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Open AccessArticle

Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland

Department of Hygiene and Dietetics, Medical College, Jagiellonian University, 7 Kopernika St., Krakow 31-034, Poland
Department of Bioinformatics and Telemedicine, Medical College, Jagiellonian University, 16 Lazarza St., Krakow 31-034, Poland
School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia, 19 Jordana St., Zabrze 41-808, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: María M. Morales Suárez-Varela
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 453;
Received: 15 January 2016 / Revised: 23 March 2016 / Accepted: 28 March 2016 / Published: 28 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children, Adolescents and Nutrition)
The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI), and middle school and high school students’ education level. The study was conducted in 2013–2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys) from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland). The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logistic regression model for measurable and dichotomous variables. Breakfast consumers were seen to eat other meals (second breakfast, lunch, dessert, supper) significantly more often than breakfast skippers. The main meal consumption habits depend on sex and change as adolescents age. Being a girl and a high school student predisposed participants to skip breakfast and supper more often. The BMI of breakfast consumers does not differ significantly from the BMI of breakfast skippers, so BMI might thus not be a sufficient marker of breakfast consumption regularity and dietary habits in an adolescent group. The importance of regularly eaten meals, especially breakfast, together with adequate daily dietary energy intake are beneficial for physical and psychological development and cannot be overestimated in nutritional education and it is necessary to promote healthy eating behavior for well-being in later adult life. View Full-Text
Keywords: adolescents; eating behavior; breakfast skipping; meal consumption habits adolescents; eating behavior; breakfast skipping; meal consumption habits
MDPI and ACS Style

Ostachowska-Gasior, A.; Piwowar, M.; Kwiatkowski, J.; Kasperczyk, J.; Skop-Lewandowska, A. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 453.

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