ijms-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Cardiac Repair and Regeneration: New Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutics"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Mohsin Khan
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physiology, Center for Metabolic Disease Research, Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
Interests: stem cells; cardiac repair; myocardial infarction; MicroRNAs
Dr. Tamer Mohamed
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Medicine, Institute of Molecular Cardiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
Interests: cardiac regeneration; heart slice culture; gene therapy; cardiotoxicity
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Ronald Vagnozzi
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati, USA; Division of Molecular Cardiovascular Biology and The Heart Institute, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, USA
Interests: cardiology

Special Issue Information

The adult heart is largely a postmitotic organ with limited cellular turnover during one’s lifetime. In the face of injury, adult cardiomyocytes undergo adverse remodeling and death, severely compromising cardiac structure and function. Over the years, several strategies have evolved with the goal to promote cardiac repair and regeneration in response to myocardial damage. This Special Issue explores the new molecular mechanisms and state-of-the-art therapeutics, including the strategies targeting cardiomyocyte cell cycle activation and proliferation, stem-cell-mediated cardiac repair, role of immune cells in cardiac repair, and extracellular vesicles in cardiac repair and regeneration. 

Dr. Mohsin Khan
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cardiac repair
  • regeneration
  • myocardial injury
  • cardiomyocyte cell cycle
  • proliferation
  • stem cells
  • paracrine factors
  • extracellular vesicles
  • immune cells
  • exosomes

Published Papers (9 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Bmi1 Augments Proliferation and Survival of Cortical Bone-Derived Stem Cells after Injury through Novel Epigenetic Signaling via Histone 3 Regulation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(15), 7813; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22157813 - 22 Jul 2021
Viewed by 415
Abstract
Ischemic heart disease can lead to myocardial infarction (MI), a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Multiple stem cell types have been safely transferred into failing human hearts, but the overall clinical cardiovascular benefits have been modest. Therefore, there is a dire [...] Read more.
Ischemic heart disease can lead to myocardial infarction (MI), a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Multiple stem cell types have been safely transferred into failing human hearts, but the overall clinical cardiovascular benefits have been modest. Therefore, there is a dire need to understand the basic biology of stem cells to enhance therapeutic effects. Bmi1 is part of the polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) that is involved in different processes including proliferation, survival and differentiation of stem cells. We isolated cortical bones stem cells (CBSCs) from bone stroma, and they express significantly high levels of Bmi1 compared to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cardiac-derived stem cells (CDCs). Using lentiviral transduction, Bmi1 was knocked down in the CBSCs to determine the effect of loss of Bmi1 on proliferation and survival potential with or without Bmi1 in CBSCs. Our data show that with the loss of Bmi1, there is a decrease in CBSC ability to proliferate and survive during stress. This loss of functionality is attributed to changes in histone modification, specifically histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27). Without the proper epigenetic regulation, due to the loss of the polycomb protein in CBSCs, there is a significant decrease in cell cycle proteins, including Cyclin B, E2F, and WEE as well as an increase in DNA damage genes, including ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM and Rad3-related (ATR). In conclusion, in the absence of Bmi1, CBSCs lose their proliferative potential, have increased DNA damage and apoptosis, and more cell cycle arrest due to changes in epigenetic modifications. Consequently, Bmi1 plays a critical role in stem cell proliferation and survival through cell cycle regulation, specifically in the CBSCs. This regulation is associated with the histone modification and regulation of Bmi1, therefore indicating a novel mechanism of Bmi1 and the epigenetic regulation of stem cells. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Transcriptional Profiling of Cardiac Cells Links Age-Dependent Changes in Acetyl-CoA Signaling to Chromatin Modifications
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(13), 6987; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22136987 - 29 Jun 2021
Viewed by 399
Abstract
Metabolism has emerged as a regulator of core stem cell properties such as proliferation, survival, self-renewal, and multilineage potential. Metabolites serve as secondary messengers, fine-tuning signaling pathways in response to microenvironment alterations. Studies show a role for central metabolite acetyl-CoA in the regulation [...] Read more.
Metabolism has emerged as a regulator of core stem cell properties such as proliferation, survival, self-renewal, and multilineage potential. Metabolites serve as secondary messengers, fine-tuning signaling pathways in response to microenvironment alterations. Studies show a role for central metabolite acetyl-CoA in the regulation of chromatin state through changes in histone acetylation. Nevertheless, metabolic regulators of chromatin remodeling in cardiac cells in response to increasing biological age remains unknown. Previously, we identified novel cardiac-derived stem-like cells (CTSCs) that exhibit increased functional properties in the neonatal heart (nCTSC). These cells are linked to a unique metabolism which is altered with CTSC aging (aCTSC). Here, we present an in-depth, RNA-sequencing-based (RNA-Seq) bioinformatic with cluster analysis that details a distinct epigenome present in nCTSCs but not in aCTSCs. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment reveal biological processes, including metabolism, gene regulation enriched in nCTSCs, and STRING analysis that identifies a network of genes related to acetyl-CoA that can potentially influence chromatin remodeling. Additional validation by Western blot and qRT-PCR shows increased acetyl-CoA signaling and histone acetylation in nCTSCs compared to aCTSCs. In conclusion, our data reveal that the link between metabolism and histone acetylation in cardiac cells is altered with the aging of the cardiac tissue. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Comparison of Repeated Doses of C-kit-Positive Cardiac Cells versus a Single Equivalent Combined Dose in a Murine Model of Chronic Ischemic Cardiomyopathy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(6), 3145; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22063145 - 19 Mar 2021
Viewed by 579
Abstract
Using a murine model of chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy caused by an old myocardial infarction (MI), we have previously found that three doses of 1 × 106 c-kit positive cardiac cells (CPCs) are more effective than a single dose of 1 × 10 [...] Read more.
Using a murine model of chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy caused by an old myocardial infarction (MI), we have previously found that three doses of 1 × 106 c-kit positive cardiac cells (CPCs) are more effective than a single dose of 1 × 106 cells. The goal of this study was to determine whether the beneficial effects of three doses of CPCs (1 × 106 cells each) can be fully replicated by a single combined dose of 3 × 106 CPCs. Mice underwent a 60-min coronary occlusion; after 90 days of reperfusion, they received three echo-guided intraventricular infusions at 5-week intervals: (1) vehicle × 3; (2) one combined dose of CPCs (3 × 106) and vehicle × 2; or (3) three doses of CPCs (1 × 106 each). In the combined-dose group, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) improved after the 1st CPC infusion, but not after the 2nd and 3rd (vehicle) infusions. In contrast, in the multiple-dose group, LVEF increased after each CPC infusion; at the final echo, LVEF averaged 35.2 ± 0.6% (p < 0.001 vs. the vehicle group, 27.3 ± 0.2%). At the end of the study, the total cumulative change in EF from pretreatment values was numerically greater in the multiple-dose group (6.6 ± 0.6%) than in the combined-dose group (4.8 ± 0.8%), although the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.08). Hemodynamic studies showed that several parameters of LV function in the multiple-dose group were numerically greater than in the combined-dose group (p = 0.08 for the difference in LVEF). Compared with vehicle, cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area was reduced only in the multiple-dose group (−32.7%, 182.6 ± 15.1 µm2 vs. 271.5 ± 27.2 µm2, p < 0.05, in the risk region and −28.5%, 148.5 ± 12.1 µm2 vs. 207.6 ± 20.5 µm2, p < 0.05, in the noninfarcted region). LV weight/body weight ratio and LV weight/tibia length ratios were significantly reduced in both cell treated groups vs. the vehicle group, indicating the attenuation of LV hypertrophy; however, the lung weight/body weight ratio was significantly reduced only in the multiple-dose group, suggesting decreased pulmonary congestion. Taken together, these results indicate that in mice with chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy, the beneficial effects of three doses of CPCs on LV function and hypertrophy cannot be fully replicated with a single dose, notwithstanding the fact that the total number of cells delivered with one or three doses is the same. Thus, it is the multiplicity of doses, and not the total number of cells, that accounts for the superiority of the repeated-dose paradigm. This study supports the idea that the efficacy of cell therapy in heart failure can be augmented by repeated administrations. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
The Evolving Roles of Cardiac Macrophages in Homeostasis, Regeneration, and Repair
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(15), 7923; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22157923 - 25 Jul 2021
Viewed by 225
Abstract
Macrophages were first described as phagocytic immune cells responsible for maintaining tissue homeostasis by the removal of pathogens that disturb normal function. Historically, macrophages have been viewed as terminally differentiated monocyte-derived cells that originated through hematopoiesis and infiltrated multiple tissues in the presence [...] Read more.
Macrophages were first described as phagocytic immune cells responsible for maintaining tissue homeostasis by the removal of pathogens that disturb normal function. Historically, macrophages have been viewed as terminally differentiated monocyte-derived cells that originated through hematopoiesis and infiltrated multiple tissues in the presence of inflammation or during turnover in normal homeostasis. However, improved cell detection and fate-mapping strategies have elucidated the various lineages of tissue-resident macrophages, which can derive from embryonic origins independent of hematopoiesis and monocyte infiltration. The role of resident macrophages in organs such as the skin, liver, and the lungs have been well characterized, revealing functions well beyond a pure phagocytic and immunological role. In the heart, recent research has begun to decipher the functional roles of various tissue-resident macrophage populations through fate mapping and genetic depletion studies. Several of these studies have elucidated the novel and unexpected roles of cardiac-resident macrophages in homeostasis, including maintaining mitochondrial function, facilitating cardiac conduction, coronary development, and lymphangiogenesis, among others. Additionally, following cardiac injury, cardiac-resident macrophages adopt diverse functions such as the clearance of necrotic and apoptotic cells and debris, a reduction in the inflammatory monocyte infiltration, promotion of angiogenesis, amelioration of inflammation, and hypertrophy in the remaining myocardium, overall limiting damage extension. The present review discusses the origin, development, characterization, and function of cardiac macrophages in homeostasis, cardiac regeneration, and after cardiac injury or stress. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Cardiomyocyte Proliferation as a Source of New Myocyte Development in the Adult Heart
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(15), 7764; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22157764 - 21 Jul 2021
Viewed by 243
Abstract
Cardiac diseases such as myocardial infarction (MI) can lead to adverse remodeling and impaired contractility of the heart due to widespread cardiomyocyte death in the damaged area. Current therapies focus on improving heart contractility and minimizing fibrosis with modest cardiac regeneration, but MI [...] Read more.
Cardiac diseases such as myocardial infarction (MI) can lead to adverse remodeling and impaired contractility of the heart due to widespread cardiomyocyte death in the damaged area. Current therapies focus on improving heart contractility and minimizing fibrosis with modest cardiac regeneration, but MI patients can still progress to heart failure (HF). There is a dire need for clinical therapies that can replace the lost myocardium, specifically by the induction of new myocyte formation from pre-existing cardiomyocytes. Many studies have shown terminally differentiated myocytes can re-enter the cell cycle and divide through manipulations of the cardiomyocyte cell cycle, signaling pathways, endogenous genes, and environmental factors. However, these approaches result in minimal myocyte renewal or cardiomegaly due to hyperactivation of cardiomyocyte proliferation. Finding the optimal treatment that will replenish cardiomyocyte numbers without causing tumorigenesis is a major challenge in the field. Another controversy is the inability to clearly define cardiomyocyte division versus myocyte DNA synthesis due to limited methods. In this review, we discuss several studies that induced cardiomyocyte cell cycle re-entry after cardiac injury, highlight whether cardiomyocytes completed cytokinesis, and address both limitations and methodological advances made to identify new myocyte formation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Induced Cardiomyocyte Proliferation: A Promising Approach to Cure Heart Failure
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(14), 7720; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147720 - 19 Jul 2021
Viewed by 322
Abstract
Unlike some lower vertebrates which can completely regenerate their heart, the human heart is a terminally differentiated organ. Cardiomyocytes lost during cardiac injury and heart failure cannot be replaced due to their limited proliferative capacity. Therefore, cardiac injury generally leads to progressive failure. [...] Read more.
Unlike some lower vertebrates which can completely regenerate their heart, the human heart is a terminally differentiated organ. Cardiomyocytes lost during cardiac injury and heart failure cannot be replaced due to their limited proliferative capacity. Therefore, cardiac injury generally leads to progressive failure. Here, we summarize the latest progress in research on methods to induce cardiomyocyte cell cycle entry and heart repair through the alteration of cardiomyocyte plasticity, which is emerging as an effective strategy to compensate for the loss of functional cardiomyocytes and improve the impaired heart functions. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Transcriptional Regulation of Postnatal Cardiomyocyte Maturation and Regeneration
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(6), 3288; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22063288 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 835
Abstract
During the postnatal period, mammalian cardiomyocytes undergo numerous maturational changes associated with increased cardiac function and output, including hypertrophic growth, cell cycle exit, sarcomeric protein isoform switching, and mitochondrial maturation. These changes come at the expense of loss of regenerative capacity of the [...] Read more.
During the postnatal period, mammalian cardiomyocytes undergo numerous maturational changes associated with increased cardiac function and output, including hypertrophic growth, cell cycle exit, sarcomeric protein isoform switching, and mitochondrial maturation. These changes come at the expense of loss of regenerative capacity of the heart, contributing to heart failure after cardiac injury in adults. While most studies focus on the transcriptional regulation of embryonic or adult cardiomyocytes, the transcriptional changes that occur during the postnatal period are relatively unknown. In this review, we focus on the transcriptional regulators responsible for these aspects of cardiomyocyte maturation during the postnatal period in mammals. By specifically highlighting this transitional period, we draw attention to critical processes in cardiomyocyte maturation with potential therapeutic implications in cardiovascular disease. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Ex uno, plures–From One Tissue to Many Cells: A Review of Single-Cell Transcriptomics in Cardiovascular Biology
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 2071; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042071 - 19 Feb 2021
Viewed by 915
Abstract
Recent technological advances have revolutionized the study of tissue biology and garnered a greater appreciation for tissue complexity. In order to understand cardiac development, heart tissue homeostasis, and the effects of stress and injury on the cardiovascular system, it is essential to characterize [...] Read more.
Recent technological advances have revolutionized the study of tissue biology and garnered a greater appreciation for tissue complexity. In order to understand cardiac development, heart tissue homeostasis, and the effects of stress and injury on the cardiovascular system, it is essential to characterize the heart at high cellular resolution. Single-cell profiling provides a more precise definition of tissue composition, cell differentiation trajectories, and intercellular communication, compared to classical bulk approaches. Here, we aim to review how recent single-cell multi-omic studies have changed our understanding of cell dynamics during cardiac development, and in the healthy and diseased adult myocardium. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Cardiac Cell Therapy: Insights into the Mechanisms of Tissue Repair
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1201; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031201 - 26 Jan 2021
Viewed by 726
Abstract
Stem cell-based cardiac therapies have been extensively studied in recent years. However, the efficacy of cell delivery, engraftment, and differentiation post-transplant remain continuous challenges and represent opportunities to further refine our current strategies. Despite limited long-term cardiac retention, stem cell treatment leads to [...] Read more.
Stem cell-based cardiac therapies have been extensively studied in recent years. However, the efficacy of cell delivery, engraftment, and differentiation post-transplant remain continuous challenges and represent opportunities to further refine our current strategies. Despite limited long-term cardiac retention, stem cell treatment leads to sustained cardiac benefit following myocardial infarction (MI). This review summarizes the current knowledge on stem cell based cardiac immunomodulation by highlighting the cellular and molecular mechanisms of different immune responses to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their secretory factors. This review also addresses the clinical evidence in the field. Full article
Back to TopTop