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Public Health and Risk Factors across the Lifespan

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Public Health Statistics and Risk Assessment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 40502

Special Issue Editors


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Chief Guest Editor
CBIOS—Universidade Lusófona’s Research Center for Biosciences & Health Technologies, Campo Grande 376, 1749-024 Lisboa, Portugal
Interests: pharmacology; food toxicology; molecular nutrition; redox biology; cancer
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
CBIOS - Research Center for Biosciences & Health Technologies, Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Portugal
Interests: eHealth; health service research; health and development policies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates
Interests: health systems; healthcare workers; environmental exposures; occupational health
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

During the course of a life, a person’s exposure to different risk factors changes and evolves. From malnutrition in the womb to occupational hazards, humans have to tackle multiple challenges.

Depending on the predominant social and environmental factors where a population is inserted, the pervasiveness of social determinants of health will determine the exposure to risk factors. Risk factors differ and evolve across the lifespan, and have particular importance at certain ages, including exposure to literacy, nutrition and lifestyle habits, environmental and occupational exposure, medication and drug use, and diseases. How populations and individuals deal with risk and its perception, learning mechanisms and coping strategies, how they change and evolve through life, and how to develop health-promotion strategies and implement interventions targeted to specific age groups, are all matters of interest for researchers.

This Special Issue aims to present a broad updated view of risk factor changes and evolution through the lifespan. Contributions from all over the globe are encouraged, in order to provide an image of the best practices and policies each country has in place to deal with this ever-present concern.

Researchers are invited to submit original research articles, using any study design, including case studies, implementation/interventional studies, cohort studies, cross-sectional studies, as well as reviews and meta-analyses.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.
Yours sincerely,

Dr. Ana Sofia Fernandes
Dr. João Pedro Gregório
Dr. Marilia Silva Paulo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Occupational and environmental exposure
  • Nutrition and lifestyle
  • Medication and drugs use
  • Health literacy
  • Public health interventions

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 355 KiB  
Article
Factors Affecting the Deterioration of the Physical Health Status of Taxi Drivers by Age Group
by Jongsun Ok, Kyonghwa Kang and Hyeongsu Kim
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(6), 3429; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063429 - 14 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2304
Abstract
With the rapidly aging population, taxi drivers are aging at a fast pace, and competition in the taxi industry is intensifying due to the emergence of various transportation platforms. A descriptive secondary data study was conducted (on a total of 936 subjects) to [...] Read more.
With the rapidly aging population, taxi drivers are aging at a fast pace, and competition in the taxi industry is intensifying due to the emergence of various transportation platforms. A descriptive secondary data study was conducted (on a total of 936 subjects) to determine the factors affecting the deterioration of taxi drivers’ physical health status (PHS) according to their age group. The increased incidence of chronic diseases and cognitive decline among taxi drivers aged 55–64 years had the greatest influence on the deterioration of their PHS. Driver obesity was more likely to be related to deterioration of the PHS in the drivers aged 55–64 years (OR: 2.459, <0.001) and 35–54 years (OR: 2.133, <0.001). Among the financial factors, a driver’s income and their number of dependent family members were correlated with the deterioration of the PHS for drivers aged 55 years or over. Therefore, chronic diseases, obesity and cognitive decline were related with deterioration of the physical health status. This suggests that attention should be paid to healthcare policies not only for the elderly aged over 65 years but also those aged 50 to 64 years, i.e., middle-aged people at the beginning of the transition to old age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health and Risk Factors across the Lifespan)
11 pages, 338 KiB  
Article
Using Illicit Drugs to Lose Weight among Recovering Female Drug Users in China: An Exploratory Qualitative Study
by Liu Liu, Xiaotao Wang, Yang Xie and Wing-Hong Chui
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 2626; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052626 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2528
Abstract
The population of female drug users has been growing in China, and these women have been found to care deeply about their weight. Against this backdrop, this study examines the relationship between Chinese women’s illicit drug use and their intentions to lose weight, [...] Read more.
The population of female drug users has been growing in China, and these women have been found to care deeply about their weight. Against this backdrop, this study examines the relationship between Chinese women’s illicit drug use and their intentions to lose weight, keep fit, and maintain a slim body shape. The participants of this study were 29 women who all had experience with illicit drug use for weight control. These women were drawn from a female compulsory drug treatment center located in eastern China. Semi-structured interviews with these 29 participants were conducted between 2013 and 2016. Expectations of losing weight and pursuing their ideal slim body shape were found to be an important reason for the study participants’ initiation of drug use, its maintenance, and failures to achieve abstinence. These Chinese female drug users were generally satisfied with weight loss outcomes subsequent to drug consumption. A fuller appreciation of Chinese women’s weight-loss-related illicit drug use patterns is much needed to help devise strategies and policies to deal with this growing problem. These include changing the dominant aesthetic cultural preference for thinness, paying particular attention to the functional use of illicit drugs in drug treatment programs, and having special interventions for women who interact with drug users within their social networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health and Risk Factors across the Lifespan)
7 pages, 314 KiB  
Communication
Parenting, Pesticides and Adolescent Psychological Adjustment: A Brief Report
by Joseph G. Grzywacz, Jason B. Belden, Amy M. Robertson, Daphne C. Hernandez, Fiorella L. Carlos Chavez and Michael J. Merten
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(1), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010540 - 4 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2041
Abstract
Pesticides used to control insects, such as pyrethroids, are neurotoxicants, yet adolescent researchers often overlook their potential role in adolescent psychological adjustment. This brief report is guided by bioecological theory and considers the possible independent and interactive effects of environmental pyrethroid pesticide exposure [...] Read more.
Pesticides used to control insects, such as pyrethroids, are neurotoxicants, yet adolescent researchers often overlook their potential role in adolescent psychological adjustment. This brief report is guided by bioecological theory and considers the possible independent and interactive effects of environmental pyrethroid pesticide exposure for adolescent depressive symptoms. Self-reported adolescent appraisals of the parent–child relationship and depressive symptoms were obtained from a convenience sample of impoverished, predominantly Latino urban youth (n = 44). Exposure to environmental pyrethroids was obtained from wipe samples using a standardized protocol. Parent–adolescent conflict was higher in households with bifenthrin than those without, and adolescent depressive symptoms were elevated in homes where cypermethrin was detected. In addition, the presence of bifenthrin in the home attenuated the protective effects of parental involvement on adolescent depressive symptoms. The current results suggest that adolescent mental health researchers must consider the synergistic combinations of adolescents’ environments’ physical and social features. Given the endemic presence of pesticides and their neurotoxic function, pesticide exposure may demand specific attention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health and Risk Factors across the Lifespan)
24 pages, 13040 KiB  
Article
Automated Classification of Normal Control and Early-Stage Dementia Based on Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Data Acquired from Smart Home Environment
by Lee-Nam Kwon, Dong-Hun Yang, Myung-Gwon Hwang, Soo-Jin Lim, Young-Kuk Kim, Jae-Gyum Kim, Kwang-Hee Cho, Hong-Woo Chun and Kun-Woo Park
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(24), 13235; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182413235 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2857
Abstract
With the global trend toward an aging population, the increasing number of dementia patients and elderly living alone has emerged as a serious social issue in South Korea. The assessment of activities of daily living (ADL) is essential for diagnosing dementia. However, since [...] Read more.
With the global trend toward an aging population, the increasing number of dementia patients and elderly living alone has emerged as a serious social issue in South Korea. The assessment of activities of daily living (ADL) is essential for diagnosing dementia. However, since the assessment is based on the ADL questionnaire, it relies on subjective judgment and lacks objectivity. Seven healthy seniors and six with early-stage dementia participated in the study to obtain ADL data. The derived ADL features were generated by smart home sensors. Statistical methods and machine learning techniques were employed to develop a model for auto-classifying the normal controls and early-stage dementia patients. The proposed approach verified the developed model as an objective ADL evaluation tool for the diagnosis of dementia. A random forest algorithm was used to compare a personalized model and a non-personalized model. The comparison result verified that the accuracy (91.20%) of the personalized model was higher than that (84.54%) of the non-personalized model. This indicates that the cognitive ability-based personalization showed encouraging performance in the classification of normal control and early-stage dementia and it is expected that the findings of this study will serve as important basic data for the objective diagnosis of dementia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health and Risk Factors across the Lifespan)
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10 pages, 350 KiB  
Article
What about Your Body Ornament? Experiences of Tattoo and Piercing among Italian Youths
by Francesca Gallè, Federica Valeriani, Daniela Marotta, Andrea De Giorgi, Annalisa Bargellini, Aida Bianco, Maria Eugenia Colucci, Maria Anna Coniglio, Laura Dallolio, Osvalda De Giglio, Gabriella Di Giuseppe, Giusy Diella, Pasqualina Laganà, Francesca Licata, Giorgio Liguori, Isabella Marchesi, Sofia Marini, Maria Teresa Montagna, Christian Napoli, Giovanni Battista Orsi, Cesira Pasquarella, Concetta Paola Pelullo, Luca Ricciardi, Vincenzo Romano Spica, Rossella Sacchetti, Stefano Tardivo, Licia Veronesi, Matteo Vitali and Carmela Protanoadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(23), 12429; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312429 - 26 Nov 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3113
Abstract
Background: tattooing and piercing are increasingly common, especially among youths. However, several health complications may be associated with these practices if basic hygiene rules are not respected. This multicenter study was aimed at exploring tattoo and piercing experiences reported by a large sample [...] Read more.
Background: tattooing and piercing are increasingly common, especially among youths. However, several health complications may be associated with these practices if basic hygiene rules are not respected. This multicenter study was aimed at exploring tattoo and piercing experiences reported by a large sample of Italian undergraduate students through a public health perspective. Methods: tattooed and/or pierced students attending 12 Italian universities were asked to complete a web-based questionnaire regarding their body art experience. Results: out of 1472 respondents, 833 (56.6%) were tattooed and 1009 (68.5%) were pierced. The greatest proportion of tattooed students (93.9%) got her/his first tattoo in a tattoo studio, while most of the pierced were serviced in a jewelry store (48.0%). The pierced ones were less informed on health issues related to the procedure (56.0% versus 77.8% of tattooed p < 0.001), and tattooists were reportedly more attentive to hygiene rules (instrument sterilization 91.5% versus 79.1% of piercers, p < 0.001; use of disposable gloves 98.2% versus 71% of piercers, p < 0.001). Conclusions: educational interventions for both professionals and communities are needed to improve the awareness and the control of health risks related to body art throughout the Italian territory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health and Risk Factors across the Lifespan)
15 pages, 402 KiB  
Article
Occupational Health of Frontline Healthcare Workers in the United Arab Emirates during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Snapshot of Summer 2020
by Suad Ajab, Balázs Ádam, Muna Al Hammadi, Najwa Al Bastaki, Mohamed Al Junaibi, Abdulmajeed Al Zubaidi, Mona Hegazi, Michal Grivna, Suhail Kady, Erik Koornneef, Raquel Neves, António Sousa Uva, Mohamud Sheek-Hussein, Tom Loney, Florentino Serranheira and Marília Silva Paulo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11410; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111410 - 29 Oct 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3307
Abstract
The study aim was to understand the availability of personal protective equipment (PPE) and the levels of anxiety, depression, and burnout of healthcare workers (HCWs) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This study was an online-based, cross-sectional survey during July and August 2020. [...] Read more.
The study aim was to understand the availability of personal protective equipment (PPE) and the levels of anxiety, depression, and burnout of healthcare workers (HCWs) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This study was an online-based, cross-sectional survey during July and August 2020. Participants were eligible from the entire country, and 1290 agreed to participate. The majority of HCWs were females aged 30–39 years old, working as nurses, and 80% considered PPE to be available. Twelve percent of respondents tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Half of HCWs considered themselves physically tired (52.2%), reported musculoskeletal pain or discomfort (54.2%), and perceived moderate-to-high levels of burnout on at least one of three burnout domains (52.8%). A quarter of HCWs reported anxiety (26.3%) or depression (28.1%). HCWs reporting not having musculoskeletal pain, having performed physical activity, and higher scores of available PPE reported lower scores of anxiety, depression, and burnout. UAE HCWs experienced more access to PPE and less anxiety, depression, and burnout compared with HCWs in other countries. Study findings can be used by healthcare organizations and policymakers to ensure adequate measures are implemented to maximize the health and wellbeing of HCWs during the current COVID-19 and future pandemics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health and Risk Factors across the Lifespan)
10 pages, 612 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Cardiovascular Disease Risk and Neck Circumference Shown in the Systematic Coronary Risk Estimation (SCORE) Risk Model
by Serkan Asil, Ender Murat, Hatice Taşkan, Veysel Özgür Barış, Suat Görmel, Salim Yaşar, Murat Çelik, Uygar Çağdaş Yüksel, Hasan Kutsi Kabul and Cem Barçın
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10763; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010763 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2009
Abstract
Introduction: The most important way to reduce CVD-related mortality is to apply appropriate treatment according to the risk status of the patients. For this purpose, the SCORE risk model is used in Europe. In addition to these risk models, some anthropometric measurements are [...] Read more.
Introduction: The most important way to reduce CVD-related mortality is to apply appropriate treatment according to the risk status of the patients. For this purpose, the SCORE risk model is used in Europe. In addition to these risk models, some anthropometric measurements are known to be associated with CVD risk and risk factors. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the association of these anthropometric measurements, especially neck circumference (NC), with the SCORE risk chart. Methods: This was planned as a cross-sectional study. The study population were classified according to their SCORE risk values. The relationship of NC and other anthropometric measurements with the total cardiovascular risk indicated by the SCORE risk was investigated. Results: A total of 232 patients were included in the study. The patients participating in the study were analysed in four groups according to the SCORE ten-year total cardiovascular mortality risk. As a result, the NC was statistically significantly lower among the SCORE low and moderate risk group than all other SCORE risk groups (low-high and very high 36(3)–38(4) (IQR) p: 0.026, 36(3)–39(4) (IQR) p < 0.001, 36(3)–40(4) (IQR) p < 0.001), (moderate-high and very high 38(4) vs. 39(4) (IQR) p: 0.02, 38(4) vs. 40(4) (IQR) p < 0.001, 39(4) vs. 40(4) (IQR) p > 0.05). NC was found to have the strongest correlation with SCORE than the other anthropometric measurements. Conclusions: Neck circumference correlates strongly with the SCORE risk model which shows the ten-year cardiovascular mortality risk and can be used in clinical practice to predict CVD risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health and Risk Factors across the Lifespan)
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14 pages, 371 KiB  
Article
Presumed Exposure to Chemical Pollutants and Experienced Health Impacts among Warehouse Workers at Logistics Companies: A Cross-Sectional Survey
by Szabolcs Lovas, Károly Nagy, János Sándor and Balázs Ádám
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 7052; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18137052 - 1 Jul 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2887
Abstract
During intercontinental shipping, freight containers and other closed transport devices are applied. These closed spaces can be polluted with various harmful chemicals that may accumulate in poorly ventilated environments. The major pollutants are residues of pesticides used for fumigation as well as volatile [...] Read more.
During intercontinental shipping, freight containers and other closed transport devices are applied. These closed spaces can be polluted with various harmful chemicals that may accumulate in poorly ventilated environments. The major pollutants are residues of pesticides used for fumigation as well as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from the goods. While handling cargos at logistics companies, workers can be exposed to these pollutants, frequently without adequate occupational health and safety precautions. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among potentially exposed warehouse workers and office workers as controls at Hungarian logistics companies (1) to investigate the health effects of chemical pollutants occurring in closed spaces of transportation and storage and (2) to collect information about the knowledge of and attitude toward workplace chemical exposures as well as the occupational health and safety precautions applied. Pre-existing medical conditions did not show any significant difference between the working groups. Numbness or heaviness in the arms and legs (AOR = 3.99; 95% CI = 1.72–9.26) and dry cough (AOR = 2.32; 95% CI = 1.09–4.93) were significantly associated with working in closed environments of transportation and storage, while forgetfulness (AOR = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.18–0.87), sleep disturbances (AOR = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.17–0.78), and tiredness after waking up (AOR = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.20–0.79) were significantly associated with employment in office. Warehouse workers who completed specific workplace health and safety training had more detailed knowledge related to this workplace chemical issue (AOR = 8.18; 95% CI = 3.47–19.27), and they were significantly more likely to use certain preventive measures. Warehouse workers involved in handling cargos at logistics companies may be exposed to different chemical pollutants, and the related health risks remain unknown if the presence of these chemicals is not recognized. Applied occupational health and safety measures at logistics companies are not adequate enough to manage this chemical safety issue, which warrants awareness raising and the introduction of effective preventive strategies to protect workers’ health at logistics companies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health and Risk Factors across the Lifespan)
9 pages, 2546 KiB  
Article
The Perception of Primary School Teachers Regarding the Pharmacotherapy of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
by João Gregório, Raquel Ferreira and Ana Sofia Fernandes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6233; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126233 - 9 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2500
Abstract
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is raising concerns across health systems, affecting about 5% of the school-age population. Therapy usually involves psychostimulants, which are prone to adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Teachers have many contact hours with children and can easily detect behavioral changes [...] Read more.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is raising concerns across health systems, affecting about 5% of the school-age population. Therapy usually involves psychostimulants, which are prone to adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Teachers have many contact hours with children and can easily detect behavioral changes upon the beginning of medication. However, few studies have focused on the role of teachers in the management of ADHD children and detection of ADRs. The present work aimed to characterize the perception of primary school teachers regarding the impact of ADHD therapeutics. A questionnaire was constructed focused on teachers’ training regarding ADHD and its therapy; experience with students with ADHD; changes upon beginning of medication; and observation of ADRs. A total of 107 completed questionnaires were obtained. The results indicate that more than 40% of the inquired teachers have received training in ADHD, but in most cases, the theme of therapeutics was absent from that training. The vast majority of teachers (91.6%) have had students with ADHD and observed mood alterations associated with medications. More than 60% of the teachers answered that they are aware of the ADRs and of these, 24% have already detected them in their students. The teachers reported the observed ADRs to parents in 93% of the cases and to doctors in 28% of the cases. In conclusion, the results show the need to reinforce teachers’ training in ADHD and its therapeutics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health and Risk Factors across the Lifespan)
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14 pages, 2583 KiB  
Article
A Potential Health Risk to Occupational User from Exposure to Biocidal Active Chemicals
by Joo-Hyon Kim, Moon-Young Hwang and Yoo-jin Kim
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 8770; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238770 - 25 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2950
Abstract
Biocidal active chemicals have potential health risks associated with exposure to retail biocide products such as disinfectants for COVID-19. Reliable exposure assessment was investigated to understand the exposure pattern of biocidal products used by occupational workers in their place of occupation, multi-use facilities, [...] Read more.
Biocidal active chemicals have potential health risks associated with exposure to retail biocide products such as disinfectants for COVID-19. Reliable exposure assessment was investigated to understand the exposure pattern of biocidal products used by occupational workers in their place of occupation, multi-use facilities, and general facilities. The interview–survey approach was taken to obtain the database about several subcategories of twelve occupational groups, the use pattern, and the exposure information of non-human hygiene disinfectant and insecticide products in workplaces. Furthermore, we investigated valuable exposure factors, e.g., the patterns of use, exposure routes, and quantifying potential hazardous chemical intake, on biocidal active ingredients. We focused on biocidal active-ingredient exposure from products used by twelve occupational worker groups. The 685 non-human hygiene disinfectants and 763 insecticides identified contained 152 and 97 different active-ingredient chemicals, respectively. The toxicity values and clinical health effects of total twelve ingredient chemicals were determined through a brief overview of toxicity studies aimed at estimating human health risks. To estimate actual exposure amounts divided by twelve occupational groups, the time spent to apply the products was investigated from the beginning to end of the product use. This study investigated the exposure assessment of occupational exposure to biocidal products used in workplaces, multi-use facilities, and general facilities. Furthermore, this study provides valuable information on occupational exposure that may be useful to conduct accurate exposure assessment and to manage products used for quarantine in general facilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health and Risk Factors across the Lifespan)
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10 pages, 308 KiB  
Article
Adenoma Characteristics and the Influence of Alcohol and Cigarette Consumption on the Development of Advanced Colorectal Adenomas
by Maja Čebohin, Senka Samardžić, Ksenija Marjanović, Martina Tot Vesić, Kristina Kralik, Andreja Bartulić and Dijana Hnatešen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(22), 8296; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228296 - 10 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2268
Abstract
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC), one of the leading public health problems worldwide, is a disease that can be prevented when it is detected in time. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to investigate the characteristics of colorectal adenomas and whether alcohol [...] Read more.
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC), one of the leading public health problems worldwide, is a disease that can be prevented when it is detected in time. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to investigate the characteristics of colorectal adenomas and whether alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking correlated with the development of advanced adenomas in participants in The National Programme for Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer (NP) in Osijek-Baranja County (OBC), Croatia. Methods: The screening methods were the guaiac Faecal Occult Blood Test (gFOBT), colonoscopy, histological analysis, and risk factor questionnaire. Results: The results showed the presence of adenomas in 136 men (57.4%) and 101 women (42.6%), p < 0.001. There was one adenoma in 147 (62%) most commonly located in sigmorect, in 86 (59%) participants, and 44 (18.6%) participants had multiple adenomas, most commonly found in multi loc, p < 0.001. According to size, 118 (49.8%) of all adenomas were between 0.1 and 0.9 cm, while adenomas of 3 cm 19 (8%) were the fewest, p < 0.001. There were 142 (59.9%) advanced adenomas. Conclusions: Adenoma development in the OBC population was correlated with predictors: adenoma size, high-grade dysplasia, smoking and alcohol consumption of 20 g per day. Non-smoking was found to be a health protective behaviour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health and Risk Factors across the Lifespan)
12 pages, 1555 KiB  
Article
Gender-Based Analysis of Risk Factors for Dementia Using Senior Cohort
by Jaekue Choi, Lee-Nam Kwon, Heuiseok Lim and Hong-Woo Chun
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 7274; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197274 - 5 Oct 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2536
Abstract
Globally, one of the biggest problems with the increase in the elderly population is dementia. However, dementia still has no fundamental cure. Therefore, it is important to predict and prevent dementia early. For early prediction of dementia, it is crucial to find dementia [...] Read more.
Globally, one of the biggest problems with the increase in the elderly population is dementia. However, dementia still has no fundamental cure. Therefore, it is important to predict and prevent dementia early. For early prediction of dementia, it is crucial to find dementia risk factors that increase a person’s risk of developing dementia. In this paper, the subject of dementia risk factor analysis and discovery studies were limited to gender, because it is assumed that the difference in the prevalence of dementia in men and women will lead to differences in the risk factors for dementia among men and women. This study analyzed the Korean National Health Information System—Senior Cohort using machine-learning techniques. By using the machine-learning technique, it was possible to reveal a very small causal relationship between data that are ignored using existing statistical techniques. By using the senior cohort, it was possible to analyze 6000 data that matched the experimental conditions out of 558,147 sample subjects over 14 years. In order to analyze the difference in dementia risk factors between men and women, three machine-learning-based dementia risk factor analysis models were constructed and compared. As a result of the experiment, it was found that the risk factors for dementia in men and women are different. In addition, not only did the results include most of the known dementia risk factors, previously unknown candidates for dementia risk factors were also identified. We hope that our research will be helpful in finding new dementia risk factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health and Risk Factors across the Lifespan)
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12 pages, 844 KiB  
Article
Exploring Volatile Organic Compound Exposure and Its Association with Wheezing in Children under 36 Months: A Cross-Sectional Study in South Lisbon, Portugal
by Raquel Rodrigues dos Santos, João Gregório, Liliana Castanheira and Ana S. Fernandes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6929; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186929 - 22 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2881
Abstract
Air quality and other environmental factors are gaining importance in public health policies. Some volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been associated with asthma and symptoms of respiratory disease such as wheezing. The aim of this study was to measure the concentration of Total [...] Read more.
Air quality and other environmental factors are gaining importance in public health policies. Some volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been associated with asthma and symptoms of respiratory disease such as wheezing. The aim of this study was to measure the concentration of Total VOCs and assess their possible association with the occurrence of wheezing episodes in children under 36 months of age, in a region south of Lisbon, Portugal. A cross-sectional study was performed from October 2015 to March 2016. The sample of children under 36 months of age was selected by convenience, by inviting parents to take part in the study. A survey was applied to collect information on bedroom features, as well as to verify the occurrence of wheezing episodes. The indoor air quality parameters of bedrooms were measured using three 3M Quest® EVM-7 environmental monitors. In total, 34.4% of infants had had wheezing episodes since birth, with 86.7% of these presenting at least one episode in the previous 12 months. Total VOC levels were above the reference values in 48% of the analyzed bedrooms. No significant association of VOC exposure in a domestic setting with episodes of wheezing was found. However, children living in households with smokers were 4 times more likely to develop wheezing episodes. Thus, this study provides relevant information that warrants further studies to assess infant exposure to indoor air pollution and parental smoking in a residential context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health and Risk Factors across the Lifespan)
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9 pages, 326 KiB  
Article
Changes in Eating Habits among Displaced and Non-Displaced University Students
by Rita Bárbara and Cíntia Ferreira-Pêgo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5369; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155369 - 25 Jul 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4825
Abstract
Nowadays the younger generations are moving their food habits from the traditional diet to a Western diet, which is low in fruits and vegetables and high in fat and sugary drinks. University students are a particularly vulnerable population once, with the entrance to [...] Read more.
Nowadays the younger generations are moving their food habits from the traditional diet to a Western diet, which is low in fruits and vegetables and high in fat and sugary drinks. University students are a particularly vulnerable population once, with the entrance to university, they are subjected to new influences and responsibilities; in particular, those who live far from their parents’ houses are more predisposed to unhealthy eating habits. To assess the influence that admission to university has had on the frequency of intake of certain foods and meals as well as their adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), self-administered questionnaires were applied. The sample included 97 Portuguese students, with an average age of 21 years, a normal weight, according to body mass index, and an average MedDiet adherence. Most of the individuals did not smoke and the majority did not drink coffee. It was also observed that displaced students consume fast food more frequently compared to the period before they start university. Fish ingestion decreased and coffee consumption increased, in the same group, after starting their university studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health and Risk Factors across the Lifespan)
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