafety)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Fullerenol Nanoparticles on Rat Oocyte Meiosis Resumption
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030699
Received: 13 February 2018 / Revised: 26 February 2018 / Accepted: 27 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
PDF Full-text (6641 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The excellent biocompatibility and biological effects of fullerenol and its derivatives make their biomedical application promising. The potential effects of fullerenol in mammals have been extensively studied, but little is known about its effects on female reproduction. Using canonical oocyte-granulosa cell complexes (OGCs) [...] Read more.
The excellent biocompatibility and biological effects of fullerenol and its derivatives make their biomedical application promising. The potential effects of fullerenol in mammals have been extensively studied, but little is known about its effects on female reproduction. Using canonical oocyte-granulosa cell complexes (OGCs) in vitro maturation culture model, we investigated the effect of fullerenol on the first oocyte meiotic resumption. In the surrounding granulosa cells, fullerenol nanoparticles occluded the extracellular domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to reduce EGFR-ligand binding and subsequent extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) activation, which involved the regulation of connexin 43 (CX43) expression and internalization. Downregulation of CX43 expression and the retraction of transzonal projections (TZPs) interrupted the gap junction channel and TZPs based mass transportation. This effect decreased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels in the oocyte and thereby accelerated rat oocyte meiosis resumption. Moreover, perinuclear distribution of CX43 and EGFR was observed in granulosa cells, which could further exacerbate the effects. Fullerenol nanoparticles interfered with the strict process of oocyte meiosis resumption, which likely reduced the oocyte quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology and Nanosafety)
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Open AccessArticle Hazard Screening Methods for Nanomaterials: A Comparative Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 649; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030649
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 15 February 2018 / Published: 25 February 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3081 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Hazard identification is the key step in risk assessment and management of manufactured nanomaterials (NM). However, the rapid commercialisation of nano-enabled products continues to out-pace the development of a prudent risk management mechanism that is widely accepted by the scientific community and enforced [...] Read more.
Hazard identification is the key step in risk assessment and management of manufactured nanomaterials (NM). However, the rapid commercialisation of nano-enabled products continues to out-pace the development of a prudent risk management mechanism that is widely accepted by the scientific community and enforced by regulators. However, a growing body of academic literature is developing promising quantitative methods. Two approaches have gained significant currency. Bayesian networks (BN) are a probabilistic, machine learning approach while the weight of evidence (WoE) statistical framework is based on expert elicitation. This comparative study investigates the efficacy of quantitative WoE and Bayesian methodologies in ranking the potential hazard of metal and metal-oxide NMs—TiO2, Ag, and ZnO. This research finds that hazard ranking is consistent for both risk assessment approaches. The BN and WoE models both utilize physico-chemical, toxicological, and study type data to infer the hazard potential. The BN exhibits more stability when the models are perturbed with new data. The BN has the significant advantage of self-learning with new data; however, this assumes all input data is equally valid. This research finds that a combination of WoE that would rank input data along with the BN is the optimal hazard assessment framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology and Nanosafety)
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Open AccessArticle Workers’ Exposure to Nano-Objects with Different Dimensionalities in R&D Laboratories: Measurement Strategy and Field Studies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020349
Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 24 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3662 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the increasing interest in the potential benefits of nanotechnologies, concern is still growing that they may present emerging risks for workers. Various strategies have been developed to assess the exposure to nano-objects and their agglomerates and aggregates (NOAA) in the workplace, integrating [...] Read more.
With the increasing interest in the potential benefits of nanotechnologies, concern is still growing that they may present emerging risks for workers. Various strategies have been developed to assess the exposure to nano-objects and their agglomerates and aggregates (NOAA) in the workplace, integrating different aerosol measurement instruments and taking into account multiple parameters that may influence NOAA toxicity. The present study proposes a multi-metric approach for measuring and sampling NOAA in the workplace, applied to three case studies in laboratories each dedicated to materials with different shapes and dimensionalities: graphene, nanowires, and nanoparticles. The study is part of a larger project with the aim of improving risk management tools in nanomaterials research laboratories. The harmonized methodology proposed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has been applied, including information gathering about materials and processes, measurements with easy-to-use and hand-held real-time devices, air sampling with personal samplers, and off-line analysis using scanning electron microscopy. Significant values beyond which an emission can be attributed to the NOAA production process were identified by comparison of the particle number concentration (PNC) time series and the corresponding background levels in the three laboratories. We explored the relations between background PNC and microclimatic parameters. Morphological and elemental analysis of sampled filters was done to identify possible emission sources of NOAA during the production processes: rare particles, spherical, with average diameter similar to the produced NOAA were identified in the nanoparticles laboratory, so further investigation is recommended to confirm the potential for worker exposure. In conclusion, the information obtained should provide a valuable basis for improving risk management strategies in the laboratory at work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology and Nanosafety)
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Open AccessArticle Synergistic Effect of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles on Cell Viability and Activation of MAP Kinases and NFκB
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010246
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1767 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In recent years, there has been an increase in the production of several types of nanoparticles (Nps) for different purposes. Several studies have been performed to analyse the toxicity induced by some of these individual Nps, but data are scarce on the potential [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been an increase in the production of several types of nanoparticles (Nps) for different purposes. Several studies have been performed to analyse the toxicity induced by some of these individual Nps, but data are scarce on the potential hazards or beneficial effects induced by a range of nanomaterials in the same environment. The purpose of the study described here was to evaluate the toxicological effects induced by in vitro exposure of human cells to ZnO Nps in combination with different concentrations of other metal oxide Nps (Al2O3, CeO2, TiO2 and Y2O3). The results indicate that the presence of these Nps has synergistic or antagonistic effects on the cell death induced by ZnO Nps, with a quite marked beneficial effect observed when high concentrations of Nps were tested. Moreover, analysis by Western blot of the main components of the intracellular activation routes (MAPKs and NFκB) again showed that the presence of other Nps can affect cell activation. In conclusion, the presence of several Nps in the same environment modifies the functional activity of one individual Np. Further studies are required in order to elucidate the effects induced by combinations of nanomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology and Nanosafety)
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Open AccessArticle Single Silver Nanoparticle Instillation Induced Early and Persisting Moderate Cortical Damage in Rat Kidneys
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2115; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18102115
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 28 September 2017 / Published: 10 October 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1973 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The potential toxic effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), administered by a single intratracheal instillation (i.t), was assessed in a rat model using commercial physico-chemical characterized nanosilver. Histopathological changes, overall toxic response and oxidative stress (kidney and plasma protein carbonylation), paralleled by ultrastructural observations [...] Read more.
The potential toxic effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), administered by a single intratracheal instillation (i.t), was assessed in a rat model using commercial physico-chemical characterized nanosilver. Histopathological changes, overall toxic response and oxidative stress (kidney and plasma protein carbonylation), paralleled by ultrastructural observations (TEM), were evaluated to examine renal responses 7 and 28 days after i.t. application of a low AgNP dose (50 µg/rat), compared to an equivalent dose of ionic silver (7 µg AgNO3/rat). The AgNPs caused moderate renal histopathological and ultrastructural alteration, in a region-specific manner, being the cortex the most affected area. Notably, the bulk AgNO3, caused similar adverse effects with a slightly more marked extent, also triggering apoptotic phenomena. Specifically, 7 days after exposure to both AgNPs and AgNO3, dilatation of the intercapillary and peripheral Bowman’s space was observed, together with glomerular shrinkage. At day 28, these effects still persisted after both treatments, accompanied by an additional injury involving the vascular component of the mesangium, with interstitial micro-hemorrhages. Neither AgNPs nor AgNO3 induced oxidative stress effects in kidneys and plasma, at either time point. The AgNP-induced moderate renal effects indicate that, despite their benefits, novel AgNPs employed in consumer products need exhaustive investigation to ensure public health safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology and Nanosafety)
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Open AccessArticle Epidermal Growth Factor Enhances Cellular Uptake of Polystyrene Nanoparticles by Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1301; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061301
Received: 2 May 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 19 June 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1412 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The interaction between nanoparticles and cells has been studied extensively, but most research has focused on the effect of various nanoparticle characteristics, such as size, morphology, and surface charge, on the cellular uptake of nanoparticles. In contrast, there have been very few studies [...] Read more.
The interaction between nanoparticles and cells has been studied extensively, but most research has focused on the effect of various nanoparticle characteristics, such as size, morphology, and surface charge, on the cellular uptake of nanoparticles. In contrast, there have been very few studies to assess the influence of cellular factors, such as growth factor responses, on the cellular uptake efficiency of nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the uptake efficiency of polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) by A431 cells, a human carcinoma epithelial cell line. The results showed that EGF enhanced the uptake efficiency of A431 cells for PS NPs. In addition, inhibition and localization studies of PS NPs and EGF receptors (EGFRs) indicated that cellular uptake of PS NPs is related to the binding of EGF–EGFR complex and PS NPs. Different pathways are used to enter the cells depending on the presence or absence of EGF. In the presence of EGF, cellular uptake of PS NPs is via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, whereas, in the absence of EGF, uptake of PS NPs does not involve clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Our findings indicate that EGF enhances cellular uptake of PS NPs by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. This result could be important for developing safe nanoparticles and their safe use in medical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology and Nanosafety)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Intracellular Transport of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles and Biological Responses: An Update
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1305; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051305
Received: 31 March 2018 / Revised: 21 April 2018 / Accepted: 23 April 2018 / Published: 27 April 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6314 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Medicine, food, and cosmetics represent the new promising applications for silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs). AgNPs are most commonly used in food and cosmetics; conversely, the main applications of gold NPs (AuNPs) are in the medical field. Thus, in view of [...] Read more.
Medicine, food, and cosmetics represent the new promising applications for silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs). AgNPs are most commonly used in food and cosmetics; conversely, the main applications of gold NPs (AuNPs) are in the medical field. Thus, in view of the risk of accidentally or non-intended uptake of NPs deriving from the use of cosmetics, drugs, and food, the study of NPs–cell interactions represents a key question that puzzles researchers in both the nanomedicine and nanotoxicology fields. The response of cells starts when the NPs bind to the cell surface or when they are internalized. The amount and modality of their uptake depend on many and diverse parameters, such as NPs and cell types. Here, we discuss the state of the art of the knowledge and the uncertainties regarding the biological consequences of AgNPs and AuNPs, focusing on NPs cell uptake, location, and translocation. Finally, a section will be dedicated to the most currently available methods for qualitative and quantitative analysis of intracellular transport of metal NPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology and Nanosafety)
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Open AccessReview Nanoparticle Exposure and Hormetic Dose–Responses: An Update
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 805; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030805
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 20 February 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 10 March 2018
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (4551 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The concept of hormesis, as an adaptive response of biological systems to moderate environmental challenges, has raised considerable nano-toxicological interests in view of the rapid pace of production and application of even more innovative nanomaterials and the expected increasing likelihood of environmental and [...] Read more.
The concept of hormesis, as an adaptive response of biological systems to moderate environmental challenges, has raised considerable nano-toxicological interests in view of the rapid pace of production and application of even more innovative nanomaterials and the expected increasing likelihood of environmental and human exposure to low-dose concentrations. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide an update of the current knowledge concerning the biphasic dose–responses induced by nanoparticle exposure. The evidence presented confirmed and extended our previous findings, showing that hormesis is a generalized adaptive response which may be further generalized to nanoscale xenobiotic challenges. Nanoparticle physico-chemical properties emerged as possible features affecting biphasic relationships, although the molecular mechanisms underlining such influences remain to be fully understood, especially in experimental settings resembling long-term and low-dose realistic environmental exposure scenarios. Further investigation is necessary to achieve helpful information for a suitable assessment of nanomaterial risks at the low-dose range for both the ecosystem function and the human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology and Nanosafety)
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Open AccessReview Palladium Nanoparticles: Toxicological Effects and Potential Implications for Occupational Risk Assessment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020503
Received: 18 January 2018 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 3 February 2018 / Published: 7 February 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (267 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The increasing technological applications of palladium nanoparticles (Pd-NPs) and their consequent enhancing release into the community and occupational environments, have raised public health concerns regarding possible adverse effects for exposed subjects, and particularly for workers chronically and highly exposed to these materials, whose [...] Read more.
The increasing technological applications of palladium nanoparticles (Pd-NPs) and their consequent enhancing release into the community and occupational environments, have raised public health concerns regarding possible adverse effects for exposed subjects, and particularly for workers chronically and highly exposed to these materials, whose toxico-kinetic and dynamic behavior remains to be fully understood. Therefore, this review aimed to critically analyze literature data to achieve a more comprehensive knowledge on the toxicological profile of Pd-NPs. Results from available studies demonstrated the potential for these chemicals to affect the ecosystem function, to exert cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory effects in vitro as well as to induce early alterations in different target organs in in vivo models. However, our revision pointed out the need for future studies aimed to clarify the role of the NP physico-chemical properties in determining their toxicological behavior, as well as the importance to carry out investigations focused on environmental and biological monitoring to verify and validate experimental biomarkers of exposure and early effect in real exposure contexts. Overall, this may be helpful to support the definition of suitable strategies for the assessment, communication and management of Pd-NP occupational risks to protect the health and safety of workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology and Nanosafety)
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Open AccessReview The Toxicity of Nanoparticles Depends on Multiple Molecular and Physicochemical Mechanisms
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2702; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122702
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 8 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 December 2017 / Published: 13 December 2017
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (820 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanotechnology is an emerging discipline that studies matters at the nanoscale level. Eventually, the goal is to manipulate matters at the atomic level to serve mankind. One growing area in nanotechnology is biomedical applications, which involve disease management and the discovery of basic [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology is an emerging discipline that studies matters at the nanoscale level. Eventually, the goal is to manipulate matters at the atomic level to serve mankind. One growing area in nanotechnology is biomedical applications, which involve disease management and the discovery of basic biological principles. In this review, we discuss characteristics of nanomaterials, with an emphasis on transition metal oxide nanoparticles that influence cytotoxicity. Identification of those properties may lead to the design of more efficient and safer nanosized products for various industrial purposes and provide guidance for assessment of human and environmental health risk. We then investigate biochemical and molecular mechanisms of cytotoxicity that include oxidative stress-induced cellular events and alteration of the pathways pertaining to intracellular calcium homeostasis. All the stresses lead to cell injuries and death. Furthermore, as exposure to nanoparticles results in deregulation of the cell cycle (i.e., interfering with cell proliferation), the change in cell number is a function of cell killing and the suppression of cell proliferation. Collectively, the review article provides insights into the complexity of nanotoxicology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology and Nanosafety)
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Open AccessReview Current Knowledge on the Use of Computational Toxicology in Hazard Assessment of Metallic Engineered Nanomaterials
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1504; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18071504
Received: 12 June 2017 / Revised: 7 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 12 July 2017
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1565 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As listed by the European Chemicals Agency, the three elements in evaluating the hazards of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) include the integration and evaluation of toxicity data, categorization and labeling of ENMs, and derivation of hazard threshold levels for human health and the environment. [...] Read more.
As listed by the European Chemicals Agency, the three elements in evaluating the hazards of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) include the integration and evaluation of toxicity data, categorization and labeling of ENMs, and derivation of hazard threshold levels for human health and the environment. Assessing the hazards of ENMs solely based on laboratory tests is time-consuming, resource intensive, and constrained by ethical considerations. The adoption of computational toxicology into this task has recently become a priority. Alternative approaches such as (quantitative) structure–activity relationships ((Q)SAR) and read-across are of significant help in predicting nanotoxicity and filling data gaps, and in classifying the hazards of ENMs to individual species. Thereupon, the species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach is able to serve the establishment of ENM hazard thresholds sufficiently protecting the ecosystem. This article critically reviews the current knowledge on the development of in silico models in predicting and classifying the hazard of metallic ENMs, and the development of SSDs for metallic ENMs. Further discussion includes the significance of well-curated experimental datasets and the interpretation of toxicity mechanisms of metallic ENMs based on reported models. An outlook is also given on future directions of research in this frontier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology and Nanosafety)
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