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Special Issue "Adipogenesis and Adipose Tissue Metabolism"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Assoc. Prof. Encarnación Capilla
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Universitat de Barcelona, Facultat de Biologia, Departament de Biologia Cel·lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Barcelona, Spain
Tel. +34934039634
Interests: adipogenesis; adipocytes; white adipose tissue; adipokines; lipid metabolism; oxidative stress; obesity; lipodistrophy; metabolic syndrome; comparative endocrinology
Assoc. Prof. Isabel Navarro
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Universitat de Barcelona, Facultat de Biologia, Departament de Biologia Cel·lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Barcelona, Spain

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Adipocytes are the major cellular constituent of adipose tissue, which exhibit different morphology and functions depending on the main types of adipocytes that compose it (white, brown, and beige). Two possible growth mechanisms of adipose tissue include hypertrophy (lipid accumulation within existing adipocytes) and hyperplasia (increase in cell number) through the process of adipogenesis. As a major source of energy storage, white adipose tissue has been largely considered a key metabolic organ. Nonetheless, despite the traditional view as a rather passive storage organ, the adipose tissue has been later recognized as a multi-functional endocrine organ that plays a critical role in modulating not only whole-body energy metabolism and homeostasis, but also several other physiological processes, such as appetite and tissue inflammation responses. Henceforth, studies on the functional, developmental, and pathophysiological aspects of adipose tissue are of utmost importance. Thus, the aim of this Special Issue is to gather both reviews and research articles unraveling the mechanisms that underlie adipocyte differentiation as well as adipokines production and function to identify the major contributor(s) of obesity and lipid metabolism-related diseases, while works covering new insights on fundamental aspects of hormonal control of adipose tissue metabolism are also desirable.

Assoc. Prof. Encarnación Capilla
Assoc. Prof. Isabel Navarro
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • adipogenesis
  • adipocytes
  • white adipose tissue
  • adipokines
  • lipid metabolism
  • oxidative stress
  • obesity
  • lipodistrophy
  • metabolic syndrome
  • comparative endocrinology

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Age- and BMI-Associated Expression of Angiogenic Factors in White Adipose Tissue of Children
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5204; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205204 - 21 Oct 2019
Abstract
The growth of adipose tissue and its vasculature are tightly associated. Angiogenic factors have been linked to obesity, yet little is known about their expression during early childhood. To identify associations of angiogenic factors with characteristics on individual and tissue level, subcutaneous white [...] Read more.
The growth of adipose tissue and its vasculature are tightly associated. Angiogenic factors have been linked to obesity, yet little is known about their expression during early childhood. To identify associations of angiogenic factors with characteristics on individual and tissue level, subcutaneous white adipose tissue samples were taken from 45 children aged 0–9 years undergoing elective surgery. We measured the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEFGA), fibroblast growth factor 1 and 2 (FGF1, FGF2), angiopoietin 1 and 2 (ANGPT1, ANGPT2), TEK receptor tyrosine kinase (TEK), and von Willebrand factor (VWF). In addition, we determined the mean adipocyte size in histologic tissue sections. We found positive correlations of age with FGF1 and FGF2 and a negative correlation with ANGPT2, with pronounced differences in the first two years of life. FGF1, FGF2, and ANGPT1 correlated positively with adipocyte size. Furthermore, we identified a correlation of ANGPT1 and TEK with body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS), a measure to define childhood obesity. Except for ANGPT2, all angiogenic factors correlated positively with the endothelial marker VWF. In sum, our findings suggest that differences related to BMI-SDS begin early in childhood, and the analyzed angiogenic factors possess distinct roles in adipose tissue biology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipogenesis and Adipose Tissue Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Role of Hyaluronan in Human Adipogenesis: Evidence from in-Vitro and in-Vivo Studies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(11), 2675; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20112675 - 31 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Hyaluronan (HA), an extra-cellular matrix glycosaminoglycan, may play a role in mesenchymal stem cell differentiation to fat but results using murine models and cell lines are conflicting. Our previous data, illustrating decreased HA production during human adipogenesis, suggested an inhibitory role. We have [...] Read more.
Hyaluronan (HA), an extra-cellular matrix glycosaminoglycan, may play a role in mesenchymal stem cell differentiation to fat but results using murine models and cell lines are conflicting. Our previous data, illustrating decreased HA production during human adipogenesis, suggested an inhibitory role. We have investigated the role of HA in adipogenesis and fat accumulation using human primary subcutaneous preadipocyte/fibroblasts (PFs, n = 12) and subjects of varying body mass index (BMI). The impact of HA on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) expression was analysed following siRNA knockdown or HA synthase (HAS)1 and HAS2 overexpression. PFs were cultured in complete or adipogenic medium (ADM) with/without 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU = HA synthesis inhibitor). Adipogenesis was evaluated using oil red O (ORO), counting adipogenic foci, and measurement of a terminal differentiation marker. Modulating HA production by HAS2 knockdown or overexpression increased (16%, p < 0.04) or decreased (30%, p = 0.01) PPARγ transcripts respectively. The inhibition of HA by 4-MU significantly enhanced ADM-induced adipogenesis with 1.52 ± 0.18- (ORO), 4.09 ± 0.63- (foci) and 2.6 ± 0.21-(marker)-fold increases compared with the controls, also increased PPARγ protein expression (40%, (p < 0.04)). In human subjects, circulating HA correlated negatively with BMI and triglycerides (r = −0.396 (p = 0.002), r = −0.269 (p = 0.038), respectively), confirming an inhibitory role of HA in human adipogenesis. Thus, enhancing HA action may provide a therapeutic target in obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipogenesis and Adipose Tissue Metabolism)
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Open AccessCommunication
Exercise Rescues Gene Pathways Involved in Vascular Expansion and Promotes Functional Angiogenesis in Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(8), 2046; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20082046 - 25 Apr 2019
Abstract
Exercise mitigates chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity; however, the molecular mechanisms governing protection from these diseases are not completely understood. Here we demonstrate that exercise rescues metabolically compromised high fat diet (HFD) fed mice, and reprograms subcutaneous white adipose [...] Read more.
Exercise mitigates chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity; however, the molecular mechanisms governing protection from these diseases are not completely understood. Here we demonstrate that exercise rescues metabolically compromised high fat diet (HFD) fed mice, and reprograms subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT). Using transcriptomic profiling, scWAT was analyzed for HFD gene expression changes that were rescued by exercise. Gene networks involved in vascularization were identified as prominent targets of exercise, which led us to investigate the vasculature architecture and endothelial phenotype. Vascular density in scWAT was found to be compromised in HFD, and exercise rescued this defect. Similarly, angiogenic capacity as measured by ex vivo capillary sprouting was significantly promoted with exercise. Together, these data demonstrate that exercise enhances scWAT vascularization and functional capacity for angiogenesis, and can prevent the detrimental effects of HFD. The improvement in these indices correlates with improvement of whole-body metabolism, suggesting that scWAT vascularization may be a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipogenesis and Adipose Tissue Metabolism)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Adipogenesis: A Necessary but Harmful Strategy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(15), 3657; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20153657 - 26 Jul 2019
Abstract
Obesity is considered to significantly increase the risk of the development of a vast range of metabolic diseases. However, adipogenesis is a complex physiological process, necessary to sequester lipids effectively to avoid lipotoxicity in other tissues, like the liver, heart, muscle, essential for [...] Read more.
Obesity is considered to significantly increase the risk of the development of a vast range of metabolic diseases. However, adipogenesis is a complex physiological process, necessary to sequester lipids effectively to avoid lipotoxicity in other tissues, like the liver, heart, muscle, essential for maintaining metabolic homeostasis and has a crucial role as a component of the innate immune system, far beyond than only being an inert mass of energy storage. In pathophysiological conditions, adipogenesis promotes a pro-inflammatory state, angiogenesis and the release of adipokines, which become dangerous to health. It results in a hypoxic state, causing oxidative stress and the synthesis and release of harmful free fatty acids. In this review, we try to explain the mechanisms occurring at the breaking point, at which adipogenesis leads to an uncontrolled lipotoxicity. This review highlights the types of adipose tissue and their functions, their way of storing lipids until a critical point, which is associated with hypoxia, inflammation, insulin resistance as well as lipodystrophy and adipogenesis modulation by Krüppel-like factors and miRNAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipogenesis and Adipose Tissue Metabolism)
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Open AccessReview
Anti-Obesity Effects of Dietary Calcium: The Evidence and Possible Mechanisms
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(12), 3072; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20123072 - 23 Jun 2019
Abstract
Obesity is a serious health challenge worldwide and is associated with various comorbidities, including dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Developing effective strategies to prevent obesity is therefore of paramount importance. One potential strategy to reduce obesity is to consume calcium, which [...] Read more.
Obesity is a serious health challenge worldwide and is associated with various comorbidities, including dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Developing effective strategies to prevent obesity is therefore of paramount importance. One potential strategy to reduce obesity is to consume calcium, which has been implicated to be involved in reducing body weight/fat. In this review, we compile the evidence for the anti-obesity roles of calcium in cells, animals, and humans. In addition, we summarize the possible anti-obesity mechanisms of calcium, including regulation of (a) adipogenesis, (b) fat metabolism, (c) adipocyte (precursor) proliferation and apoptosis, (d) thermogenesis, (e) fat absorption and excretion, and (f) gut microbiota. Although the exact anti-obesity roles of calcium in different subjects and how calcium induces the proposed anti-obesity mechanisms need to be further investigated, the current evidence demonstrates the anti-obesity effects of calcium and suggests the potential application of dietary calcium for prevention of obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipogenesis and Adipose Tissue Metabolism)
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Open AccessReview
High Fructose Intake and Adipogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(11), 2787; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20112787 - 07 Jun 2019
Abstract
In modern societies, high fructose intake from sugar-sweetened beverages has contributed to obesity development. In the diet, sucrose and high fructose corn syrup are the main sources of fructose and can be metabolized in the intestine and transported into the systemic circulation. The [...] Read more.
In modern societies, high fructose intake from sugar-sweetened beverages has contributed to obesity development. In the diet, sucrose and high fructose corn syrup are the main sources of fructose and can be metabolized in the intestine and transported into the systemic circulation. The liver can metabolize around 70% of fructose intake, while the remaining is metabolized by other tissues. Several tissues including adipose tissue express the main fructose transporter GLUT5. In vivo, chronic fructose intake promotes white adipose tissue accumulation through activating adipogenesis. In vitro experiments have also demonstrated that fructose alone induces adipogenesis by several mechanisms, including (1) triglycerides and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) production by fructose metabolism, (2) the stimulation of glucocorticoid activation by increasing 11β-HSD1 activity, and (3) the promotion of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through uric acid, NOX and XOR expression, mTORC1 signaling and Ang II induction. Moreover, it has been observed that fructose induces adipogenesis through increased ACE2 expression, which promotes high Ang-(1-7) levels, and through the inhibition of the thermogenic program by regulating Sirt1 and UCP1. Finally, microRNAs may also be involved in regulating adipogenesis in high fructose intake conditions. In this paper, we propose further directions for research in fructose participation in adipogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipogenesis and Adipose Tissue Metabolism)
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Open AccessReview
Neuroendocrine Regulation of Energy Metabolism Involving Different Types of Adipose Tissues
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(11), 2707; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20112707 - 01 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Despite tremendous research efforts to identify regulatory factors that control energy metabolism, the prevalence of obesity has been continuously rising, with nearly 40% of US adults being obese. Interactions between secretory factors from adipose tissues and the nervous system innervating adipose tissues play [...] Read more.
Despite tremendous research efforts to identify regulatory factors that control energy metabolism, the prevalence of obesity has been continuously rising, with nearly 40% of US adults being obese. Interactions between secretory factors from adipose tissues and the nervous system innervating adipose tissues play key roles in maintaining energy metabolism and promoting survival in response to metabolic challenges. It is currently accepted that there are three types of adipose tissues, white (WAT), brown (BAT), and beige (BeAT), all of which play essential roles in maintaining energy homeostasis. WAT mainly stores energy under positive energy balance, while it releases fuels under negative energy balance. Thermogenic BAT and BeAT dissipate energy as heat under cold exposure to maintain body temperature. Adipose tissues require neural and endocrine communication with the brain. A number of WAT adipokines and BAT batokines interact with the neural circuits extending from the brain to cooperatively regulate whole-body lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis. We review neuroanatomical, histological, genetic, and pharmacological studies in neuroendocrine regulation of adipose function, including lipid storage and mobilization of WAT, non-shivering thermogenesis of BAT, and browning of BeAT. Recent whole-tissue imaging and transcriptome analysis of differential gene expression in WAT and BAT yield promising findings to better understand the interaction between secretory factors and neural circuits, which represents a novel opportunity to tackle obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipogenesis and Adipose Tissue Metabolism)
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