Cartography and Geomedia

A special issue of ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information (ISSN 2220-9964).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 51534

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Cartography and Geomatics, Adam Mickiewicz University, 61-680 Poznan, Poland
Interests: cartographic design; multimedia cartography; geomedia; geomatic process; graphical means of expression; topographic works of art; mapping techniques; cultural heritage in virtual reality; reconstruction of historiogeographic space
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
School of Geographical & Earth Sciences, University of Glasgow, East Quadrangle, Main Building, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
Interests: usability of GIS to design and produce sensible maps; design of topographic maps, especially at medium scales; design and usability of tourist and public transport mapping and information systems; geospatial data usability
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Photogrammetry & Laser Scanning Lab, HafenCity University Hamburg; Henning-Voscherau-Platz 1, 20457 Hamburg, Germany
Interests: 3D recording and modelling of historical buildings and urban scenes using digital photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning; development of methods and applications for virtual and augmented reality in geo-information sciences

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cartography and Geomedia is a view of cartography as a combination of technology, science and art with a focus on the development of geomedia in the geomatic and artistic dimensions.

If geography describes geographic space, and cartography illustrates this space, one can indicate the media that both disciplines use to transfer knowledge: text, photography, graphics, animation, video, sound, music, virtual environment, computer games, and others. Geomedia are therefore means of transmitting information about geographical space that the creator uses separately or jointly.

In this Special Issue, we will focus on the use of individual media as information carriers in the context of the role of a map or cartographic shape as the core of a geomedia product.

We will be honoured by your participation in our deliberations.

Contributions can address the following topics:

  • Cartographic shape as the core of geomedia presentation;
  • Information potential of geomedia;
  • Efficiency and attractiveness of different media for the visualisation of spatial features;
  • Rules of map design for use with geomedia;
  • Geomedia for cartography: film, animation, music, graphics, photos, audio, virtual and augmented reality, geovisual storytelling, video games, 3D models, interactive web-maps, panoramic photography, and others;
  • Tools for designing specific cartographic geomedia products;
  • Cartographic materials for construction and reconstruction in virtual space;
  • 3D visualisation of landscapes and urban scenes using virtual reality;
  • Levels of immersion in geographic space through geomedia.

Prof. Dr. Beata Medyńska-Gulij
Dr. David Forrest
Prof. Dr. Thomas P. Kersten
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • multimedia cartography
  • geomedia
  • information potential of geomedia
  • cartographic shape
  • multimedia visualization of spatial features
  • map design
  • geomedium efficiency
  • geomedium attractiveness
  • multimedia cartographic product
  • cartographic storytelling
  • 3D visualisation of landscapes and urban scenes
  • immersion in geographic space through geomedia

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Editorial

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6 pages, 227 KiB  
Editorial
Cartography and Geomedia in Pragmatic Dimensions
by Beata Medyńska-Gulij, David Forrest and Thomas P. Kersten
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2023, 12(8), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi12080326 - 4 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1153
Abstract
This article summarizes the Special Issue of Cartography and Geomedia. Here, Cartography and Geomedia presents a view of cartography as a combination of technology, science, and art, with a focus on the development of geomedia in a geomatic and design-based context. Individual considerations [...] Read more.
This article summarizes the Special Issue of Cartography and Geomedia. Here, Cartography and Geomedia presents a view of cartography as a combination of technology, science, and art, with a focus on the development of geomedia in a geomatic and design-based context. Individual considerations are presented according to the following topics: efficiency of mapping techniques; historical cartographic works in a geomedial context; cartographic pragmatics for cultural heritage, teaching, and tourism; and pragmatism in gaming cartography. The main conclusion is that the two approaches to learning, revealing, and understanding geographic phenomena—starting from a specific geographical phenomenon and starting from maps and geomedia to understand geographical space—have their pragmatic strengths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cartography and Geomedia)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

17 pages, 5541 KiB  
Article
Cartographic Design and Processing of Originally Printed Historical Maps for Their Presentation on the Web
by Petra Justová and Jiří Cajthaml
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2023, 12(6), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi12060230 - 2 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1463
Abstract
On the example of our project on the creation of the historical web atlas on Czech history, we introduce the process of adapting originally printed historical maps for their presentation in the web environment, which overcomes the shortcomings of standard approaches in similar [...] Read more.
On the example of our project on the creation of the historical web atlas on Czech history, we introduce the process of adapting originally printed historical maps for their presentation in the web environment, which overcomes the shortcomings of standard approaches in similar projects based on printed predecessors published only as zoomable scanned analogues or default GIS maps. To simplify the originally complex map and to increase the information potential of the maps, we propose seven different types of additional map functionality according to the specific characteristics of the original map content. In addition, we present a set of rules, principles, recommendations, and methods for the cartographic design and processing of originally printed historical maps that should be considered when they are prepared for presentation on the web, including the description of the specific visualisation processes for the proposed types of map functionality. The proposed complex methodology can be applied to similar projects focused on the conversion of originally printed maps to the web and may contribute to improving the quality of the visualisation and presentation of historical maps on the web in general. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cartography and Geomedia)
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29 pages, 14266 KiB  
Article
Digitization, Visualization and Accessibility of Globe Virtual Collection: Case Study Jüttner’s Globe
by Eva Štefanová, Eva Novotná and Miroslav Čábelka
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2023, 12(3), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi12030122 - 9 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2791
Abstract
The aim of the article is to prepare a model for making available metadata and digital objects of the new Globe Virtual Collection for the Map Collection of the Faculty of Science of Charles University. The globes are special cartographic documents; therefore, they [...] Read more.
The aim of the article is to prepare a model for making available metadata and digital objects of the new Globe Virtual Collection for the Map Collection of the Faculty of Science of Charles University. The globes are special cartographic documents; therefore, they are also described in a special way. The article deals with the digitization, visualization and accessibility of an old globe by Josef Jüttner from 1839, which comes from the depository of one of the most important central European collections. A simple model for a new virtual processing of the globe collection at Charles University is presented. SfM-MVS photogrammetry was chosen for digitization of the globe. The basic elements of the copperplate were set as basic parameters for image acquisition. Contrast, density, black line, line, dash and dot patterns and their complex use were observed for a good graphic design of the globe. Other parameters included a closer determination of the users for whom the resulting product is intended, as well as the profile of the users’ behavior on the site so far. New metadata were extracted from the bibliographic description. The virtual 3D globe was integrated into the database using the Cesium JavaScript library. Metadata and a 3D model of the globe were linked together and made available to the general public on the Globe page of the Map Collection of the Faculty of Science of Charles University. A comparison of web browsers was performed focusing on the loading time of the 3D model on the website. New graphic elements were identified with the new processing. It was possible to read the factual information written on the globe. Different possibilities and limitations of metadata description, photogrammetric methods and web presentation are described. This good practice can be applied by other virtual map collections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cartography and Geomedia)
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18 pages, 4342 KiB  
Article
Analysis and Visualization of Vessels’ RElative MOtion (REMO)
by Hyowon Ban and Hye-jin Kim
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2023, 12(3), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi12030115 - 8 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1760
Abstract
This research is a pilot study to develop a maritime traffic control system that supports the decision-making process of control officers, and to evaluate the usability of a prototype tool developed in this study. The study analyzed the movements of multiple vessels through [...] Read more.
This research is a pilot study to develop a maritime traffic control system that supports the decision-making process of control officers, and to evaluate the usability of a prototype tool developed in this study. The study analyzed the movements of multiple vessels through automatic identification system (AIS) data using one of the existing methodologies in GIScience, the RElative MOtion (REMO) approach. The REMO approach in this study measured the relative speed, delta-speed, and the azimuth of each vessel per time unit. The study visualized the results on electronic navigational charts in the prototype tool developed, V-REMO. In addition, the study conducted a user evaluation to assess the user interface (UI) of V-REMO and to future enhance the usability. The general usability of V-REMO, the data visualization, and the readability of information in the UI were tested through in-depth interviews. The results of the user evaluation showed that the users needed changes in the size, position, colors, and transparency of the trajectory symbols in the digital chartmap view of V-REMO for better readability and easier manipulation. The users also indicated a need for multiple color schemes for the spatial data and more landmark information about the study area in the chartmap view. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cartography and Geomedia)
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25 pages, 21829 KiB  
Article
BiodivAR: A Cartographic Authoring Tool for the Visualization of Geolocated Media in Augmented Reality
by Julien Mercier, Nicolas Chabloz, Gregory Dozot, Olivier Ertz, Erwan Bocher and Daniel Rappo
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2023, 12(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi12020061 - 9 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2560
Abstract
Location-based augmented reality technology for real-world, outdoor experiences is rapidly gaining in popularity in a variety of fields such as engineering, education, and gaming. By anchoring medias to geographic coordinates, it is possible to design immersive experiences remotely, without necessitating an in-depth knowledge [...] Read more.
Location-based augmented reality technology for real-world, outdoor experiences is rapidly gaining in popularity in a variety of fields such as engineering, education, and gaming. By anchoring medias to geographic coordinates, it is possible to design immersive experiences remotely, without necessitating an in-depth knowledge of the context. However, the creation of such experiences typically requires complex programming tools that are beyond the reach of mainstream users. We introduce BiodivAR, a web cartographic tool for the authoring of location-based AR experiences. Developed using a user-centered design methodology and open-source interoperable web technologies, it is the second iteration of an effort that started in 2016. It is designed to meet needs defined through use cases co-designed with end users and enables the creation of custom geolocated points of interest. This approach enabled substantial progress over the previous iteration. Its reliance on geolocation data to anchor augmented objects relative to the user’s position poses a set of challenges: On mobile devices, GNSS accuracy typically lies between 1 m and 30 m. Due to its impact on the anchoring, this lack of accuracy can have deleterious effects on usability. We conducted a comparative user test using the application in combination with two different geolocation data types (GNSS versus RTK). While the test’s results are undergoing analysis, we hereby present a methodology for the assessment of our system’s usability based on the use of eye-tracking devices, geolocated traces and events, and usability questionnaires. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cartography and Geomedia)
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16 pages, 2579 KiB  
Article
Mini-Map Design Features as a Navigation Aid in the Virtual Geographical Space Based on Video Games
by Krzysztof Zagata and Beata Medyńska-Gulij
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2023, 12(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi12020058 - 8 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3741
Abstract
The main objective of this study is to identify features of mini-map design as a navigational aid in the virtual geographical space in 100 popular video games for a computer platform. The following research methods were used: visual comparative analysis, classification and selection [...] Read more.
The main objective of this study is to identify features of mini-map design as a navigational aid in the virtual geographical space in 100 popular video games for a computer platform. The following research methods were used: visual comparative analysis, classification and selection of cartographic material, comparison of specific parameters for selected features of design elements, and application of cartographic design rules and popularity of design solutions in video games. The study revealed eight features of mini-map design and their popular parameters and attributes in video games, with only one game meeting all conditions of popularity: projection: orthographic; centring: player-centred; base layers: artificial; shape: circle; orientation: camera view; position: bottom left; proportions: 2.1–3%; additional navigational element: north arrow. The key attributes of the mini-map’s features were captured, which, when considered separately, complementarily and potentially holistically, confirm the possibility of designing the mini-map according to traditional cartographic design principles. The identified parameters of the mini-map can be useful not only in the design of the game cartography interface, but also for other geomedia products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cartography and Geomedia)
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17 pages, 2954 KiB  
Article
Usefulness of Plane-Based Augmented Geovisualization—Case of “The Crown of Polish Mountains 3D”
by Łukasz Halik and Łukasz Wielebski
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2023, 12(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi12020038 - 22 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1549
Abstract
In this article, we suggest the introduction of a new method of generating AR content, which we propose to call plane-based augmented geovisualizations (PAGs). This method concerns cases in which AR geovisualizations are embedded directly on any plane detected by the AR device, [...] Read more.
In this article, we suggest the introduction of a new method of generating AR content, which we propose to call plane-based augmented geovisualizations (PAGs). This method concerns cases in which AR geovisualizations are embedded directly on any plane detected by the AR device, as in the case of the investigated “Crown of Polish Mountains 3D” application. The study on the usefulness of the AR solution against a classic solution was conducted as part of an online survey of people from various age and social groups. The application in the monitor version showing 3D models of mountain peaks (without AR mode) was tested by the respondents themselves. The use of the application in the AR mode, which requires a smartphone with the appropriate module, was tested by the respondents based on a prepared video demonstrating its operation. The results of the research on three age groups show that the AR mode was preferred among users against all compared criteria, but some differences between age groups were clearly visible. In the case of the criterion of ease of use of the AR mode, the result was not so unambiguous, which is why further research is necessary. The research results show the potential of the AR mode in presenting 3D terrain models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cartography and Geomedia)
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19 pages, 4776 KiB  
Article
User Evaluation of Thematic Maps on Operational Areas of Rescue Helicopters
by Łukasz Wielebski and Beata Medyńska-Gulij
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2023, 12(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi12020030 - 18 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1783
Abstract
This article presents the results of research on users concerning six thematic maps made with various mapping techniques and related to various aspects of the activities of the Helicopter Emergency Medical Service. The aim of the survey was to determine how the respondents [...] Read more.
This article presents the results of research on users concerning six thematic maps made with various mapping techniques and related to various aspects of the activities of the Helicopter Emergency Medical Service. The aim of the survey was to determine how the respondents rank these maps in terms of the four subjective evaluation criteria, which were the graphical attractiveness of maps, the readability of maps, the usefulness and importance of information, and the complexity of information presented on the maps. The greatest discrepancies were noted for the dot map, while the flow map obtained the most consistent evaluations. To check what the respondents were guided by while building the ranking for each criterion, a catalog of factors was created, the importance of which was assessed using the Likert scale. In the case of graphical attractiveness, users attach particular importance to the arrangement of objects visible on the map. The speed of reading the information is particularly important for map readability. In the case of the usefulness and importance of the information, the map topic, important for saving health and life from the user’s point of view, was of the greatest importance, while the amount of information in the legend significantly influenced the evaluation of information complexity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cartography and Geomedia)
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22 pages, 6558 KiB  
Article
Parametric Modeling Method for 3D Symbols of Fold Structures
by An-Bo Li, Hao Chen, Xiao-Feng Du, Guo-Kai Sun and Xian-Yu Liu
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(12), 618; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11120618 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1960
Abstract
Most fabrication methods for three-dimensional (3D) geological symbols are limited to two types: directly increasing the dimensionality of a 2D geological symbol or performing appropriate modeling for an actual 3D geological situation. The former can express limited vertical information and only applies to [...] Read more.
Most fabrication methods for three-dimensional (3D) geological symbols are limited to two types: directly increasing the dimensionality of a 2D geological symbol or performing appropriate modeling for an actual 3D geological situation. The former can express limited vertical information and only applies to the three-dimensional symbol-making of point mineral symbols, while the latter weakens the difference between 3D symbols and 3D geological models and has several disadvantages, such as high dependence on measured data, redundant 3D symbol information, and low efficiency when displayed in a 3D scene. Generating a 3D geological symbol is represented by the process of constructing a 3D geological model. This study proposes a parametric modeling method for 3D fold symbols according to the complexity and diversity of the fold structures. The method involves: (1) obtaining the location of each cross-section in the symbol model, based on the location parameters; (2) constructing the middle cross-section, based on morphological parameters and the Bezier curve; (3) performing affine transformation according to the morphology of the hinge zone and the middle section to generate the sections at both ends of the fold; (4) generating transition sections of the 3D symbol model, based on morphing interpolation; and (5) connecting the point sets of each transition section and stitching them to obtain a 3D fold-symbol model. Case studies for different typical fold structures show that this method can eliminate excessive dependence on geological survey data in the modeling process and realize efficient, intuitive, and abstract 3D symbol modeling of fold structures based on only a few parameters. This method also applies to the 3D geological symbol modeling of faults, joints, intrusions, and other geological structures and 3D geological modeling of typical geological structures with a relatively simple spatial morphology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cartography and Geomedia)
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17 pages, 11282 KiB  
Article
Map Design and Usability of a Simplified Topographic 2D Map on the Smartphone in Landscape and Portrait Orientations
by Beata Medyńska-Gulij, Jacek Gulij, Paweł Cybulski, Krzysztof Zagata, Jakub Zawadzki and Tymoteusz Horbiński
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(11), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11110577 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2520
Abstract
Map design and usability issues are crucial when considering different device orientations. It is visible, especially in exploring the topographical space in landscape or portrait orientation on the mobile phone. In this study, we aim to reveal the main differences and similarities among [...] Read more.
Map design and usability issues are crucial when considering different device orientations. It is visible, especially in exploring the topographical space in landscape or portrait orientation on the mobile phone. In this study, we aim to reveal the main differences and similarities among participants’ performance in a map-based task. The study presents an original research scheme, including establishing conceptual assumptions, developing map applications with gaming elements, user testing, and visualizing results. It appears that the different phone orientation triggers different visual strategy. This transfers into decision-making about the path selection. It turned out that in landscape orientation, participants preferred paths oriented east–west. On the other hand, portrait orientation supported north–south path selection. However, considering the given task accomplishment, both mobile phones’ orientations are adequate for the exploration of topographical space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cartography and Geomedia)
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14 pages, 12646 KiB  
Article
Geomedia Attributes for Perspective Visualization of Relief for Historical Non-Cartometric Water-Colored Topographic Maps
by Beata Medyńska-Gulij
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(11), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11110554 - 8 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2137
Abstract
The selection of appropriative geomedia attributes for constructing natural and suggestive perspective visualizations of historical non-cartometric manuscript topographic works is investigated, to enable an intuitive perception of relief landforms. The main objective of the study is to demonstrate geomedia parameters for representing the [...] Read more.
The selection of appropriative geomedia attributes for constructing natural and suggestive perspective visualizations of historical non-cartometric manuscript topographic works is investigated, to enable an intuitive perception of relief landforms. The main objective of the study is to demonstrate geomedia parameters for representing the third dimension in topographic watercolor maps from the eighteenth century, using cartographic rules and geoinformation operations for transforming graphic means of expression. The following methods were used: the choice of representative map fragments with specific painterly means of expression; the analysis of main relief forms on historical and modern maps; the rectification; vectorization of contour lines, and the transformation to a GRID model; the use of parameter variations: elevation rise, azimuth and altitude, contrast of illumination; and the creation of the final bird’s-eye-view visualization, with appropriate parameters. It is found that the parameters for the visualization of the non-cartometric water-colored topographic image on a 3D model can be selected in turn. However, what matters is maintaining their complementarity. The proposed parameters for the three maps work well for creating the general static bird’s-eye-view visualization, with the natural and suggestive perception of the landscapes’ relief. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cartography and Geomedia)
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19 pages, 12676 KiB  
Article
Thematic Content and Visualization Strategy for Map Design of City-Specific Culture Based on Local Chronicles: A Case Study of Dengfeng City, China
by Xiaohui He, Chuan Liu, Lili Wu, Yongji Wang and Zhihui Tian
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(11), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11110542 - 30 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1920
Abstract
Local chronicles are a kind of historical record in China that are written in detail and play an important role in the transmission of local history and culture. Due to the single-text-carrier form of local chronicles, people have limited access to information on [...] Read more.
Local chronicles are a kind of historical record in China that are written in detail and play an important role in the transmission of local history and culture. Due to the single-text-carrier form of local chronicles, people have limited access to information on urban characteristics and culture; therefore, based on the cultural gene theory and Hofstede model, also known as the cultural onion model, this paper develops a “Spirit–Sign” content framework with the themes of urban characteristics and culture. Based on this framework, we map the urban characteristics and culture (visualization strategy and map design) of local chronicles. Taking the historic city of Dengfeng in the Central Plains as an example, the spatial information of the four historical city characteristics of Dengfeng was mined for the map design using the content framework of the city characteristics proposed in this study. The results of the study found that (1) there is a certain overlap in the spatial distribution of the four characteristic cultures of Dengfeng, indicating that the spiritual (traditional customs and famous people and events) and material (famous buildings and products) are complementary and mutually reinforcing to a certain extent; and (2) with the iterative development of Chinese dynasties, the material characteristic cultures of Dengfeng show strong temporal and spatial differences, which laterally reflect the changes in human activities and urban changes of each dynasty and also reflect the very important historical position occupied by Dengfeng in China. Compared with the traditional text-carrier form of local chronicles, the content construction and map visualization of the city’s historical and cultural information proposed in this study can effectively explore more potential cultural characteristics, as well as spatial and temporal connections of Dengfeng and thus help people better understand the historical characteristics of the city. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cartography and Geomedia)
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16 pages, 1058 KiB  
Article
Aesthetics and Cartography: Post-Critical Reflections on Deviance in and of Representations
by Dennis Edler and Olaf Kühne
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(10), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11100526 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2043
Abstract
Cartographic representations are subject to sensory perception and rely on the translation of sensory perceptions into cartographic symbols. In this respect, cartography is closely related to aesthetics, as it represents an academic discipline of sensory perceptions. The scholarly concern with cartographic aesthetics, by [...] Read more.
Cartographic representations are subject to sensory perception and rely on the translation of sensory perceptions into cartographic symbols. In this respect, cartography is closely related to aesthetics, as it represents an academic discipline of sensory perceptions. The scholarly concern with cartographic aesthetics, by today, has strongly been focused on the aesthetic impact of cartographic representations. The consideration of the philosophical sub-discipline of aesthetics however is rather restrained. This is also true for the connection between sociological questions and the social construction of aesthetic judgments. We address both topics in this article. We refer to post-critical cartographic theory. It accepts the socially constructed nature and power-bound nature of maps but does not reject “traditional” and widely established positivist cartography. Drawing on the theory of deviant cartographies related to this, we understand cartography designed according to aesthetic criteria as meta-deviant, as it makes the contingency of world interpretations clear. Especially augmented and virtual environments show a great potential to generate aesthetically constructed cartographic representations. Participatory cartography enables many people to reflect on the contingency of their spatial experiences and spatial abstractions without expert-like special knowledge. A prerequisite, however, is the greatest possible openness to topics and representations. This is not subject to a moral restriction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cartography and Geomedia)
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14 pages, 16753 KiB  
Article
Web Mapping and Real–Virtual Itineraries to Promote Feasible Archaeological and Environmental Tourism in Versilia (Italy)
by Marco Luppichini, Valerio Noti, Danilo Pavone, Marzia Bonato, Francesco Ghizzani Marcìa, Stefano Genovesi, Francesca Lemmi, Lisa Rosselli, Neva Chiarenza, Marta Colombo, Giulia Picchi, Andrea Fontanelli and Monica Bini
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(9), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11090460 - 28 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2254
Abstract
The Versilia plain (NW Italy) experiences forms of tourism that are mainly limited to the beach area and concentrated in the summer season. The area is rich in cultural and natural heritage, not yet adequately enhanced. The presence of four local archaeological museums [...] Read more.
The Versilia plain (NW Italy) experiences forms of tourism that are mainly limited to the beach area and concentrated in the summer season. The area is rich in cultural and natural heritage, not yet adequately enhanced. The presence of four local archaeological museums and a natural park offers a great opportunity to favour feasible archaeological and environmental tourism. The aim of this study is to use a holistic methodology to improve a different type of tourism in the study area. We propose a consilient multidisciplinary approach based on geological, biological and archaeological data in order to enhance the cultural and natural heritage of the Versilia plain. We have based our study on the reconstruction of palaeoenvironment maps showing the evolution of the territory and used them as a leitmotiv to link the archaeological museums and the natural park. We define real and virtual itineraries to create a synergy between the most important archaeological and natural sites and museums. It is possible to promote a different type of tourism in the study area by decreasing human impact and creating a relationship between the fragmented natural and archaeological heritage. Palaeoenvironment maps and real and virtual itineraries can be consulted with the aid of a web application, more specifically web mapping, developed with free and open-source libraries. The web mapping also contains other geological, geomorphological and archaeological datasets, which allow to understand the evolution of the environment and the cultural and natural heritage of the study area. The dataset available on the web mapping is also downloadable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cartography and Geomedia)
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19 pages, 12583 KiB  
Article
3D Visualisation of the Historic Pre-Dam Vltava River Valley—Procedural and CAD Modelling, Online Publishing and Virtual Reality
by Michal Janovský, Pavel Tobiáš and Vojtěch Cehák
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(7), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11070376 - 6 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2263
Abstract
As a part of “The Vltava River” project, it was necessary to create a visualisation of the historic Vltava River valley before the construction of the so-called Vltava Cascade (nine dams built in the Vltava River basin between 1930 and 1992). Vectorisations of [...] Read more.
As a part of “The Vltava River” project, it was necessary to create a visualisation of the historic Vltava River valley before the construction of the so-called Vltava Cascade (nine dams built in the Vltava River basin between 1930 and 1992). Vectorisations of the Imperial Obligatory Imprints of the Stable Cadastre, and a terrain model created from contour lines from the State Map 1:5000-Derived (SMO-5), prepared in an earlier phase of the project, were used as a basis for this visualisation. Due to the extent of the modelled area, which is approximately 1670 km2, and the available underlying data realistically usable for the visualisation, mainly procedural modelling with the use of the CGA shape grammar was chosen for the creation of 3D objects. These procedurally created 3D models were completed with more detailed models of landmark buildings created in CAD. The outcomes were used to establish a virtual reality (VR) application in the Unreal Engine software. The results are a 3D scene created in a form corresponding approximately to the state of the Vltava River valley in the 19th century, which is available for viewing via a web application, and a VR scene used for demonstration at exhibitions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cartography and Geomedia)
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21 pages, 8955 KiB  
Article
A Technical and Operational Perspective on Quality Analysis of Stitching Images with Multi-Row Panorama and Multimedia Sources for Visualizing the Tourism Site of Onshore Wind Farm
by Jhe-Syuan Lai, Yi-Hung Tsai, Min-Jhen Chang, Jun-Yi Huang and Chao-Ming Chi
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(7), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11070362 - 24 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2040
Abstract
A virtual tour of the onshore wind farm near Gaomei Wetland, Taichung City, Taiwan, was produced by producing panoramic images of the site by stitching images captured with a full-frame digital single-lens reflex camera and a multi-row panorama instrument, which automatically and precisely [...] Read more.
A virtual tour of the onshore wind farm near Gaomei Wetland, Taichung City, Taiwan, was produced by producing panoramic images of the site by stitching images captured with a full-frame digital single-lens reflex camera and a multi-row panorama instrument, which automatically and precisely divided each scene into several images. Subsequently, the image stitching quality was improved by calculating the root mean square error (RMSE) of tie point matching and adjusting the tie points. Errors due to eccentricity attributed to the camera’s relative position to the rotational axis of the multi-row panorama instrument were examined and solved; the effect of the overlap rate on image stitching quality was also investigated. According to the study results, the overlap rate between the original images was inversely proportional to the RMSE and directly proportional to the time required for photography and image processing. The stitching quality was improved by resolving eccentricity and by increasing the number of tie points. The RMSEs of the panoramas of all stations were all less than 5 pixels. Subsequently, multimedia materials providing information on wind turbine attributes were combined with the panorama platform to establish a virtual reality tour platform. The content of the platform could be accessed with a smartphone and viewed with a virtual reality device and could promote both tourist attractions and wind energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cartography and Geomedia)
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15 pages, 3559 KiB  
Article
Geographic Approach: Identifying Relatively Stable Tibetan Dialect and Subdialect Area Boundaries
by Mingyuan Duan and Shangyi Zhou
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(5), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11050280 - 27 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2375
Abstract
Updating dialect maps requires extensive language surveys. Geographic methods can be applied to identify relatively stable boundaries of dialect and subdialect areas, allowing language surveys to focus on boundaries that may change and thereby reduce survey costs. Certain scholars have pointed out that [...] Read more.
Updating dialect maps requires extensive language surveys. Geographic methods can be applied to identify relatively stable boundaries of dialect and subdialect areas, allowing language surveys to focus on boundaries that may change and thereby reduce survey costs. Certain scholars have pointed out that the watershed boundary can be employed as the boundary of Tibetan dialect areas. This paper adds that the lowest-grade road breakpoint line and no-man’s-land boundary can also be used as essential indicators for determining stable (sub)dialect area boundaries. Combined with the revised First Law of Geography and the method of superposition analysis of geographic elements, this study identifies indicators that affect the stability of the Tibetan (sub)dialect area boundaries and evaluates the stability of each boundary segment. Due to the particularity of the study area, most Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (Chinese part) (sub)dialect area boundaries are stable. In addition, boundary inaccuracies caused by defects in the distribution of language survey samples can be identified by geographic approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cartography and Geomedia)
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15 pages, 2122 KiB  
Article
An Empirical Study on the Effects of Temporal Trends in Spatial Patterns on Animated Choropleth Maps
by Paweł Cybulski
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(5), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11050273 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2803
Abstract
Animated cartographic visualization incorporates the concept of geomedia presented in this Special Issue. The presented study aims to examine the effectiveness of spatial pattern and temporal trend recognition on animated choropleth maps. In a controlled laboratory experiment with participants and eye tracking, fifteen [...] Read more.
Animated cartographic visualization incorporates the concept of geomedia presented in this Special Issue. The presented study aims to examine the effectiveness of spatial pattern and temporal trend recognition on animated choropleth maps. In a controlled laboratory experiment with participants and eye tracking, fifteen animated maps were used to show a different spatial patterns and temporal trends. The participants’ task was to correctly detect the patterns and trends on a choropleth map. The study results show that effective spatial pattern and temporal trend recognition on a choropleth map is related to participants’ visual behavior. Visual attention clustered in the central part of the choropleth map supports effective spatio-temporal relationship recognition. The larger the area covered by the fixation cluster, the higher the probability of correct temporal trend and spatial pattern recognition. However, animated choropleth maps are more suitable for presenting temporal trends than spatial patterns. Understanding the difficulty in the correct recognition of spatio-temporal relationships might be a reason for implementing techniques that support effective visual searches such as highlighting, cartographic redundancy, or interactive tools. For end-users, the presented study reveals the necessity of the application of a specific visual strategy. Focusing on the central part of the map is the most effective strategy for the recognition of spatio-temporal relationships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cartography and Geomedia)
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18 pages, 5649 KiB  
Article
Road Network Generalization Method Constrained by Residential Areas
by Zheng Lyu, Qun Sun, Jingzhen Ma, Qing Xu, Yuanfu Li and Fubing Zhang
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(3), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11030159 - 22 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2463
Abstract
Residential areas and road networks have a strong geographical correlation. The development of a single geographical feature could destroy the geographical correlation. It is necessary to establish collaborative generalization models suitable for multiple features. However, existing road network generalization methods for mapping purposes [...] Read more.
Residential areas and road networks have a strong geographical correlation. The development of a single geographical feature could destroy the geographical correlation. It is necessary to establish collaborative generalization models suitable for multiple features. However, existing road network generalization methods for mapping purposes do not fully consider residential areas. Compared with road networks, residential areas have a higher priority in cartographic generalization. In this regard, this study proposes a road network generalization method constrained by residential areas. First, the roads and settlements obtained from clustering residential areas were classified. Next, the importance of the settlements was evaluated and certain settlements were selected as the control features. Subsequently, a geographical network with the settlements as the nodes was built, and the traffic paths between adjacent settlements were searched. Finally, redundant paths between the settlements were simplified, and the visual continuity and topological connectivity were checked. The data of a 1:50,000 road network and residential areas were used as the experimental data. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method preserves the overall structure and relative density characteristics of the road network, as well as the geographical correlation between the road network and residential areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cartography and Geomedia)
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16 pages, 3067 KiB  
Article
Interpretation of Map Symbols in the Context of Gamers’ Age and Experience
by Tymoteusz Horbiński and Krzysztof Zagata
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(2), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11020150 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3848
Abstract
In this article researchers examined the differences that may characterise selected groups of gamers with regard to age and time spent on playing a survival game, Valheim, confronted with their interpretation of map symbols used in the game. The Valheim video game, which [...] Read more.
In this article researchers examined the differences that may characterise selected groups of gamers with regard to age and time spent on playing a survival game, Valheim, confronted with their interpretation of map symbols used in the game. The Valheim video game, which was released in early 2021, is a survival game set in a gameplay world inspired by Norse mythology. The authors of the article noted that the age factor and gaming experience may have different results in terms of the interpretation of cartographic products. The obtained data came from an online questionnaire. In the statistical analysis the authors employed the Pearson’s chi-squared test and the Benjamini–Hochberg procedure to find statistically significant differences between selected groups of respondents and their subjective interpretation of map symbols. Statistical analysis showed several differences and interesting relationships in the interpretation of symbols in relation to the age of the players and in the interpretation of symbols in relation to the time spent in the game. For future research, it is worth continuing towards researching new video games with existing cartographic products in order to investigate how games and players influence the culture in which they participate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cartography and Geomedia)
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12 pages, 8555 KiB  
Article
Filming the Historical Geography: Story from the Realm of Maps in Regensburg
by Beata Medyńska-Gulij, Tillmann Tegeler, Hans Bauer, Krzysztof Zagata and Łukasz Wielebski
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(11), 764; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10110764 - 11 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2240
Abstract
Research on a specific topic requires the individualized cartographic methods of work that may be defined as the Realm of Maps. The double dimensionality in the Realm of Maps is understood here as a physical place—a studio workroom—and as a research method. [...] Read more.
Research on a specific topic requires the individualized cartographic methods of work that may be defined as the Realm of Maps. The double dimensionality in the Realm of Maps is understood here as a physical place—a studio workroom—and as a research method. In this study, we focused on the way of presenting a research method designed to study the topic of historico-geographical space in the form of a short film story. The second purpose is to indicate the legitimacy of combining two dimensions of working with maps, the real one and the virtual one, to be able to collect cartographic and descriptive sources in one scientific center. Our research on the Story from the Realm of Maps in Regensburg: ‘People Movement in Southeast Europe’ included a concept adopted by cartographical, historical, and geographical sources; the construction of a studio workroom; a script draft; individual sequences of the story in different types of media; editing the video, along with publishing it on an online video-sharing platform. We used as many different types of geomedia as possible, which, on the one hand, boosts the attractiveness of the film and, on the other, may hamper the proper perception of the main film plot. Finally, we recommend principles of map design for the film, with analog maps and maps created specifically for the short film, published using online video-sharing platforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cartography and Geomedia)
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