Special Issue "Productive, Livable and Accessible Cities—The Role of 3D City Models"

A special issue of ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information (ISSN 2220-9964).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Mohsen Kalantari
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Infrastructure Engineering, University of Melbourne, Australia
Interests: spatial metadata; 3D geospatial information; building information modeling; Internet of Things; land administration
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Abbas Rajabifard
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Infrastructure Engineering, University of Melbourne, Australia
Interests: SDI; virtual jurisdiction; spatial enablement; land administration; smart cities
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Soheil Sabri
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Infrastructure Engineering, the University of Melbourne, Parkville Victoria 3010, Australien
Interests: urban planning; urban analytics
Dr. Behnam Atazadeh
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Infrastructure Engineering, the University of Melbourne, Parkville Victoria 3010, Australien
Interests: BIM; 3D Cadastre; land administration

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Digitally enhancing cities is essential for a sustainable, prosperous, healthy, and inclusive future for citizens. The digital enhancement of cities requires diverse and numerous technologies that are integrated and operate in space and time. Among these technologies, 3D above- and underground spatial models have proven to be helpful in many aspects of the management of cities. However, the adoption of 3D spatial data is very much fragmented across different aspect of management. There is a knowledge gap about how the use of 3D spatial models in the administration of cities can help with the overall productivity, accessibility, and livability of cities.

This Special Issue invites original contributions to address this gap, towards an evidence-based understanding of the impact of using 3D spatial data in cities. This understanding will lead to the identification of technical, legal, and institutional gaps in adopting 3D spatial data in cities and develop new urban productivity, accessibility, and livability indicators that rely on 3D data. We welcome submissions from diverse disciplines, including Urban Design, Urban Planning, Spatial Economics, Geographic Information Science, Human-Computer Interaction, Data Science, Law, Governance, Smart City, Internet of Things, Big Data, and others.

Dr. Mohsen Kalantari
Prof. Abbas Rajabifard
Dr. Soheil Sabri
Dr. Behnam Atazadeh
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • 3D open standards and interoperability
  • Social, environmental and economic indicators that require 3D data
  • 3D data for citizen engagment and community needs
  • 3D data to support decision making
  • 3D data for smarter urban infrastrutures

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Public Participation Using 3D Web-Based City Models: Opportunities for E-Participation in Kisumu, Kenya
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120454 - 23 Nov 2018
Abstract
Public participation is significant for the success of any urban planning project. However, most members of the general public are not planning professionals and may not understand the technical details of a 2D paper-based plan, which might hamper their participation. One way to [...] Read more.
Public participation is significant for the success of any urban planning project. However, most members of the general public are not planning professionals and may not understand the technical details of a 2D paper-based plan, which might hamper their participation. One way to expand the participation of citizens is to present plans in well-designed, user-friendly and interactive platforms that allow participation regardless of the technical skills of the participants. This paper investigates the impacts of the combined use of 3D visualization and e-participation on public participation in Kisumu, Kenya. A 3D city model, created with CityEngine2016, was exported into a web-based geoportal and used as a Planning Support System in two stakeholder workshops in order to evaluate its usability. In order to assess the workshops 300 questionnaires were given out to planning practitioners and interview were done with key informants. Five indicators were developed for evaluating the usability of the 3D model while the usability of e-participation was evaluated using communication, collaboration and learning as indicators. Results showed that effectiveness and efficiency varied within different professional groups while the questionnaires showed strong preference for e-participation methods, especially Short Message Servicess/Unstructured Supplementary Service Data and emails. The study concludes that the use of 3D visualization and e-participation has the potential to improve the quality and quantity of public participation and recommends further research on the subject. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling, Validation and Quantification of Climate and Other Sensitivities of Building Energy Model on 3D City Models
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(11), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7110447 - 15 Nov 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
New planning tools are required to depict the complete building stock in a city and investigate detailed measures on reaching local and global targets to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To pursue this objective, ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) [...] Read more.
New planning tools are required to depict the complete building stock in a city and investigate detailed measures on reaching local and global targets to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To pursue this objective, ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) 13790:2008 monthly heating and cooling energy calculation method is implemented using geometric information from 3D city models (e.g., CityGML format) in an open source software architecture. A model is developed and applied in several urban districts with different number of 3D buildings in various cities. The model is validated with the simulation software TRNSYS. We also perform a sensitivity analysis to quantify the impact of climate change and other physical and behavioral factors on modelling results. The proposed approach can help to perform city or district-wide analysis of the building energy needs and prepare different renovation plans to support decision-making, which finally will enhance the livability of a city and the quality of life of the citizens. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Three-Dimensional Rule-Based City Modelling to Support Urban Redevelopment Process
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(10), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7100413 - 18 Oct 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Multi-dimensional representation of urban settings has received a great deal of attention among urban planners, policy makers, and urban scholars. This is due to the fact that cities grow vertically and new urbanism strategies encourage higher density and compact city development. Advancements in [...] Read more.
Multi-dimensional representation of urban settings has received a great deal of attention among urban planners, policy makers, and urban scholars. This is due to the fact that cities grow vertically and new urbanism strategies encourage higher density and compact city development. Advancements in computer technology and multi-dimensional geospatial data integration, analysis and visualisation play a pivotal role in supporting urban planning and design. However, due to the complexity of the models and technical requirements of the multi-dimensional city models, planners are yet to fully exploit such technologies in their activities. This paper proposes a workflow to support non-experts in using three-dimensional city modelling tools to carry out planning control amendments and assess their implications. The paper focuses on using a parametric three-dimensional (3D) city model to enable planners to measure the physical (e.g., building height, shadow, setback) and functional (e.g., mix of land uses) impacts of new planning controls. The workflow is then implemented in an inner suburb of Metropolitan Melbourne, where urban intensification strategies require the planners to carry out radical changes in regulations. This study demonstrates the power of the proposed 3D visualisation tool for urban planners at taking two-dimensional (2D) Geographic Information System (GIS) procedural modelling to construct a 3D model. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
From IFC to 3D Tiles: An Integrated Open-Source Solution for Visualising BIMs on Cesium
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(10), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7100393 - 28 Sep 2018
Cited by 10
Abstract
The 3D Tiles specification, created by Cesium, is designed for streaming massive heterogeneous three-dimensional (3D) geospatial datasets online using WebGL technology. The program has prevailed in the WebGIS community due to its ability to visualise, interact, and style 3D objects for various scenarios, [...] Read more.
The 3D Tiles specification, created by Cesium, is designed for streaming massive heterogeneous three-dimensional (3D) geospatial datasets online using WebGL technology. The program has prevailed in the WebGIS community due to its ability to visualise, interact, and style 3D objects for various scenarios, such as 3D cities, indoor environments, and point clouds. It offers a new opportunity to integrate Building Information Models (BIM) in the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) data format with existing geospatial data in a 3D WebGIS platform with open-source implementation. As no open-source solution for converting IFC models into 3D Tiles for online visualization had yet been found, this paper explores feasible approaches and integrates a range of tools and libraries as an open-source solution for the community. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Development of a 3D Digital Cadastre Visualization Prototype
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(10), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7100384 - 24 Sep 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
The massive property development of high-rises and complex structures above and below the ground surface in cities indicates the lack of land and high demand to use spaces. However, the existing land and property administration systems are mainly two dimensional and not capable [...] Read more.
The massive property development of high-rises and complex structures above and below the ground surface in cities indicates the lack of land and high demand to use spaces. However, the existing land and property administration systems are mainly two dimensional and not capable of efficiently managing these complex spaces. As ownership rights on plans are recorded in paper or PDF, understanding these rights and making effective decisions and analyses can be difficult without having experience in the art of reading and interpreting plan information. This paper attempts to address these issues by presenting a prototype for visualizing three-dimensional land and property information. The aim of this prototype is to illustrate and communicate the requirements and benefits of a 3D digital cadastre platform. The prototype is a web-based application and includes functionality to display both legal and physical data, interact with 3D models, display administrative data, identify objects and search objects, visualize cross-sections, and undertake measurements in 3D. For this prototype, a multi-story building was selected as a case study and its 3D model was imported into the prototype to display ownership rights. The prototype was then evaluated by various stakeholders and their feedback was considered for future enhancement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
SmartEscape: A Mobile Smart Individual Fire Evacuation System Based on 3D Spatial Model
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(6), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7060223 - 16 Jun 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
We propose SmartEscape, a real-time, dynamic, intelligent and user-specific evacuation system with a mobile interface for emergency cases such as fire. Unlike past work, we explore dynamically changing conditions and calculate a personal route for an evacuee by considering his/her individual features. SmartEscape, [...] Read more.
We propose SmartEscape, a real-time, dynamic, intelligent and user-specific evacuation system with a mobile interface for emergency cases such as fire. Unlike past work, we explore dynamically changing conditions and calculate a personal route for an evacuee by considering his/her individual features. SmartEscape, which is fast, low-cost, low resource-consuming and mobile supported, collects various environmental sensory data and takes evacuees’ individual features into account, uses an artificial neural network (ANN) to calculate personal usage risk of each link in the building, eliminates the risky ones, and calculates an optimum escape route under existing circumstances. Then, our system guides the evacuee to the exit through the calculated route with vocal and visual instructions on the smartphone. While the position of the evacuee is detected by RFID (Radio-Frequency Identification) technology, the changing environmental conditions are measured by the various sensors in the building. Our ANN (Artificial Neural Network) predicts dynamically changing risk states of all links according to changing environmental conditions. Results show that SmartEscape, with its 98.1% accuracy for predicting risk levels of links for each individual evacuee in a building, is capable of evacuating a great number of people simultaneously, through the shortest and the safest route. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Formalized 3D Geovisualization Illustrated to Selectivity Purpose of Virtual 3D City Model
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(5), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7050194 - 18 May 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Virtual 3D city models act as valuable central information hubs supporting many aspects of cities, from management to planning and simulation. However, we noted that 3D city models are still underexploited and believe that this is partly due to inefficient visual communication channels [...] Read more.
Virtual 3D city models act as valuable central information hubs supporting many aspects of cities, from management to planning and simulation. However, we noted that 3D city models are still underexploited and believe that this is partly due to inefficient visual communication channels across 3D model producers and the end-user. With the development of a formalized 3D geovisualization approach, this paper aims to support and make the visual identification and recognition of specific objects in the 3D models more efficient and useful. The foundation of the proposed solution is a knowledge network of the visualization of 3D geospatial data that gathers and links mapping and rendering techniques. To formalize this knowledge base and make it usable as a decision-making system for the selection of styles, second-order logic is used. It provides a first set of efficient graphic design guidelines, avoiding the creation of graphical conflicts and thus improving visual communication. An interactive tool is implemented and lays the foundation for a suitable solution for assisting the visualization process of 3D geospatial models within CAD and GIS-oriented software. Ultimately, we propose an extension to OGC Symbology Encoding in order to provide suitable graphic design guidelines to web mapping services. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
LiDAR—A Technology to Assist with Smart Cities and Climate Change Resilience: A Case Study in an Urban Metropolis
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(5), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7050161 - 24 Apr 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
In this paper, we demonstrate three unique use cases of LiDAR data and processing, which can be implemented in an urban metropolis to determine the challenges that are associated with climate change. LiDAR data for the City of Toronto were collected in April [...] Read more.
In this paper, we demonstrate three unique use cases of LiDAR data and processing, which can be implemented in an urban metropolis to determine the challenges that are associated with climate change. LiDAR data for the City of Toronto were collected in April 2015 with a density of 10 points/m2. We utilized both a digital terrain model and a bare earth digital elevation model in this work. The first case study estimated storm water, in which we compared flow accumulation values and catchment areas generated with a 20-m DEM and a 1-m LiDAR DEM. The finer resolution DEM demonstrated that the urban street features play a significant role in flow accumulation by directing flows. Urban catchment areas were found to occur on spatial scales that were smaller than the 20-m DEM cell size. For the second case study, the solar potential in the City of Toronto was calculated based on the slope and aspect of each land parcel. According to area, 56% of the city was found to have high solar potential, with 33% and 11% having medium and low solar potential. For the third case study, we calculated the building heights for 16,715 high-rise buildings in Toronto, which were combined with ambulance and fire emergency response times required to reach the base of the building. All buildings that had more than 17 stories were within a 5-min response time for both fire and ambulance services. Only 79% and 88% of these buildings were within a 3-min response time for ambulance and fire emergencies, respectively. LiDAR data provides a highly detailed record of the built urban environment and can provide support in the planning and assessment of climate change resilience activities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Implementation of Spatial Planning Objects in a 3D Cadastral Model
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(4), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7040153 - 18 Apr 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The paper concerns spatial planning in Poland and its connection with the cadastre. The Polish spatial planning system defines the set of colours, lines, hatches, etc. destined for the preparations of spatial plans, though this has so far not been followed by a [...] Read more.
The paper concerns spatial planning in Poland and its connection with the cadastre. The Polish spatial planning system defines the set of colours, lines, hatches, etc. destined for the preparations of spatial plans, though this has so far not been followed by a spatial planning model or application schema. The aim of this paper is to create a preliminary concept of the unified modelling language (UML) schema of database integrating 3D cadastre and 3D spatial planning. The authors initially define five unified modelling language classes representing spatial planning objects (four representing spatial objects and one a dictionary list). As spatial planning and cadastres are very strongly connected, these classes are implemented into a cadastral model that had been earlier enriched with 3D classes. The final results of this research are UML diagrams based on the Polish cadastral model as defined earlier in legal regulations. They comprise original cadastral model classes, 3D cadastral objects added in earlier research work, classes representing spatial planning objects and the relationships among them. Such a solution better connects cadastre and spatial planning on a structural level and introduces 3D elements into spatial planning which has basically been done in two dimensions. Full article
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