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Microbiota and Cancer

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 December 2020) | Viewed by 27733

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Pediatric Hematology-Oncology Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences DIMEC, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Interests: acute myeloid leukemia in children; pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children; next-generation sequencing; characterization and modulation of gut microbiota during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The human body is colonized by thousands of different microbial species that have a key role in our survival. In the last 15 years, our knowledge of human microbiomes has increased exponentially. Thanks to next-generation DNA sequencing, metabolomics, and genobiotic models, we have been able to dissect the compositional and functional microbiome structures, as well as infer the mechanisms underlying the role of the microbiome in human biology and pathology. Particularly, mounting evidence has suggested a critical role of the microbiome in the maturation and continued education of the host immune response in susceptibility to cancer and in response to cancer treatment. The impact of the gut microbiota on anticancer immune responses has represented an intriguing and evolving scenario in the recent literature. Novel metacommunity approaches have provided an integrative and extensive vision of the tight link between microbiomes and cancer and are giving new exciting insights on possible therapeutics implications.

This Special Issue titled “Microbiota and Cancer” will focus on the role of the human microbiome in the pathogenesis of cancer, in response to immunotherapy, in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and in possible microbiota-based therapeutic or pre-emptive strategies to manage treatment-related complications.

Authors are invited to submit original research and review papers addressing the abovementioned topics of this Special Issue.

Dr. Riccardo Masetti
Dr. Silvia Turroni
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • gut microbiota
  • cancer
  • hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
  • human microbiome
  • immune system
  • colon cancer
  • carcinogenesis
  • nutrition
  • short-chain fatty acids
  • metagenomic
  • dysbiosis

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Review

11 pages, 723 KiB  
Review
Antibiotic-Related Changes in Microbiome: The Hidden Villain behind Colorectal Carcinoma Immunotherapy Failure
by Tsvetelina Velikova, Boris Krastev, Stefan Lozenov, Radostina Gencheva, Monika Peshevska-Sekulovska, Georgi Nikolaev and Milena Peruhova
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 1754; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041754 - 10 Feb 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3625
Abstract
The interplay between drugs and microbiota is critical for successful treatment. An accumulating amount of evidence has identified the significant impact of intestinal microbiota composition on cancer treatment response, particularly immunotherapy. The possible molecular pathways of the interaction between immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) [...] Read more.
The interplay between drugs and microbiota is critical for successful treatment. An accumulating amount of evidence has identified the significant impact of intestinal microbiota composition on cancer treatment response, particularly immunotherapy. The possible molecular pathways of the interaction between immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and the microbiome can be used to reverse immunotherapy tolerance in cancer by using various kinds of interventions on the intestinal bacteria. This paper aimed to review the data available on how the antibiotic-related changes in human microbiota during colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment can affect and determine ICI treatment outcomes. We also covered the data that support the potential intimate mechanisms of both local and systemic immune responses induced by changes in the intestinal microbiota. However, further better-powered studies are needed to thoroughly assess the clinical significance of antibiotic-induced alteration of the gut microbiota and its impact on CRC treatment by direct observations of patients receiving antibiotic treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota and Cancer)
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25 pages, 1897 KiB  
Review
Tumor-Associated Microbiome: Where Do We Stand?
by Marc Oliva, Nuria Mulet-Margalef, Maria Ochoa-De-Olza, Stefania Napoli, Joan Mas, Berta Laquente, Laia Alemany, Eric J. Duell, Paolo Nuciforo and Victor Moreno
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1446; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031446 - 1 Feb 2021
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 5525
Abstract
The study of the human microbiome in oncology is a growing and rapidly evolving field. In the past few years, there has been an exponential increase in the number of studies investigating associations of microbiome and cancer, from oncogenesis and cancer progression to [...] Read more.
The study of the human microbiome in oncology is a growing and rapidly evolving field. In the past few years, there has been an exponential increase in the number of studies investigating associations of microbiome and cancer, from oncogenesis and cancer progression to resistance or sensitivity to specific anticancer therapies. The gut microbiome is now known to play a significant role in antitumor immune responses and in predicting the efficacy of immune-checkpoint inhibitors in cancer patients. Beyond the gut, the tumor-associated microbiome—microbe communities located either in the tumor or within its body compartment—seems to interact with the local microenvironment and the tumor immune contexture, ultimately impacting cancer progression and treatment outcome. However, pre-clinical research focusing on causality and mechanistic pathways as well as proof-of-concept studies are still needed to fully understand the potential clinical utility of microbiome in cancer patients. Moreover, there is a need for the standardization of methodology and the implementation of quality control across microbiome studies to allow for a better interpretation and greater comparability of the results reported between them. This review summarizes the accumulating evidence in the field and discusses the current and upcoming challenges of microbiome studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota and Cancer)
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13 pages, 1247 KiB  
Review
Microbiome-Derived Metabolites in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
by Riccardo Masetti, Daniele Zama, Davide Leardini, Edoardo Muratore, Silvia Turroni, Patrizia Brigidi and Andrea Pession
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1197; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031197 - 26 Jan 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3089
Abstract
The gut microbiome has emerged as a major character in the context of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The biology underpinning this relationship is still to be defined. Recently, mounting evidence has suggested a role for microbiome-derived metabolites in mediating crosstalk between intestinal microbial [...] Read more.
The gut microbiome has emerged as a major character in the context of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The biology underpinning this relationship is still to be defined. Recently, mounting evidence has suggested a role for microbiome-derived metabolites in mediating crosstalk between intestinal microbial communities and the host. Some of these metabolites, such as fiber-derived short-chain fatty acids or amino acid-derived compounds, were found to have a role also in the transplant setting. New interesting data have been published on this topic, posing a new intriguing perspective on comprehension and treatment. This review provides an updated comprehensive overview of the available evidence in the field of gut microbiome-derived metabolites and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota and Cancer)
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24 pages, 1592 KiB  
Review
Gut Microbiota Influence in Hematological Malignancies: From Genesis to Cure
by Mireia Uribe-Herranz, Nela Klein-González, Luis Gerardo Rodríguez-Lobato, Manel Juan and Carlos Fernández de Larrea
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1026; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031026 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 5299
Abstract
Hematological malignancies, including multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and leukemia, are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that affect the blood, bone marrow, and lymph nodes. They originate from uncontrolled growth of hematopoietic and lymphoid cells from different stages in their maturation/differentiation and account for 6.5% [...] Read more.
Hematological malignancies, including multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and leukemia, are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that affect the blood, bone marrow, and lymph nodes. They originate from uncontrolled growth of hematopoietic and lymphoid cells from different stages in their maturation/differentiation and account for 6.5% of all cancers around the world. During the last decade, it has been proven that the gut microbiota, more specifically the gastrointestinal commensal bacteria, is implicated in the genesis and progression of many diseases. The immune-modulating effects of the human microbiota extend well beyond the gut, mostly through the small molecules they produce. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge of the role of the microbiota in modulating the immune system, its role in hematological malignancies, and its influence on different therapies for these diseases, including autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation, chemotherapy, and chimeric antigen receptor T cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota and Cancer)
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16 pages, 909 KiB  
Review
New Frontiers about the Role of Human Microbiota in Immunotherapy: The Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors and CAR T-Cell Therapy Era
by Vanessa Innao, Andrea Gaetano Allegra, Caterina Musolino and Alessandro Allegra
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(23), 8902; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21238902 - 24 Nov 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3665
Abstract
Microbiota is considered an independent organ with the capability to modulate tumor growth and response to therapies. In the chemo-free era, the use of new immunotherapies, more selective and effective and less toxic, led to the extension of overall survival of patients, subject [...] Read more.
Microbiota is considered an independent organ with the capability to modulate tumor growth and response to therapies. In the chemo-free era, the use of new immunotherapies, more selective and effective and less toxic, led to the extension of overall survival of patients, subject to their ability to not stop treatment. This has focused scientists’ attention to optimize responses by understanding and changing microbiota composition. While we have obtained abundant data from studies in oncologic and hematologic patients receiving conventional chemotherapy, we have less data about alterations in intestinal flora in those undergoing immunotherapy, especially based on Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-cells. Actually, we know that the efficacy of Programmed Cell Death 1 (PD-1), PD-1 ligand, and Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) is improved by probiotics rich in Bifidobacterium spp., while compounds of Bacteroidales and Burkholderiales protect from the development of the anti-CTLA-4-induced colitis in mouse models. CAR T-cell therapy seems to not be interfering with microbiota; however, the numerous previous therapies may have caused permanent damage, thus obscuring the data we might have obtained. Therefore, this review opens a new chapter to transfer known acquisitions to a typology of patients destined to grow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota and Cancer)
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16 pages, 757 KiB  
Review
Microbiota-Derived Metabolites in Tumor Progression and Metastasis
by Tania Rossi, Daniele Vergara, Francesca Fanini, Michele Maffia, Sara Bravaccini and Francesca Pirini
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5786; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165786 - 12 Aug 2020
Cited by 75 | Viewed by 5418
Abstract
Microbial communities and human cells, through a dynamic crosstalk, maintain a mutualistic relationship that contributes to the maintenance of cellular metabolism and of the immune and neuronal systems. This dialogue normally occurs through the production and regulation of hormonal intermediates, metabolites, secondary metabolites, [...] Read more.
Microbial communities and human cells, through a dynamic crosstalk, maintain a mutualistic relationship that contributes to the maintenance of cellular metabolism and of the immune and neuronal systems. This dialogue normally occurs through the production and regulation of hormonal intermediates, metabolites, secondary metabolites, proteins, and toxins. When the balance between host and microbiota is compromised, the dynamics of this relationship change, creating favorable conditions for the development of diseases, including cancers. Microbiome metabolites can be important modulators of the tumor microenvironment contributing to regulate inflammation, proliferation, and cell death, in either a positive or negative way. Recent studies also highlight the involvement of microbiota metabolites in inducing epithelial–mesenchymal transition, thus favoring the setup of the metastatic niche. An investigation of microbe-derived metabolites in “liquid” human samples, such as plasma, serum, and urine, provide further information to clarify the relationship between host and microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota and Cancer)
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