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Molecular Mechanisms of Action of Adaptogens—in Search of Natural Methods of Restoring Homeostasis

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 May 2024) | Viewed by 3588

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Guest Editor
Department of Biophysics, Physiology and Pathophysiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Warsaw, Chalubinskiego 5 (4th Floor), 02-004 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: inflammation; cytokine network; sirtuins; endothelial signaling; human placenta; stem cells; pathophysiology of diabetes
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Adaptogens are non-toxic plants and fungi, the consumption of which ensures a non-specific response of the body to stress and, consequently, the restoration of disturbed homeostasis. The holistic effect of adaptogens consists of strengthening the resistance of the whole organism, not influencing one specific organ or system. The concept of adaptogens has evolved in recent years from traditional medicine to a lively discourse in modern Western medicine. It has been pointed out that a number of natural dietary compounds act as epigenetic adaptogens, helping to optimize gene expression, health outcomes, and aging. Providing scientific grounds for treating adaptogens as potential supportive drugs, e.g., in stress, osteoporosis or diseases related to aging, requires detailed research. This applies not only to the confirmation of the existence of signaling pathways for individual bioactive substances contained in adaptogens but also to the assessment of their bioavailability and the dose required to produce the desired effect (the dose–response effect).

This Special Issue is dedicated to all aspects of the biological activity of adaptogens that can potentially be used in the treatment of specific diseases. When considering your submission, please keep in mind that IJMS is a journal of molecular science. Therefore, purely clinical studies will not be suitable for our journal. However, submissions of clinical studies that include biomolecular experiments or pathological research with case sample data are welcomed. Please also bear in mind that papers on specific bioactive substances isolated from adaptogens will be published, but not those on the effects of crude extracts of plant origin.

Prof. Dr. Dariusz Szukiewicz
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • adaptogens
  • nutraceutical
  • phytotherapy
  • stress
  • homeostasis
  • anti-inflammatory effects
  • phytochemicals
  • anti-oxidants
  • oxidative stress
  • nutritional factors
  • epigenetics
  • herb

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Review

24 pages, 1717 KiB  
Review
Extrahepatic Vitamin K-Dependent Gla-Proteins–Potential Cardiometabolic Biomarkers
by Bistra Galunska, Yoto Yotov, Miglena Nikolova and Atanas Angelov
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(6), 3517; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25063517 - 20 Mar 2024
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Abstract
One mechanism to regulate pathological vascular calcification (VC) is its active inhibition. Loss or inactivation of endogenic inhibitors is a major inductor of VC. Such inhibitors are proteins rich in gamma-glutamyl residues (Gla-proteins), whose function strongly depends on vitamin K. The current narrative [...] Read more.
One mechanism to regulate pathological vascular calcification (VC) is its active inhibition. Loss or inactivation of endogenic inhibitors is a major inductor of VC. Such inhibitors are proteins rich in gamma-glutamyl residues (Gla-proteins), whose function strongly depends on vitamin K. The current narrative review is focused on discussing the role of extrahepatic vitamin K-dependent Gla-proteins (osteocalcin, OC; matrix Gla-protein, MGP; Gla-rich protein, GRP) in cardio-vascular pathology. Gla-proteins possess several functionally active forms whose role in the pathogenesis of VC is still unclear. It is assumed that low circulating non-phosphorylated MGP is an indicator of active calcification and could be a novel biomarker of prevalent VC. High circulating completely inactive MGP is proposed as a novel risk factor for cardio-vascular events, disease progression, mortality, and vitamin K deficiency. The ratio between uncarboxylated (ucOC) and carboxylated (cOC) OC is considered as an indicator of vitamin K status indirectly reflecting arterial calcium. Despite the evidence that OC is an important energy metabolic regulator, its role on global cardio-vascular risk remains unclear. GRP acts as a molecular mediator between inflammation and calcification and may emerge as a novel biomarker playing a key role in these processes. Gla-proteins benefit clinical practice as inhibitors of VC, modifiable by dietary factors. Full article
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13 pages, 1024 KiB  
Review
The Role of Rosavin in the Pathophysiology of Bone Metabolism
by Piotr Wojdasiewicz, Paweł Turczyn, Anna Lach-Gruba, Łukasz A. Poniatowski, Daryush Purrahman, Mohammad-Reza Mahmoudian-Sani and Dariusz Szukiewicz
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(4), 2117; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25042117 - 9 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Rosavin, a phenylpropanoid in Rhodiola rosea’s rhizome, and an adaptogen, is known for enhancing the body’s response to environmental stress. It significantly affects cellular metabolism in health and many diseases, particularly influencing bone tissue metabolism. In vitro, rosavin inhibits osteoclastogenesis, disrupts F-actin [...] Read more.
Rosavin, a phenylpropanoid in Rhodiola rosea’s rhizome, and an adaptogen, is known for enhancing the body’s response to environmental stress. It significantly affects cellular metabolism in health and many diseases, particularly influencing bone tissue metabolism. In vitro, rosavin inhibits osteoclastogenesis, disrupts F-actin ring formation, and reduces the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related genes such as cathepsin K, calcitonin receptor (CTR), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), and matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9). It also impedes the nuclear factor of activated T-cell cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), c-Fos, the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways and blocks phosphorylation processes crucial for bone resorption. Moreover, rosavin promotes osteogenesis and osteoblast differentiation and increases mouse runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and osteocalcin (OCN) expression. In vivo studies show its effectiveness in enhancing bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) mice, restraining osteoclast maturation, and increasing the active osteoblast percentage in bone tissue. It modulates mRNA expressions by increasing eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 (EEF2) and decreasing histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), thereby activating osteoprotective epigenetic mechanisms, and alters many serum markers, including decreasing cross-linked C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-1), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP5b), receptor activator for nuclear factor κ B ligand (RANKL), macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), and TRAP, while increasing alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and OCN. Additionally, when combined with zinc and probiotics, it reduces pro-osteoporotic matrix metallopeptidase 3 (MMP-3), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and enhances anti-osteoporotic interleukin 10 (IL-10) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3) expressions. This paper aims to systematically review rosavin’s impact on bone tissue metabolism, exploring its potential in osteoporosis prevention and treatment, and suggesting future research directions. Full article
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