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Special Issue "Molecular Aspects in Fish and Amphibian Reproduction and Development"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Martin Pšenička
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Jihoceská Univerzita v Českých Budějovicích, České Budějovice, Czech Republic
Interests: fish; reproduction; development; germ cells; surrogate production
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Radek Šindelka
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Biotechnology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic
Interests: Xenopus; development; oocyte; wound healing; gene expression
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fish and amphibians have served for many decades as traditional and popular models for the field of developmental and moleculal biology. They have been utilized effectively to ellucidate the various molecular mechanisms behind organism formation, development and abnormalities. In fact, many of the mechanisms driving normal and pathological conditions described in biological and medical texbooks are originally derived from these models. However, their impact within the field of modern science has often been underestimated when compared to other traditional models. Our goal is to advertise and reinforce their irreplacable role as essential tools for the derivation of scientific information and to show their broad applications within the current scope of biological and medicinal experiments. We aim to focus not only on classical models such as African clawed frogs, zebrafish or axolotl, but also to highlight other potentially interesting or atypical amphibian and fish models.

Topics include, but are not limited to:

  • amphibian and fish gametes and embryos revealing the roles of biomolecules during development and disease;
  • application of unusual amphibian and fish animal models in experiments;
  • interesting techniques applied during amphibian and fish experimental work.

Dr. Martin Pšenička
Dr. Radek Šindelka
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • amphibians
  • fish
  • development
  • gametogenesis
  • gene expression and translation
  • protein functions
  • comparative analysis
  • germ cells

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
Histone Acetylation Dynamics during In Vivo and In Vitro Oocyte Aging in Common Carp Cyprinus carpio
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(11), 6036; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22116036 - 03 Jun 2021
Viewed by 431
Abstract
Aging is the most critical factor that influences the quality of post-ovulatory oocytes. Age-related molecular pathways remain poorly understood in fish oocytes. In this study, we examined the effect of oocyte aging on specific histone acetylation in common carp Cyprinus carpio. The [...] Read more.
Aging is the most critical factor that influences the quality of post-ovulatory oocytes. Age-related molecular pathways remain poorly understood in fish oocytes. In this study, we examined the effect of oocyte aging on specific histone acetylation in common carp Cyprinus carpio. The capacity to progress to the larval stage in oocytes that were aged for 28 h in vivo and in vitro was evaluated. Global histone modifications and specific histone acetylation (H3K9ac, H3K14ac, H4K5ac, H4K8ac, H4K12ac, and H4K16ac) were investigated during oocyte aging. Furthermore, the activity of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) was assessed in fresh and aged oocytes. Global histone modifications did not exhibit significant alterations during 8 h of oocyte aging. Among the selected modifications, H4K12ac increased significantly at 28 h post-stripping (HPS). Although not significantly different, HAT activity exhibited an upward trend during oocyte aging. Results of our current study indicate that aging of common carp oocytes for 12 h results in complete loss of egg viability rates without any consequence in global and specific histone modifications. However, aging oocytes for 28 h led to increased H4K12ac. Thus, histone acetylation modification as a crucial epigenetic mediator may be associated with age-related defects, particularly in oocytes of a more advanced age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Aspects in Fish and Amphibian Reproduction and Development)
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Article
Changes in Phenotypes and DNA Methylation of In Vitro Aging Sperm in Common Carp Cyprinus carpio
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(11), 5925; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115925 - 31 May 2021
Viewed by 448
Abstract
The purpose of the current study was to analyze phenotypic and functional characteristics of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) spermatozoa during in vitro aging and to investigate whether global DNA methylation is affected by sperm aging. Milt was collected from five individual [...] Read more.
The purpose of the current study was to analyze phenotypic and functional characteristics of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) spermatozoa during in vitro aging and to investigate whether global DNA methylation is affected by sperm aging. Milt was collected from five individual males, stored in vitro on ice in a refrigerator for up to 96 h post stripping (HPS) and used to fertilize eggs with intervals of 1, 24 and 96 h. Computer-assisted sperm analysis and a S3e Cell Sorter was employed to determine the spermatozoa phenotypic characteristics (motility, velocity, concentration and viability). In addition, pH and osmolality of the seminal fluid and the capacity of the spermatozoa to fertilize, hatching rate and health of the resulting embryos were examined at different aging times. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing was used to compare the global and gene-specific DNA methylation in fresh and aged spermatozoa. The results demonstrated that spermatozoa aging in common carp significantly affects their performance and thus the success of artificial fertilization. The methylation level at the cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites increased significantly with 24 HPS spermatozoa compared to the fresh group at 1 HPS and then decreased significantly at 96 HPS. A more detailed investigation of gene specific differences in the DNA methylation was hindered by incomplete annotation of the C. carpio genome in the public databases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Aspects in Fish and Amphibian Reproduction and Development)
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Article
Mechanical Brain Injury Increases Cells’ Production of Cystathionine β-Synthase and Glutamine Synthetase, but Reduces Pax2 Expression in the Telencephalon of Juvenile Chum Salmon, Oncorhynchus keta
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1279; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031279 - 28 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 494
Abstract
The considerable post-traumatic brain recovery in fishes makes them a useful model for studying the mechanisms that provide reparative neurogenesis, which is poorly represented in mammals. After a mechanical injury to the telencephalon in adult fish, lost neurons are actively replaced due to [...] Read more.
The considerable post-traumatic brain recovery in fishes makes them a useful model for studying the mechanisms that provide reparative neurogenesis, which is poorly represented in mammals. After a mechanical injury to the telencephalon in adult fish, lost neurons are actively replaced due to the proliferative activity of neuroepithelial cells and radial glia in the neurogenic periventricular zone. However, it is not enough clear which signaling mechanisms are involved in the activation of adult neural stem cells (aNSC) after the injury (reactive proliferation) and in the production of new neurons (regenerative neurogenesis) from progenitor cells (NPC). In juvenile Pacific salmon, the predominant type of NSCs in the telencephalon are neuroepithelial cells corresponding to embryonic NSCs. Expression of glutamine synthetase (GS), a NSC molecular marker, was detected in the neuroepithelial cells of the pallium and subpallium of juvenile chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta. At 3 days after a traumatic brain injury (TBI) in juvenile chum salmon, the GS expression was detected in the radial glia corresponding to aNSC in the pallium and subpallium. The maximum density of distribution of GS+ radial glia was found in the dorsal pallial region. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a proneurogenic factor that reduces oxidative stress and excitotoxicity effects, along with the increased GS production in the brain cells of juvenile chum salmon. In the fish brain, H2S producing by cystathionine β-synthase in neurogenic zones may be involved in maintaining the microenvironment that provides optimal conditions for the functioning of neurogenic niches during constitutive neurogenesis. After injury, H2S can determine cell survivability, providing a neuroprotective effect in the area of injury and reducing the process of glutamate excitotoxicity, acting as a signaling molecule involved in changing the neurogenic environment, which leads to the reactivation of neurogenic niches and cell regeneration programs. The results of studies on the control of the expression of regulatory Sonic Hedgehog genes (Shh) and the transcription factors Paired Box2 (Pax2) regulated by them are still insufficient. A comparative analysis of Pax2 expression in the telencephalon of intact chum salmon showed the presence of constitutive patterns of Pax2 expression in neurogenic areas and non-neurogenic parenchymal zones of the pallium and subpallium. After mechanical injury, the patterns of Pax2 expression changed, and the amount of Pax2+ decreased (p < 0.05) in lateral (Dl), medial (Dm) zones of the pallium, and the lateral zone (Vl) of the subpallium compared to the control. We believe that the decrease in the expression of Pax2 may be caused by the inhibitory effect of the Pax6 transcription factor, whose expression in the juvenile salmon brain increases upon injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Aspects in Fish and Amphibian Reproduction and Development)
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Article
Ancient Sturgeons Possess Effective DNA Repair Mechanisms: Influence of Model Genotoxicants on Embryo Development of Sterlet, Acipenser ruthenus
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010006 - 22 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 734
Abstract
DNA damage caused by exogenous or endogenous factors is a common challenge for developing fish embryos. DNA damage repair (DDR) pathways help organisms minimize adverse effects of DNA alterations. In terms of DNA repair mechanisms, sturgeons represent a particularly interesting model due to [...] Read more.
DNA damage caused by exogenous or endogenous factors is a common challenge for developing fish embryos. DNA damage repair (DDR) pathways help organisms minimize adverse effects of DNA alterations. In terms of DNA repair mechanisms, sturgeons represent a particularly interesting model due to their exceptional genome plasticity. Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) is a relatively small species of sturgeon. The goal of this study was to assess the sensitivity of sterlet embryos to model genotoxicants (camptothecin, etoposide, and benzo[a]pyrene), and to assess DDR responses. We assessed the effects of genotoxicants on embryo survival, hatching rate, DNA fragmentation, gene expression, and phosphorylation of H2AX and ATM kinase. Exposure of sterlet embryos to 1 µM benzo[a]pyrene induced low levels of DNA damage accompanied by ATM phosphorylation and xpc gene expression. Conversely, 20 µM etoposide exposure induced DNA damage without activation of known DDR pathways. Effects of 10 nM camptothecin on embryo development were stage-specific, with early stages, before gastrulation, being most sensitive. Overall, this study provides foundational information for future investigation of sterlet DDR pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Aspects in Fish and Amphibian Reproduction and Development)
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