E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2019)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Daniela Basso

Laboratory Medicine, Department of Medicine—DIMED, University of Padova, Via Giustiniani 2, 35128 Padova, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: pancreatic neoplasms; H.pylori; inflammatory bowel diseases; celiac disease; biomarkers; cytokines; laboratory medicine

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) and its receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 are the best characterized members of the TNFSF and TNFRSF superfamilies, which include, to date, 19 ligands and 29 receptors. TNFSF members share the common ability to promote pro-inflammatory signals, but they might regulate other cellular functions, such as cell-to-cell communication, differentiation, survival, apoptosis and necroptosis. TNF activates several intracellular signaling pathways, mainly NF-kB, JNK, apoptosis (caspase 8 activation) and necroptosis (phosphorylation of RIPK1, RIPK3 and of MLKL), of which constant balance regulates the opposite cell fates, proliferation or death.

TNF, mainly produced by macrophages, NK and Th1 T lymphocytes, has a central role in innate and adaptive immunity and in chronic inflammatory diseases, such as those of the joints, mainly rheumatoid arthritis and spondiloarthris, and those of the intestine, namely the inflammatory bowel diseases. Chronic inflammation including the TNF-TNFR pathway activation, is increasingly recognized as involved also in cancer, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative disorders. Five drugs blocking the TNF-TNFR signaling have been approved for the therapy of chronic inflammatory rheumatic and intestinal diseases, but the number of these drugs and the number of diseases, which might benefit from this type of treatment, is expected to largely increase in the near future. This Special Issue on “Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)” addresses the biology of TNF-TNFR pathway, the newest knowledge on its role in diseases characterized by chronic inflammation and on established and emerging therapies targeting TNF signaling.

Prof. Dr. Daniela Basso
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Tumor Necrosis Factor
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptors
  • Inflammation
  • Signaling
  • Arthritis
  • Cancer
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Anti-TNF agents

Published Papers (16 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-16
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Proteome and Phosphoproteome Analysis in TNF Long Term-Exposed Primary Human Monocytes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(5), 1241; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051241
Received: 11 February 2019 / Revised: 27 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
PDF Full-text (2659 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
To better understand the inflammation-associated mechanisms modulating and terminating tumor necrosis factor (TNF-)induced signal transduction and the development of TNF tolerance, we analyzed both the proteome and the phosphoproteome in TNF long term-incubated (i.e., 48 h) primary human monocytes using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. [...] Read more.
To better understand the inflammation-associated mechanisms modulating and terminating tumor necrosis factor (TNF-)induced signal transduction and the development of TNF tolerance, we analyzed both the proteome and the phosphoproteome in TNF long term-incubated (i.e., 48 h) primary human monocytes using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our analyses revealed the presence of a defined set of proteins characterized by reproducible changes in expression and phosphorylation patterns in long term TNF-treated samples. In total, 148 proteins and 569 phosphopeptides were significantly regulated (103 proteins increased, 45 proteins decreased; 377 peptides with increased and 192 peptides with decreased phosphorylation). A variety of these proteins are associated with the non-canonical nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway (nuclear factor κB (NFKB) 2, v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog (REL) B, indolamin-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), kynureninase (KYNU)) or involved in the negative regulation of the canonical NF-κB system. Within the phosphopeptides, binding motifs for specific kinases were identified. Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3 proved to be a promising candidate, since it targets NF-κB inhibiting factors, such as CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) β. Our experiments demonstrate that both proteome and phosphoproteome analysis can be effectively applied to study protein/phosphorylation patterns of primary monocytes. These results provide new regulatory candidates and evidence for a complex network of specific but synergistically acting/cooperating mechanisms enabling the affected cells to resist sustained TNF exposure and resulting in the resolution of inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF))
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Temporal Splicing Switches in Elements of the TNF-Pathway Identified by Computational Analysis of Transcriptome Data for Human Cell Lines
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(5), 1182; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051182
Received: 15 February 2019 / Revised: 1 March 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 8 March 2019
PDF Full-text (3407 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Alternative splicing plays an important role in numerous cellular processes and aberrant splice decisions are associated with cancer. Although some studies point to a regulation of alternative splicing and its effector mechanisms in a time-dependent manner, the extent and consequences of such a [...] Read more.
Alternative splicing plays an important role in numerous cellular processes and aberrant splice decisions are associated with cancer. Although some studies point to a regulation of alternative splicing and its effector mechanisms in a time-dependent manner, the extent and consequences of such a regulation remains poorly understood. In the present work, we investigated the time-dependent production of isoforms in two Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines of different progression stages (HD-MY-Z, stage IIIb and L-1236, stage IV) compared to a B lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL-HO) with a focus on tumour necrosis factor (TNF) pathway-related elements. For this, we used newly generated time-course RNA-sequencing data from the mentioned cell lines and applied a computational pipeline to identify genes with isoform-switching behaviour in time. We analysed the temporal profiles of the identified events and evaluated in detail the potential functional implications of alterations in isoform expression for the selected top-switching genes. Our data indicate that elements within the TNF pathway undergo a time-dependent variation in isoform production with a putative impact on cell migration, proliferation and apoptosis. These include the genes TRAF1, TNFRSF12A and NFKB2. Our results point to a role of temporal alternative splicing in isoform production, which may alter the outcome of the TNF pathway and impact on tumorigenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF))
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
TNF-α Inhibitors Decrease Classical CD14hiCD16− Monocyte Subsets in Highly Active, Conventional Treatment Refractory Rheumatoid Arthritis and Ankylosing Spondylitis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020291
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 12 January 2019
PDF Full-text (1018 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Monocytes are pivotal cells in inflammatory joint diseases. We aimed to determine the effect of TNF-α inhibitors (TNFi) on peripheral blood monocyte subpopulations and their activation in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with high disease activity. To address this, we [...] Read more.
Monocytes are pivotal cells in inflammatory joint diseases. We aimed to determine the effect of TNF-α inhibitors (TNFi) on peripheral blood monocyte subpopulations and their activation in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with high disease activity. To address this, we studied 50 (32 AS, 18 RA) patients with highly active disease with no prior history of TNFi use who were recruited and assigned to TNFi or placebo treatment for 12 weeks. Cytometric and clinical assessment was determined at baseline, four, and 12 weeks after initiation of TNFi treatment. We observed that treatment with TNFi led to a significant decrease in CD14hiCD16− monocytes in comparison to placebo, while circulating CD14dimCD16+ monocytes significantly increased. The TNFi-induced monocyte subset shifts were similar in RA and AS patients. While the percentage of CD14dimCD16+ monocytes increased, expression of CD11b and CD11c integrins on their surface was significantly reduced by TNFi. Additionally, CD45RA+ cells were more frequent. The shift towards nonclassical CD14dimCD16+ monocytes in peripheral blood due to TNFi treatment was seen in both AS and RA. This may reflect reduced recruitment of these cells to sites of inflammation due to lower inflammatory burden, which is associated with decreased disease activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF))
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Transmembrane TNF and Partially TNFR1 Regulate TNFR2 Expression and Control Inflammation in Mycobacterial-Induced Pleurisy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 1959; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19071959
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 30 June 2018 / Published: 4 July 2018
PDF Full-text (1719 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pleural tuberculosis is one of the most frequent forms of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis observed in patients infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) is a crucial cytokine needed to control tuberculosis infection that remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. TNF [...] Read more.
Pleural tuberculosis is one of the most frequent forms of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis observed in patients infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) is a crucial cytokine needed to control tuberculosis infection that remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. TNF blockade compromises host immunity and may increase the risk of reactivation of latent infection resulting in overt pulmonary, pleural and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. While TNF signaling is mainly considered pro-inflammatory, its requirement for the anti-inflammation process involved in the resolution of infection and tissue repair is less explored. Our study analyzes the role of TNF and TNF receptors in the control of the inflammatory process associated with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-induced pleurisy. This study shows that the absence of TNF causes exacerbated inflammation in the pleural cavity of BCG-infected mice which is controlled by the transmembrane TNF (tmTNF) expression. The lack of TNF is associated with an impaired cellular expression and shedding of TNFR2 in the pleural cavity. The presence of tmTNF restores the normal expression of TNFR2 on myeloid cells during BCG-induced pleurisy. We also show that absence of TNFR1 affects the expression of TNFR2 on pleural cells and inflammation in the pleural cavity of BCG-infected mice. In conclusion, tmTNF but not soluble TNF prevents pleural cavity inflammation leading to attenuation and the resolution of the inflammatory process caused by mycobacterial pleurisy in association with the expression of TNFR2 on myeloid cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF))
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Chondroprotective Effects and Mechanisms of Dextromethorphan: Repurposing Antitussive Medication for Osteoarthritis Treatment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 825; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030825
Received: 10 February 2018 / Revised: 4 March 2018 / Accepted: 9 March 2018 / Published: 12 March 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3781 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disorder and primarily affects older people. The ideal anti-OA drug should have a modest anti-inflammatory effect and only limited or no toxicity for long-term use. Because the antitussive medication dextromethorphan (DXM) is protective in atherosclerosis and [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disorder and primarily affects older people. The ideal anti-OA drug should have a modest anti-inflammatory effect and only limited or no toxicity for long-term use. Because the antitussive medication dextromethorphan (DXM) is protective in atherosclerosis and neurological diseases, two common disorders in aged people, we examined whether DXM can be protective in pro-inflammatory cytokine-stimulated chondrocytes and in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) animal model in this study. Chondrocytes were prepared from cartilage specimens taken from pigs or OA patients. Western blotting, quantitative PCR, and immunohistochemistry were adopted to measure the expression of collagen II (Col II) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). DXM significantly restored tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-mediated reduction of collagen II and decreased TNF-α-induced MMP-13 production. To inhibit the synthesis of MMP-13, DXM blocked TNF-α downstream signaling, including I kappa B kinase (IKK)α/β-IκBα-nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation. Besides this, DXM protected the CIA mice from severe inflammation and cartilage destruction. DXM seemed to protect cartilage from inflammation-mediated matrix degradation, which is an irreversible status in the disease progression of osteoarthritis. The results suggested that testing DXM as an osteoarthritis therapeutic should be a focus in further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF))
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Mesenchymal Stem Cell Protection of Neurons against Glutamate Excitotoxicity Involves Reduction of NMDA-Triggered Calcium Responses and Surface GluR1, and Is Partly Mediated by TNF
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 651; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030651
Received: 5 February 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 25 February 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (13902 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) provide therapeutic effects in experimental CNS disease models and show promise as cell-based therapies for humans, but their modes of action are not well understood. We previously show that MSC protect rodent neurons against glutamate excitotoxicity in vitro, and [...] Read more.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) provide therapeutic effects in experimental CNS disease models and show promise as cell-based therapies for humans, but their modes of action are not well understood. We previously show that MSC protect rodent neurons against glutamate excitotoxicity in vitro, and in vivo in an epilepsy model. Neuroprotection is associated with reduced NMDA glutamate receptor (NMDAR) subunit expression and neuronal glutamate-induced calcium (Ca2+) responses, and increased expression of stem cell-associated genes. Here, to investigate whether MSC-secreted factors modulate neuronal AMPA glutamate receptors (AMPAR) and gene expression, we performed longitudinal studies of enriched mouse cortical neurons treated with MSC conditioned medium (CM). MSC CM did not alter total levels of GluR1 AMPAR subunit in neurons, but its distribution, reducing cell surface levels compared to non-treated neurons. Proportions of NeuN-positive neurons, and of GFAP- and NG2-positive glia, were equal in untreated and MSC CM-treated cultures over time suggesting that neurons, rather than differentially-expanded glia, account for the immature gene profile previously reported in MSC CM-treated cultures. Lastly, MSC CM contained measurable amounts of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) bioactivity and pre-treatment of MSC CM with the TNF inhibitor etanercept reduced its ability to protect neurons. Together these results indicate that MSC-mediated neuroprotection against glutamate excitotoxicity involves reduced NMDAR and GluR1-containing AMPAR function, and TNF-mediated neuroprotection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF))
Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
A Review on the Use of Anti-TNF in Children and Adolescents with Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(10), 2529; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20102529
Received: 1 April 2019 / Revised: 14 May 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
PDF Full-text (430 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) presents with disabling symptoms and may lead to insufficient growth and late pubertal development in cases of disease onset during childhood or adolescence. During the last decade, the role of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in the treatment of paediatric-onset [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) presents with disabling symptoms and may lead to insufficient growth and late pubertal development in cases of disease onset during childhood or adolescence. During the last decade, the role of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in the treatment of paediatric-onset IBD has gained more ground. The number of biologicals presently available for children and adolescents with IBD has increased, biosimilars have become available, and practices in adult gastroenterology with regards to anti-TNF have changed. The aim of this study is to review the current evidence on the indications, judicious use, effectiveness and safety of anti-TNF agents in paediatric IBD. A PubMed literature search was performed and included articles published after 2000 using the following terms: child or paediatric, Crohn, ulcerative colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, anti-TNF, TNF alpha inhibitor, infliximab, adalimumab, golimumab and biological. Anti-TNF agents, specifically infliximab and adalimumab, have proven to be effective in moderate and severe paediatric IBD. Therapeutic drug monitoring increases therapy effectiveness and safety. Clinical predictors for anti-TNF response are currently of limited value because of the variation in outcome definitions and follow-ups. Future research should comprise large cohorts and clinical trials comparing groups according to their risk profile in order to provide personalized therapeutic strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF))
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
The Cross-Talk Between the TNF-α and RASSF-Hippo Signalling Pathways
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(9), 2346; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20092346
Received: 27 March 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 11 May 2019
PDF Full-text (1563 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The regulation of cell death through apoptosis is essential to a number of physiological processes. Defective apoptosis regulation is associated with many abnormalities including anomalies in organ development, altered immune response and the development of cancer. Several signalling pathways are known to regulate [...] Read more.
The regulation of cell death through apoptosis is essential to a number of physiological processes. Defective apoptosis regulation is associated with many abnormalities including anomalies in organ development, altered immune response and the development of cancer. Several signalling pathways are known to regulate apoptosis including the Tumour Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) and Hippo signalling pathways. In this paper we review the cross-talk between the TNF-α pathway and the Hippo signalling pathway. Several molecules that tightly regulate the Hippo pathway, such as members of the Ras-association domain family member (RASSF) family proteins, interact and modulate some key proteins within the TNF-α pathway. Meanwhile, TNF-α stimulation also affects the expression and activation of core components of the Hippo pathway. This implies the crucial role of signal integration between these two major pathways in regulating apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF))
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Tumour Necrosis Factor Alpha in Intestinal Homeostasis and Gut Related Diseases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(8), 1887; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081887
Received: 12 March 2019 / Revised: 5 April 2019 / Accepted: 13 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2394 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The intestinal epithelium constitutes an indispensable single-layered barrier to protect the body from invading pathogens, antigens or toxins. At the same time, beneficial nutrients and water have to be absorbed by the epithelium. To prevent development of intestinal inflammation or tumour formation, intestinal [...] Read more.
The intestinal epithelium constitutes an indispensable single-layered barrier to protect the body from invading pathogens, antigens or toxins. At the same time, beneficial nutrients and water have to be absorbed by the epithelium. To prevent development of intestinal inflammation or tumour formation, intestinal homeostasis has to be tightly controlled and therefore a strict balance between cell death and proliferation has to be maintained. The proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) was shown to play a striking role for the regulation of this balance in the gut. Depending on the cellular conditions, on the one hand TNFα is able to mediate cell survival by activating NFκB signalling. On the other hand, TNFα might trigger cell death, in particular caspase-dependent apoptosis but also caspase-independent programmed necrosis. By regulating these cell death and survival mechanisms, TNFα exerts a variety of beneficial functions in the intestine. However, TNFα signalling is also supposed to play a critical role for the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), infectious diseases, intestinal wound healing and tumour formation. Here we review the literature about the physiological and pathophysiological role of TNFα signalling for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and the benefits and difficulties of anti-TNFα treatment during IBD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF))
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Inflammation and Pancreatic Cancer: Focus on Metabolism, Cytokines, and Immunity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030676
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 23 January 2019 / Accepted: 31 January 2019 / Published: 5 February 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6138 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Systemic and local chronic inflammation might enhance the risk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and PDAC-associated inflammatory infiltrate in the tumor microenvironment concurs in enhancing tumor growth and metastasis. Inflammation is closely correlated with immunity, the same immune cell populations contributing to both [...] Read more.
Systemic and local chronic inflammation might enhance the risk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and PDAC-associated inflammatory infiltrate in the tumor microenvironment concurs in enhancing tumor growth and metastasis. Inflammation is closely correlated with immunity, the same immune cell populations contributing to both inflammation and immune response. In the PDAC microenvironment, the inflammatory cell infiltrate is unbalanced towards an immunosuppressive phenotype, with a prevalence of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC), M2 polarized macrophages, and Treg, over M1 macrophages, dendritic cells, and effector CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. The dynamic and continuously evolving cross-talk between inflammatory and cancer cells might be direct and contact-dependent, but it is mainly mediated by soluble and exosomes-carried cytokines. Among these, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) plays a relevant role in enhancing cancer risk, cancer growth, and cancer-associated cachexia. In this review, we describe the inflammatory cell types, the cytokines, and the mechanisms underlying PDAC risk, growth, and progression, with particular attention on TNFα, also in the light of the potential risks or benefits associated with anti-TNFα treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF))
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Anti-TNF Therapy in Crohn’s Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2244; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082244
Received: 26 May 2018 / Revised: 4 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 July 2018 / Published: 31 July 2018
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (392 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Crohn’s disease (CD) accounts for a variety of clinical manifestations or phenotypes that stem from chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Its worldwide incidence is increasing including younger or childhood-onset of disease. The natural history of Crohn’s disease is characterized by a remitting [...] Read more.
Crohn’s disease (CD) accounts for a variety of clinical manifestations or phenotypes that stem from chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Its worldwide incidence is increasing including younger or childhood-onset of disease. The natural history of Crohn’s disease is characterized by a remitting and relapsing course that progresses to complications and surgery in most patients. The goals of treatment are to achieve clinical and endoscopic remission, to avoid disease progression and minimise surgical resections. Medical treatment usually features antibiotics, corticosteroids, immunomodulators (thiopurines, methotrexate). Anti-TNF (tumour necrosis factor) therapy was approved for use in Crohn’s disease in 1998, and has changed the paradigm of treatment, leading to improved rates of response and remission in patients. There are significant considerations that need to be borne in mind, when treating patients including immunogenicity, safety profile and duration of treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF))
Open AccessReview
Harmful Effects and Potential Benefits of Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α on the Liver
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2199; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082199
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 24 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1417 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α agents represent an effective treatment for chronic inflammatory diseases. However, some concerns about their potentially undesirable effects on liver function have been reported. On the other hand, evidence of their therapeutic effects on certain liver diseases is accumulating. Many [...] Read more.
Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α agents represent an effective treatment for chronic inflammatory diseases. However, some concerns about their potentially undesirable effects on liver function have been reported. On the other hand, evidence of their therapeutic effects on certain liver diseases is accumulating. Many data showed the safety of anti-TNF-α in patients with chronic hepatitis B and C and in liver transplanted patients even if a strict follow-up and prophylaxis are recommended in well-defined subgroups. On the other side, anti-TNF-α-induced liver injury is not a rare event. However, it is often reversible after anti-TNF-α withdrawal. Anti-TNF-α agents have been tested in advanced stages of severe alcoholic hepatitis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Limited data on the efficacy of anti-TNF-α in patients with autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cholangitis are also available. In this review, we explored the hepatic safety concerns in patients receiving anti-TNF-α agents with and without pre-existent hepatic diseases. In addition, the available evidence on their potential benefits in the treatment of specific hepatic diseases is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF))
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Bimodal Function of Anti-TNF Treatment: Shall We Be Concerned about Anti-TNF Treatment in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Heart Failure?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1739; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061739
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 26 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 12 June 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Treatment with anti-TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor), one of the pivotal cytokines, was introduced to clinical practice at the end of last century and revolutionized the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as well as many other inflammatory conditions. Such a treatment may however bring [...] Read more.
Treatment with anti-TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor), one of the pivotal cytokines, was introduced to clinical practice at the end of last century and revolutionized the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as well as many other inflammatory conditions. Such a treatment may however bring many safety issues regarding infections, tuberculosis, as well as cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure. Given the central role of proinflammatory cytokines in RA, atherosclerosis, and congestive heart failure (CHF), such a treatment might result in better control of the RA process on the one side and improvement of heart function on the other. Unfortunately, at the beginning of this century two randomized controlled trials failed to show any benefit of anti-TNF treatment in patients with heart failure (HF), suggesting direct negative impact of the treatment on morbidity and mortality in HF patients. As a result the anti-TNF treatment is contraindicated in all patients with heart failure and a substantial portion of patients with RA and impaired heart function are not able to benefit from the treatment. The role of TNF in CHF and RA differs substantially with regard to the source and pathophysiological function of the cytokine in both conditions, therefore negative data from CHF studies should be interpreted with caution. At least some of RA patients with heart failure may benefit from anti-TNF treatment, as it results not only in the reduction of inflammation but also contributes significantly to the improvement of cardiac function. The paper addresses the epidemiological data of safety of anti-TNF treatment in RA patients with the special emphasis to basic pathophysiological mechanisms via which TNF may act differently in both diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF))
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
A New Venue of TNF Targeting
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1442; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051442
Received: 31 March 2018 / Revised: 25 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 11 May 2018
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2664 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The first Food and Drug Administration-(FDA)-approved drugs were small, chemically-manufactured and highly active molecules with possible off-target effects, followed by protein-based medicines such as antibodies. Conventional antibodies bind a specific protein and are becoming increasingly important in the therapeutic landscape. A very prominent [...] Read more.
The first Food and Drug Administration-(FDA)-approved drugs were small, chemically-manufactured and highly active molecules with possible off-target effects, followed by protein-based medicines such as antibodies. Conventional antibodies bind a specific protein and are becoming increasingly important in the therapeutic landscape. A very prominent class of biologicals are the anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) drugs that are applied in several inflammatory diseases that are characterized by dysregulated TNF levels. Marketing of TNF inhibitors revolutionized the treatment of diseases such as Crohn’s disease. However, these inhibitors also have undesired effects, some of them directly associated with the inherent nature of this drug class, whereas others are linked with their mechanism of action, being pan-TNF inhibition. The effects of TNF can diverge at the level of TNF format or receptor, and we discuss the consequences of this in sepsis, autoimmunity and neurodegeneration. Recently, researchers tried to design drugs with reduced side effects. These include molecules with more specificity targeting one specific TNF format or receptor, or that neutralize TNF in specific cells. Alternatively, TNF-directed biologicals without the typical antibody structure are manufactured. Here, we review the complications related to the use of conventional TNF inhibitors, together with the anti-TNF alternatives and the benefits of selective approaches in different diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF))
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
The Use and Safety of TNF Inhibitors during Pregnancy in Women with Psoriasis: A Review
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1349; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051349
Received: 4 April 2018 / Revised: 27 April 2018 / Accepted: 1 May 2018 / Published: 3 May 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (249 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disease affecting women of childbearing potential. Biologic agents, notably Tumor Necrosis Factor inhibitors (TNFi), are the only current non-contraindicated systemic treatment option during pregnancy. TNFi comprised of complete immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies antibodies (adalimumab, golimumab, and infliximab) [...] Read more.
Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disease affecting women of childbearing potential. Biologic agents, notably Tumor Necrosis Factor inhibitors (TNFi), are the only current non-contraindicated systemic treatment option during pregnancy. TNFi comprised of complete immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies antibodies (adalimumab, golimumab, and infliximab) actively cross the placenta from the second trimester and are detectable in the child up to one year postpartum. Data on safety of TNFi are conflicting; however a trend towards drug-specific harm has been reported, with increased risk of congenital malformations and preterm birth. TNFi exposure may alter the immune system of the infant towards hypersensitivity and reduced response to intracellular infections. Confounding by indication should be considered, as chronic inflammatory disease itself may pose a risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The quality of the current evidence is very low and no studies specifically address TNFi safety in women with psoriasis. Nonetheless, risks associated with TNFi treatment must be balanced against the as-yet uncertain risk of adverse outcomes in infants born to women with severe psoriasis. We searched PubMed using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms and identified relevant studies and guidelines. Herein, we present the current knowledge of the use and safety of TNFi during pregnancy in women with psoriasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF))
Open AccessReview
Emerging Roles of Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in Immunological Disorders and Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1057; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19041057
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 30 March 2018 / Accepted: 31 March 2018 / Published: 2 April 2018
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (7979 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that triggers the expression of inflammatory molecules, including other cytokines and cell adhesion molecules. TNFα induces the expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). VCAM-1 was originally identified as [...] Read more.
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that triggers the expression of inflammatory molecules, including other cytokines and cell adhesion molecules. TNFα induces the expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). VCAM-1 was originally identified as a cell adhesion molecule that helps regulate inflammation-associated vascular adhesion and the transendothelial migration of leukocytes, such as macrophages and T cells. Recent evidence suggests that VCAM-1 is closely associated with the progression of various immunological disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, transplant rejection, and cancer. This review covers the role and relevance of VCAM-1 in inflammation, and also highlights the emerging potential of VCAM-1 as a novel therapeutic target in immunological disorders and cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF))
Figures

Graphical abstract

Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top