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Risk Factors for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Children: State of the Art

1
Department of “Organi di Senso”, University “Sapienza”, 00185 Rome, Italy
2
Department of Head-Neck Surgery, Otolaryngology, Head-Neck and Oral Surgery Unit, Morgagni Pierantoni Hospital, 47121 Forlì, Italy
3
Ear-Nose-Throat & Audiology Unit, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
4
Department of Oral and Maxillo Facial Sciences, University “Sapienza”, 00185 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3235; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183235
Received: 24 June 2019 / Revised: 19 August 2019 / Accepted: 25 August 2019 / Published: 4 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Disorders Across the Lifespan: A Different Perspective)
The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) represents only part of a large group of pathologies of variable entity called respiratory sleep disorders (RSD) which include simple snoring and increased upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS). Although the etiopathogenesis of adult OSAS is well known, many aspects of this syndrome in children are still debated. Its prevalence is about 2% in children from 2 to 8 years of age, mostly related to the size of the upper airways adenoid tissue. Several risk factors linked to the development of OSAS are typical of the pediatric age. The object of this paper is to analyze the state of the art on this specific topic, discussing its implications in terms of diagnosis and management. View Full-Text
Keywords: pediatric OSAS; obesity; adenotonsillar hypertrophy; craniofacial abnormalities; allergic rhinitis; inflammation pediatric OSAS; obesity; adenotonsillar hypertrophy; craniofacial abnormalities; allergic rhinitis; inflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gulotta, G.; Iannella, G.; Vicini, C.; Polimeni, A.; Greco, A.; de Vincentiis, M.; Visconti, I.C.; Meccariello, G.; Cammaroto, G.; De Vito, A.; Gobbi, R.; Bellini, C.; Firinu, E.; Pace, A.; Colizza, A.; Pelucchi, S.; Magliulo, G. Risk Factors for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Children: State of the Art. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3235. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183235

AMA Style

Gulotta G, Iannella G, Vicini C, Polimeni A, Greco A, de Vincentiis M, Visconti IC, Meccariello G, Cammaroto G, De Vito A, Gobbi R, Bellini C, Firinu E, Pace A, Colizza A, Pelucchi S, Magliulo G. Risk Factors for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Children: State of the Art. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(18):3235. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183235

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gulotta, Giampiero, Giannicola Iannella, Claudio Vicini, Antonella Polimeni, Antonio Greco, Marco de Vincentiis, Irene C. Visconti, Giuseppe Meccariello, Giovanni Cammaroto, Andrea De Vito, Riccardo Gobbi, Chiara Bellini, Elisabetta Firinu, Annalisa Pace, Andrea Colizza, Stefano Pelucchi, and Giuseppe Magliulo. 2019. "Risk Factors for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Children: State of the Art" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 18: 3235. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183235

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