Special Issue "Children, Adolescents and Nutrition"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2016).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. María M. Morales Suárez-Varela
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Unit of Preventive Medicine and Public Healt. Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Legal Medicine. University of Valencia. Avda. Vicente Andrés Estellés s/n, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain
2.Consorcio de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP). Avda. Monforte de Lemos, 3-5 Pabellón 11 Planta 0, 28029 Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Interests: epidemiology; chronic illnesses; pregnancy; environmental exposure; environmental health; diet; newborn; children; lifestye factors
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are organizing a Special Issue on the nutrition and health effects in children and adolescent in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. The venue is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes articles and communications in the interdisciplinary area of environmental health sciences and public health. For detailed information on the journal, we refer you to https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph

Both childhood and adolescence are particularly important periods for an individual’s growth and development, during which energy and nutrient needs increase, but at health levels compared to adulthood. Lack of nutritional quality in childhood and adolescence contributes to the development of risk factors, which favor the appearance of chronic diseases in adulthood (obesity, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, bone problems, and even psychological problems). Thus, prevention during this period is a Public Health requirement. Childhood and adolescence are suitable times to encourage healthy eating habits that suit the new lifestyles of this population group.

This Special Issue is open to any subject area related to the nutrition in child and adolescent. This Special Issue represents an effort to capture current developments in this field and to provide a forum for cutting-edge contributions to the literature.

Prof. Dr. María M. Morales Suárez-Varela
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • children
  • adolescent
  • nutrition
  • healthy lifestyle
  • primary health care
  • diet quality

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Consumption of Energy Drinks by a Group of Adolescent Athletes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(8), 768; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13080768 - 29 Jul 2016
Cited by 11
Abstract
Background: Energy drinks (EDs) have become widely popular among young adults and, even more so, among adolescents. Increasingly, they are consumed by athletes, particularly those who have just begun their sporting career. Uncontrolled and high consumption of EDs, in addition to other [...] Read more.
Background: Energy drinks (EDs) have become widely popular among young adults and, even more so, among adolescents. Increasingly, they are consumed by athletes, particularly those who have just begun their sporting career. Uncontrolled and high consumption of EDs, in addition to other sources of caffeine, may pose a threat to the health of young people. Hence, our objective was to analyze the consumption of EDs among teenagers engaged in sports, including quantity consumed, identification of factors influencing consumption, and risks associated with EDs and EDs mixed with alcohol (AmEDs). Methods: The study involved a specially designed questionnaire, which was completed by 707 students, 14.3 years of age on average, attending secondary sports schools. Results: EDs were consumed by 69% of the young athletes, 17% of whom drank EDs quite often: every day or 1–3 times a week. Most respondents felt no effects after drinking EDs, but some reported symptoms, including insomnia, anxiety, tachycardia, nervousness and irritability. The major determinant of the choice of EDs was taste (47%), followed by price (21%). One in ten respondents admitted to consumption of AmEDs. Among the consequences reported were: abdominal pains, nausea, vomiting, amnesia, headache, and hangover. Conclusions: EDs consumption among adolescent athletes was relatively high. Considering the habit of AmEDs and literature data, it is worth emphasizing that it may lead to health problems in the near future, alcohol- or drug-dependence, as well as other types of risk behaviour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children, Adolescents and Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Accuracy of Body Mass Index Cutoffs for Classifying Obesity in Chilean Children and Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050472 - 05 May 2016
Abstract
Objective: To determine the accuracy of two international Body Mass Index (BMI) cut-offs for classifying obesity compared to the percentage of fat mass (%FM) assessed by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) in a Chilean sample of children and adolescents; Material and Methods: [...] Read more.
Objective: To determine the accuracy of two international Body Mass Index (BMI) cut-offs for classifying obesity compared to the percentage of fat mass (%FM) assessed by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) in a Chilean sample of children and adolescents; Material and Methods: The subjects studied included 280 children and adolescents (125 girls and 155 boys) aged 8 to 17 years. Weight and height were measured. The BMI was calculated. Two international references (IOFT and WHO) were used as cut-off points. The %FM was assessed by DXA. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the performance of BMI in detecting obesity on the basis of %FM; Results: A high correlation was observed between the %FM measured by the DXA and the Z-scores of IOTF and WHO scores in the Chilean adolescents separated by sex (r = 0.78–0.80). Differences occurred in both references (IOFT and WHO) in relation to the criteria (p < 0.001). Both references demonstrated a good ability to predict sensitivity (between 84% and 93%) and specificity (between 83% and 88%) in both sexes of children and adolescents; Conclusions: A high correlation was observed between the Z-score of the BMI with the percentage of fat determined by the DXA. Despite this, the classifications using the different BMI cut-off points showed discrepancies. This suggests that the cut-off points selected to predict obesity in this sample should be viewed with caution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children, Adolescents and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050453 - 28 Apr 2016
Cited by 12
Abstract
The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI), and middle school and high school [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI), and middle school and high school students’ education level. The study was conducted in 2013–2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys) from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland). The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logistic regression model for measurable and dichotomous variables. Breakfast consumers were seen to eat other meals (second breakfast, lunch, dessert, supper) significantly more often than breakfast skippers. The main meal consumption habits depend on sex and change as adolescents age. Being a girl and a high school student predisposed participants to skip breakfast and supper more often. The BMI of breakfast consumers does not differ significantly from the BMI of breakfast skippers, so BMI might thus not be a sufficient marker of breakfast consumption regularity and dietary habits in an adolescent group. The importance of regularly eaten meals, especially breakfast, together with adequate daily dietary energy intake are beneficial for physical and psychological development and cannot be overestimated in nutritional education and it is necessary to promote healthy eating behavior for well-being in later adult life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children, Adolescents and Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Eating Behaviours of Preadolescent Children over Time: Stability, Continuity and the Moderating Role of Perceived Parental Feeding Practices
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(4), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13040437 - 20 Apr 2016
Cited by 3
Abstract
The links between childhood eating behaviours and parental feeding practices are well-established in younger children, but there is a lack of research examining these variables in a preadolescent age group, particularly from the child’s perspective, and longitudinally. This study firstly aimed to examine [...] Read more.
The links between childhood eating behaviours and parental feeding practices are well-established in younger children, but there is a lack of research examining these variables in a preadolescent age group, particularly from the child’s perspective, and longitudinally. This study firstly aimed to examine the continuity and stability of preadolescent perceptions of their parents’ controlling feeding practices (pressure to eat and restriction) over a 12 month period. The second aim was to explore if perceptions of parental feeding practices moderated the relationship between preadolescents’ eating behaviours longitudinally. Two hundred and twenty nine preadolescents (mean age at recruitment 8.73 years) completed questionnaires assessing their eating behaviours and their perceptions of parental feeding practices at two time points, 12 months apart (T1 and T2). Preadolescents’ perceptions of their parental feeding practices remained stable. Perceptions of restriction and pressure to eat were continuous. Perceptions of parental pressure to eat and restriction significantly moderated the relationships between eating behaviours at T1 and T2. The findings from this study suggest that in a preadolescent population, perceptions of parental pressure to eat and restriction of food may exacerbate the development of problematic eating behaviours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children, Adolescents and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Ferritin Levels in Colombian Children: Findings from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey (ENSIN)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(4), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13040405 - 05 Apr 2016
Cited by 2
Abstract
Low ferritin is associated with many adverse health outcomes and is highly prevalent worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe the key findings related to plasma ferritin levels to identify the prevalence and associated sociodemographic factors in a representative sample of [...] Read more.
Low ferritin is associated with many adverse health outcomes and is highly prevalent worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe the key findings related to plasma ferritin levels to identify the prevalence and associated sociodemographic factors in a representative sample of children in Colombia, based on the 2010 National Nutrition Survey. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 6650 Colombian children between the ages of 5 and 12. Plasma ferritin levels were determined by chemiluminescence. Sociodemographic data was assessed by computer-assisted personal interview technology. All analyses were conducted considering the complex nature of the sample. Of the children assessed, 3.5% had low ferritin, defined as levels <12 µg/L. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed increased risks for low ferritin levels among black or Afro-Colombian ethnic group and for those living in the northern, western and southern regions of the country. In conclusion, a significant prevalence of anemia caused by low ferritin levels was found and various sociodemographic factors were associated with this finding in Colombia. Continued surveillance and implementation of interventions to improve dietary patterns among the identified high-risk groups should be considered. Implementing these recommendations can help reduce manifestations of iron deficiency (e.g., delays in infant and child development) and thus improve public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children, Adolescents and Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Nutrient Intake and Depression Symptoms in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(3), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13030352 - 22 Mar 2016
Cited by 17
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between nutritional intake and depressive symptoms in Valencian schoolchildren. The ANIVA (Antropometria y Nutricion Infantil de Valencia) study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During academic year 2013–2014, 710 schoolchildren aged 6–9 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between nutritional intake and depressive symptoms in Valencian schoolchildren. The ANIVA (Antropometria y Nutricion Infantil de Valencia) study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During academic year 2013–2014, 710 schoolchildren aged 6–9 years were selected from eleven primary schools in Valencia (Spain). Children’s dietary intake was measured on three-day food records, completed by parents/guardians; children completed the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) Questionnaire to measure depressive symptoms. Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI), and z-scores were evaluated in all subjects. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Spanish dietary recommended intakes (DRIs); 20.70% of the sample presented depressive symptoms. We identified a positive association between children with depressive symptoms and non-depressive symptoms for thiamin, vitamin K, and bromine (p < 0.05), and a negative association for protein, carbohydrates, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B12 and E, zinc, manganese, cobalt, and aluminum (p < 0.05). Statistically significant differences were found between both groups according to the DRIs for intakes of total energy (p = 0.026), fiber (p < 0.001), vitamin C (p < 0.001), vitamin E (p = 0.004), magnesium (p = 0.018), and iron (p = 0.013). Our results demonstrated that carbohydrates were the most closely associated factor with depressive symptoms, and highlight the potential significant public health implications of inadequate nutritional intake on schoolchildren’s mental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children, Adolescents and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Adolescent Overweight and Obesity: Links to Socioeconomic Status and Fruit and Vegetable Intakes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(3), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13030307 - 09 Mar 2016
Cited by 11
Abstract
Whether adolescent overweight/obesity is linked to socioeconomic status (SES) and fruit and vegetable (F/V) intakes has not been confirmed. We aimed to determine whether there is an association between SES and adolescent overweight/obesity and to test the mediating effect of F/V intakes. This [...] Read more.
Whether adolescent overweight/obesity is linked to socioeconomic status (SES) and fruit and vegetable (F/V) intakes has not been confirmed. We aimed to determine whether there is an association between SES and adolescent overweight/obesity and to test the mediating effect of F/V intakes. This cross-sectional study included the data of 63,111 adolescents extracted from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Overweight/obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥ 85th percentile, while F/V intakes were categorized as high (recommended levels: ≥1 fruit serving and ≥3 vegetable servings per day) versus low. Among girls, low SES (beta = 0.50, p < 0.001) and F/V intakes (beta = −0.17, p = 0.038) were both significantly associated with overweight/obesity; the former association was significantly mediated by F/V intakes (Sobel test: z = 2.00, p = 0.046). Among boys, neither SES nor F/V intakes was significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Adolescent overweight/obesity was significantly linked to low SES and F/V intakes among girls only; low SES indirectly increased the risk of overweight/obesity via low F/V intakes. Therefore, promoting F/V intakes for socially disadvantaged girls should be prioritized as a population-based strategy for preventing adolescent overweight/obesity in South Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children, Adolescents and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Association of Maternal and Child Health Center (Posyandu) Availability with Child Weight Status in Indonesia: A National Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(3), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13030293 - 07 Mar 2016
Cited by 4
Abstract
Little is known about the childhood obesity prevention and treatment practices of Maternal and Child Health services (Posyandu) in Indonesia or in other countries. The present study aims to assess the association of the availability of Posyandu with overweight and obesity [...] Read more.
Little is known about the childhood obesity prevention and treatment practices of Maternal and Child Health services (Posyandu) in Indonesia or in other countries. The present study aims to assess the association of the availability of Posyandu with overweight and obesity in children of different household wealth levels. This was a secondary analysis of data collected in the 2013 Riskesdas (or Basic Health Research) survey, a cross-sectional study, representative population-based data. Height and weight, the availability of Posyandu, and basic characteristics of the study population were collected from parents with children aged 0 to 5 years (n = 63,237). Non-availability of Posyandu significantly raised the odds of being obese (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.06–1.21) and did not show a significant relationship in the odds for overweight (OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.93–1.07). This relationship persisted after a full adjustment (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.07–1.25 and OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.96–1.13, respectively). There was effect modification by household wealth, which was stronger for obese children. The availability of Posyandu has a protective association with childhood obesity in Indonesia. Posyandu services are well placed to play an important role in obesity prevention and treatment in early life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children, Adolescents and Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Child Wasting in Emergency Pockets: A Meta-Analysis of Small-Scale Surveys from Ethiopia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020178 - 28 Jan 2016
Cited by 5
Abstract
Child undernutrition is a major public health concern in Ethiopia (stunting national prevalence: 44%; wasting: 10%), despite the overall improvement in child health status during the last decade. Hundreds of small-scale surveys are conducted in Ethiopia’s emergency pockets under ENCU’s supervision. We reviewed [...] Read more.
Child undernutrition is a major public health concern in Ethiopia (stunting national prevalence: 44%; wasting: 10%), despite the overall improvement in child health status during the last decade. Hundreds of small-scale surveys are conducted in Ethiopia’s emergency pockets under ENCU’s supervision. We reviewed the evidence from small-scale surveys conducted between 2008 and 2013 with two objectives: to provide a summary estimate of wasting prevalence from emergency pockets and to examine reasons for variation in prevalence estimates. We created a dataset by combining data from the Complex Emergency Database, the Famine Early Warning System Network and the Armed Conflict Location Event Data. We conducted a meta-analysis of small-scale surveys using a random effects model with known within-study heterogeneity. The influence of survey covariates on estimated prevalence was investigated with meta-regression techniques. We included 158 surveys in the analysis. A high degree of heterogeneity among surveys was observed. The overall estimate of wasting prevalence was 10.6% (95% CI 9.8–11.4), with differences among regions and between residents and refugees. Meta-regression results showed that vaccination coverage, child mortality, diarrhea prevalence and food insecurity are significantly associated with wasting prevalence. Child care and displacement status were not. Aggregated analysis of small-scale surveys provides insights into the prevalence of wasting and factors explaining its variation. It can also guide survey planning towards areas with limited data availability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children, Adolescents and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Fat Mass Centile Charts for Brazilian Children and Adolescents and the Identification of the Roles of Socioeconomic Status and Physical Fitness on Fat Mass Development
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020151 - 22 Jan 2016
Cited by 2
Abstract
This paper presents fat mass centile charts for Brazilian youth and investigates the roles of socioeconomic status and physical fitness (PF) on fat mass (FM) development. Two northeast Brazilian samples were used: a cross-sectional sample of 3659 (1921 girls) aged 8 to 16 [...] Read more.
This paper presents fat mass centile charts for Brazilian youth and investigates the roles of socioeconomic status and physical fitness (PF) on fat mass (FM) development. Two northeast Brazilian samples were used: a cross-sectional sample of 3659 (1921 girls) aged 8 to 16 years and a mixed-longitudinal series of cohorts (8–10, 10–12, 12–14, 14–16 years) with 250 boys and 250 girls. A measure of somatic maturity was used as a marker of biological maturation; PF comprised agility, explosive and static strength, and aerobic capacity. Socioeconomic status was based on school attended; public or private. Slaughter’s anthropometric equations were used to estimate FM. Percentile charts was constructed using the LMS method. HLM (Hierarchical Linear Model) 7 software modeled FM changes, identifying inter-individual differences and their covariates. Girls and boys had different FM percentile values at each age; FM increased nonlinearly in both girls and boys. Higher PF levels reduced FM changes across time in both sexes. Sex-specific non-linear FM references were provided representing important tools for nutritionists, pediatriciann and educators. Physical fitness levels were found to act as a protective factor in FM increases. As such, we emphasize PF importance as a putative health marker and highlight the need for its systematic development across the school years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children, Adolescents and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6–9 Years) in Valencia (Spain): The ANIVA Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(12), 16082-16095; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph121215045 - 18 Dec 2015
Cited by 6
Abstract
The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6–9 years) in 2013–2014 in [...] Read more.
The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6–9 years) in 2013–2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children’s dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson’s chi-square and Student’s t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children, Adolescents and Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Changes in Eating Behaviours among Czech Children and Adolescents from 2002 to 2014 (HBSC Study)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(12), 15888-15899; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph121215028 - 15 Dec 2015
Cited by 8
Abstract
Many children skip breakfast, consume soft drinks/sweets and do not eat the recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables. Poor eating habits in children tend to be carried over into adulthood. The changes in eating behaviours of Czech 11-, 13- and 15-year-old children were [...] Read more.
Many children skip breakfast, consume soft drinks/sweets and do not eat the recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables. Poor eating habits in children tend to be carried over into adulthood. The changes in eating behaviours of Czech 11-, 13- and 15-year-old children were examined by frequency of breakfast (on weekdays and weekends), fruit, vegetable, sweet and soft drink consumption using data obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Logistic regression was used to analyze changes in eating behaviours. The findings showed a significant increase (only in girls, p ≤ 0.001) in prevalence of breakfast consumption (on weekdays) and a decrease in daily consumption of soft drinks (in boys and girls, p ≤ 0.001), sweets (in boys and girls, p ≤ 0.01) and fruit (in boys, p ≤ 0.01; in girls, p ≤ 0.001) between 2002 and 2014. Daily vegetable and breakfast on weekends consumption remained statistically unchanged over time. More frequent daily fruit, vegetable and breakfast (on weekends) consumption was reported by girls and younger children, whereas daily soft drink intake was more prevalent in boys and older children. There is a need for re-evaluation of current policies and new initiatives to improve the eating habits of Czech children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children, Adolescents and Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Nutritional Factors on Verbal Deficits and Psychopathic Personality Traits: Evidence of the Moderating Role of the MAOA Genotype
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(12), 15739-15755; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph121215017 - 10 Dec 2015
Abstract
The current study explores whether: (a) nutritional factors among adolescent males predict their risk of exhibiting verbal deficits and psychopathic traits during adulthood and (b) the link between nutritional factors and these outcomes is conditioned by the MAOA genotype. The study analyzes data [...] Read more.
The current study explores whether: (a) nutritional factors among adolescent males predict their risk of exhibiting verbal deficits and psychopathic traits during adulthood and (b) the link between nutritional factors and these outcomes is conditioned by the MAOA genotype. The study analyzes data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative, genetically informative sample. We find evidence that meal deprivation increases the likelihood of both verbal deficits and psychopathic personality traits, whereas poor quality nutrition increases the risk of verbal deficits. We detect the presence of a number of gene-environment interactions between measures of food quality and MAOA genotype, but no evidence of GxE in the case of meal deprivation. Limitations are noted and avenues for future research are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children, Adolescents and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Association of Vitamin A Status with Overnutrition in Children and Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(12), 15531-15539; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph121214998 - 07 Dec 2015
Cited by 2
Abstract
This study was conducted to examine the possible association between vitamin A status and overnutrition in Chinese urban children and adolescents. Weight, height and serum retinol were assessed in total 3457 children (7–9.9 years of age) and adolescents (10–17 years of age), using [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to examine the possible association between vitamin A status and overnutrition in Chinese urban children and adolescents. Weight, height and serum retinol were assessed in total 3457 children (7–9.9 years of age) and adolescents (10–17 years of age), using urban region data from the China National Nutrition and Health Survey 2010–2013 (CHNNS2010-2013) which is a nationally representative cross-sectional study. Prevalence of low serum concentration of retinol was 26.8% and 12.24% for overweight. Retinol inadequacy was significantly higher in children (32.13%) than in adolescents (24.48%). The average of retinol was significantly higher in overnutrified 42.32 μg/dL versus non-overnutrified 41.05 μg/dL (p = 0.00) children and adolescents. Overnutrified children and adolescents presented a greater chance of an increase in serum concentration of retinol (odds ratio 1.34, 95% confidence interval 1.10–1.63, and 1.48, 95% confidence interval (1.26–1.74) when compared with non-overnutrified children. An important correspondence between vitamin A deficiency and overnutrition was found. Non-overnutrified children and adolescents may have a greater chance of presenting low concentrations of retinol. Future public health strategies focused on the overnutrified population and vitamin A supplements should consider the effect of retinol on urban children and adolescents in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children, Adolescents and Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Weight Perception on Adolescents’ Weight-Loss Intentions and Behaviors: Evidence from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(11), 14640-14668; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph121114640 - 17 Nov 2015
Cited by 28
Abstract
The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between self-perception of being overweight and weight loss intentions, eating and exercise behaviors, as well as extreme weight-loss strategies for U.S. adolescents. This study uses 50,241 observations from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between self-perception of being overweight and weight loss intentions, eating and exercise behaviors, as well as extreme weight-loss strategies for U.S. adolescents. This study uses 50,241 observations from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBSS) 2001–2009, which were nationally representative sample of 9th- through 12th-grade students in both public and private schools in the US. This study finds that, irrespective of the weight status base on self-reported weight and height, adolescents who perceive themselves as overweight have a stronger intention to lose weight, but do not develop better eating and exercise habits, compared with their counterparts of same gender and reported weight status. Normal-weight adolescents, if they perceive themselves as overweight, are more likely to engage in health-compromising weight-loss methods. This study shows that it is critical to transform weight-loss intentions into actual behaviors among overweight/obese adolescents and improve the efficacy of behavioral interventions against childhood obesity. It also highlights the need of establishing a correct perception of body weight among normal weight adolescents to curb extreme weight-loss methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children, Adolescents and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Nutritional Correlates of Perceived Stress among University Students in Egypt
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(11), 14164-14176; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph121114164 - 06 Nov 2015
Cited by 16
Abstract
Food intake choice and amount might change with stress. However, this has not been examined among Egyptian students. We examined students’ stress levels, its correlation with their consumption of a range of food groups, and adherence to dietary guidelines. A cross sectional survey [...] Read more.
Food intake choice and amount might change with stress. However, this has not been examined among Egyptian students. We examined students’ stress levels, its correlation with their consumption of a range of food groups, and adherence to dietary guidelines. A cross sectional survey (N = 2810 undergraduates at 11 faculties at Assiut University, Egypt) assessed two composite food intake pattern scores (one unhealthy: sweets, cakes, snacks; and a healthy one: fruits and vegetables), and two indicators of healthy eating (subjective importance of healthy eating; and dietary guideline adherence index). Multiple linear regression tested the associations of stress with two food intake pattern scores and two indicators of healthy eating, controlling for six potential confounders for the sample and separately for males and females. Higher perceived stress score was significantly associated with less frequent food intake of fruit and vegetables in males and females. The association was more pronounced among males than in females. No significant association was observed between the sweets cakes and snacks score and stress. Of the two indicators of healthy eating, the dietary guideline adherence index was not associated with stress, while the subjective judgment of healthy eating was consistently negatively associated with stress. Stress related decreased-eating was present. Recent studies suggest that stress could be associated with either decreased or increased eating depending on the study population, food group, and type of stressor. Further research is necessary to understand stress related over- and undereating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children, Adolescents and Nutrition)
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