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Special Issue "Interventions to Reduce Bullying and Cyberbullying"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Peter Smith

Department of Psychology, Goldsmiths College, University of London, London SE14 6NW, UK
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +44 (0)20 7919 7898
Interests: school bullying; cyberbullying; prevention; culture, play; grandparenting
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Sheri Bauman

College of Education, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: bullying; cyberbullying; cyber aggression; social media; teacher responses to bullying
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Dennis Wong

Department of Applied Social Sciences, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong
Website | E-Mail
Interests: school bullying; cyberbullying; juvenile delinquency; restorative practice

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are organizing a Special Issue on Interventions to Reduce Bullying and Cyberbullying in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. The venue is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that publishes articles and communications in the interdisciplinary area of environmental health sciences and public health. For detailed information about the journal, we refer you to https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph.

Over recent decades, bullying, and the more recent version of cyberbullying, have come to be recognized as important social and public health issues, generating an increasing volume of publications. It has been understood as a global, international issue, as evidenced in the UNESCO 2017 report on School Violence and Bullying: School Status Report. However, bullying is not only a school phenomenon. It can occur in many contexts such as families, residential homes, colleges, the workplace, prisons, and the armed forces. Wherever it occurs, it can have harmful and pernicious effects, for all involved including bystanders. For the victims especially, outcomes can include loss of self-esteem, depression, health problems, and reduced academic or work performance. Perpetrators, if unchallenged, can learn that this kind of abusive behavior can be carried out with impunity and continue on a pathway of antisocial behavior.

From the origins of research on bullying, there have also been attempts to intervene, noticeably in school settings. These are having some success.  An important phase in current research is to document successes and failures in anti-bullying interventions, and relate these to our rapidly growing knowledge base.

This Special Issue aims to document interventions against bullying, including cyberbullying, in schools or in other contexts. Besides being open to different contexts, we also welcome contributions from across the globe, including non-western countries. Failures are important and can be learnt from, as well as successes. The listed keywords suggest a few of many possibilities.

Prof. Dr. Peter Smith
Prof. Dr. Sheri Bauman
Prof. Dr. Dennis Wong
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Bullying
  • Cyberbullying
  • Abuse
  • Harassment
  • Interventions
  • Schools
  • Colleges
  • Families
  • Residential homes
  • Workplace
  • Prisons
  • Armed forces
  • Resources
  • Victims
  • Perpetrators
  • Bullies
  • Bystanders

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Challenges and Opportunities of Anti-Bullying Intervention Programs
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1810; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101810
Received: 13 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 22 May 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (236 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over recent decades, bullying, and the more recent version of cyberbullying, have come to be recognized as important social and public health issues, generating an increasing volume of publications [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Other

Open AccessArticle
Cyberbullying across the Lifespan of Education: Issues and Interventions from School to University
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1217; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071217
Received: 12 March 2019 / Revised: 30 March 2019 / Accepted: 2 April 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (347 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Research on cyberbullying amongst students has tended to be conducted separately within specific education institutional contexts, schools, further education (FE) and higher education (HE), neglecting a view that takes account of the entire educational lifespan. The present article addresses this gap in the [...] Read more.
Research on cyberbullying amongst students has tended to be conducted separately within specific education institutional contexts, schools, further education (FE) and higher education (HE), neglecting a view that takes account of the entire educational lifespan. The present article addresses this gap in the literature, providing a novel take on examining its nature, social environments, legal consequences and potentially helpful interventions. To facilitate this, the article conceptualises cyberbullying in broad terms, recognising that it can take multiple forms of online and digital practice including: spreading rumours, ridiculing and/or demeaning another person, casting aspirations on the grounds of race, disability, gender, religion or sexual orientation; seeking revenge or deliberately embarrassing a person by posting intimate photos or videos about them without their consent; accessing another’s social networking profiles with malicious intent and socially excluding a person from a social network or gaming site. This article demonstrates that harm from cyberbullying is a cause for concern for students at each developmental stage and that there are continuities in its appearance that need to be challenged at each point in the educational lifespan. And inaccurately, by university, the idea that ‘nothing can be done’ still is one of the main concerns for the victims. The article concludes with five key recommendations for future research and practice across the educational lifespan. Full article
Open AccessArticle
RPC Teacher-Based Program for Improving Coping Strategies to Deal with Cyberbullying
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 948; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16060948
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 11 March 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 16 March 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (356 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Cyberbullying is a serious threat to public health and teachers can play a key role in its detection, prevention and intervention. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of the RPC (“Relazioni per crescere”—Relationships to Grow) program, a short intervention, implemented at classroom [...] Read more.
Background: Cyberbullying is a serious threat to public health and teachers can play a key role in its detection, prevention and intervention. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of the RPC (“Relazioni per crescere”—Relationships to Grow) program, a short intervention, implemented at classroom level by trained teachers, aimed at improving awareness on cyberbullying and increasing proactive coping strategies to deal with cyberbullying behaviors. Method: The effectiveness of the RPC project was analyzed through an observational study (pre/post-intervention comparison), involving 898 Italian students of Lower Secondary schools (6th–8th grades). Results: Hierarchical logistic regression showed that after the intervention students were more likely to consider the different roles in cyberbullying (cyberbully, cybervictim, reinforce/assistant, defender and bystander/observer). In addition, hierarchical linear regressions highlighted an improvement of social coping and cognitive coping strategies after the intervention. Conclusions: RPC is a short, teacher-based program that can increase the awareness of cyberbullying among students and improves their effective coping strategies to address cyberbullying. Further research on the efficacy of short teacher-based programs would be worthwhile, given the limited financial and time resources of the schools, emphasizing the active and crucial role of teachers in tackling cyberbullying. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Mothers’ Difficulties and Expectations for Intervention of Bullying among Young Children in South Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 924; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16060924
Received: 16 January 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (369 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigated the difficulties of mothers in coping with the bullying of their children and their expectations concerning bullying intervention for young children in South Korea. Twenty mothers with young children were interviewed. Interviews were transcribed in Korean. Nvivo 12 software was [...] Read more.
This study investigated the difficulties of mothers in coping with the bullying of their children and their expectations concerning bullying intervention for young children in South Korea. Twenty mothers with young children were interviewed. Interviews were transcribed in Korean. Nvivo 12 software was used to analyze the data. Four themes emerged: “mothers’ coping strategies”, “problems of interventions”, “expectations of interventions”, and “developmentally appropriate interventions for young children”. Each theme was divided into categories and further into subcategories. Mothers used diverse strategies to intervene when their children were bullied and showed dissatisfaction with the current intervention system. Their expectations for interventions for young children were explained in terms of familial, school, and local/governmental levels. These results emphasized that intervention policies for bullying among young children should be urgently established, and intervention programs need to consider the developmental characteristics of young children. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Dialogic Model of Prevention and Resolution of Conflicts: Evidence of the Success of Cyberbullying Prevention in a Primary School in Catalonia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 918; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16060918
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (293 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article analyses the evidence obtained from the application of the dialogic model of prevention and resolution of conflicts to eradicate cyberbullying behaviour in a primary school in Catalonia. The Dialogic Prevention Model is one of the successful educational actions identified by INCLUD-ED [...] Read more.
This article analyses the evidence obtained from the application of the dialogic model of prevention and resolution of conflicts to eradicate cyberbullying behaviour in a primary school in Catalonia. The Dialogic Prevention Model is one of the successful educational actions identified by INCLUD-ED (FP6 research project). This case study, based on communicative methodology, includes the results obtained from documentary analysis, communicative observations and in-depth interviews. The evidence collected indicates that the implementation of this type of model can help to overcome cyberbullying; children are more confident to reject violence, students support the victims more and the whole community is involved in Zero Tolerance to violence. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effectiveness of the TEI Program for Bullying and Cyberbullying Reduction and School Climate Improvement
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(4), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040580
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 2 February 2019 / Accepted: 14 February 2019 / Published: 16 February 2019
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1432 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The increase in the prevalence of bullying and cyberbullying in recent years worldwide is undeniable. Although several intervention programs oriented towards the reduction of bullying and cyberbullying have been developed and implemented, significant disparities have been found regarding their efficacy. In most of [...] Read more.
The increase in the prevalence of bullying and cyberbullying in recent years worldwide is undeniable. Although several intervention programs oriented towards the reduction of bullying and cyberbullying have been developed and implemented, significant disparities have been found regarding their efficacy. In most of the cases, the lack of the implementation of interventions involving all of the school community could be on the basis of this limited efficacy. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the TEI Program, an intervention based on peer tutoring, in the reduction of bullying and cyberbullying, and in the improvement of school climate. The design of the study was quasi-experimental, in which 2057 Spanish students (aged 11 to 16 years) participated from 22 schools, and were randomly assigned to the experimental group (10 schools, 987 students) or the control group (12 schools, 1070 students). The obtained results showed a significant reduction in bullying behavior, peer victimization, fighting, cyberbullying and cybervictimization in the experimental group after the intervention implementation. Similarly, a significant improvement in factors of school climate was found only in this group. The obtained results demonstrated that the TEI program is effective in reducing bully and cyberbully behavior, and at the same time, improving the school climate. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Intervention Program [email protected] on Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(4), 527; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040527
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 4 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (927 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to the negative consequences of being bullied and the increase in cyberbullying among adolescents, there is a need for evidence-based programs to prevent and intervene in these types of peer violence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of [...] Read more.
Due to the negative consequences of being bullied and the increase in cyberbullying among adolescents, there is a need for evidence-based programs to prevent and intervene in these types of peer violence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the [email protected] bullying and cyberbullying program, drawing on three theoretical frameworks: the ecological model, empowerment theory, and the model of personal and social responsibility. The [email protected] program was evaluated using a repeated-measures pre-post-test design with an experimental group and a control group. The sample consisted of 660 adolescents between 12 and 17 years old (M = 13.58, SD = 1.26), randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. Repeated-measures ANOVA of pre-post-test scores were conducted. Results showed a significant decrease in bullying and victimization and cyberbullying and cybervictimization in the experimental group, compared to the control group, indicating that the [email protected] program is effective in reducing bullying and cyberbullying. Taking into account the harmful effects of these types of violence, the results have important implications in the prevention of these behaviors because they provide scientific evidence of the program’s effectiveness. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Asegúrate: An Intervention Program against Cyberbullying Based on Teachers’ Commitment and on Design of Its Instructional Materials
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030434
Received: 16 December 2018 / Revised: 25 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (348 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article presents the impact on cyberbullying of the Asegúrate program. This educational program is based on the theory of normative social behavior, self-regulation skills, and the beliefs held by adolescents and consists in a whole package of strategies and resources to help [...] Read more.
This article presents the impact on cyberbullying of the Asegúrate program. This educational program is based on the theory of normative social behavior, self-regulation skills, and the beliefs held by adolescents and consists in a whole package of strategies and resources to help teachers to include in the ordinary curricula. The evaluation of Asegúrate was carried out with a sample of 4779 students (48.9% girls) in 5th and 6th grade in primary education and compulsory secondary education (M = 12.76; SD = 1.67) through a quasi-experimental methodology, with two measures over time. The instrument used was the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire. The results show that the involvement in cyberbullying as cyber-victim, cyber-aggressor, and cyber-bully-victim increase without intervention, whereas it diminishes when intervention is carried out by the teachers who have received specific training and have used the didactic Asegúrate package. Additionally, the impact of the intervention on the different types of behaviors was analyzed, and the results show that Asegúrate is more effective with some forms than with others. Consequently, the Asegúrate program is effective for decreasing the prevalence of cyberbullying, but some modifications need to be made to impact on all the different forms it can take. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Efficacy of the “Dat-e Adolescence” Prevention Program in the Reduction of Dating Violence and Bullying
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030408
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 23 January 2019 / Published: 31 January 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (706 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the school-based “Dat-e Adolescence” prevention program in the reduction of dating aggression and victimization and bullying in adolescents. Method: a RCT design with three waves (pre-test, post-test and follow-up [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the school-based “Dat-e Adolescence” prevention program in the reduction of dating aggression and victimization and bullying in adolescents. Method: a RCT design with three waves (pre-test, post-test and follow-up six months apart) and two groups (an experimental group and a control group) were used. One thousand four hundred and twenty three (1423) adolescents, mean age 14.98 (557 in the experimental group) participated in the study. Results: Efficacy evaluation was analyzed using Multiple-group latent growth models and showed that the Dat-e Adolescence program was effective in reducing sexual and severe physical dating violence and bullying victimization. Conclusions: The results suggest that dating violence prevention programs could be an effective approach for tackling different behavioral problems in adolescence given the protective and risk factors shared between dating violence and bullying. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
For Whom Is Anti-Bullying Intervention Most Effective? The Role of Temperament
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030388
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 30 January 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1352 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Studying moderators of the effects of anti-bullying universal interventions is essential to elucidate what works for whom and to tailor more intensive, selective, and indicated programs which meet the needs of non-responders. The present study investigated whether early adolescents’ temperament—effortful control (EC), negative [...] Read more.
Studying moderators of the effects of anti-bullying universal interventions is essential to elucidate what works for whom and to tailor more intensive, selective, and indicated programs which meet the needs of non-responders. The present study investigated whether early adolescents’ temperament—effortful control (EC), negative emotionality (NE), and positive emotionality (PE)—moderates the effects of the KiVa anti-bullying program. The sample consisted of 13 schools, with 1051 sixth-grade early adolescents (mean age = 10.93; SD = 0.501), randomly assigned to the KiVa intervention (seven schools; n = 536) or to the control condition (six schools; n = 516). Adolescents reported bullying and victimization before the intervention (pre-test) and after (post-test). Temperament was assessed by a self-report pre-test. Findings showed that EC and NE moderated intervention effects on bullying, indicating that subgroups with high levels of EC, and with low and medium levels of NE were those who benefited most from the intervention. The low-EC subgroup showed a lower increase compared to the control condition, with a considerable effect size. Conversely, the high-NE subgroup did not show any positive effects compared to the control group. Regarding victimization, findings showed that early adolescents with high and medium levels of PE were the subgroups who benefited the most from the intervention, whereas the low-PE subgroup was the most resistant. The present study confirms the relevance of considering temperament as a moderator of intervention effects, since interventions tailored to early adolescents with specific traits might yield larger effects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Developing Wellbeing Through a Randomised Controlled Trial of a Martial Arts Based Intervention: An Alternative to the Anti-Bullying Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010081
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 27 December 2018 / Published: 29 December 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (362 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Anti-bullying policies and interventions are the main approach addressing bullying behaviours in Australian schools. However, the evidence supporting these approaches is inconsistent and its theoretical underpinning may be problematic. The current study examined the effects of a martial arts based psycho-social intervention on [...] Read more.
Anti-bullying policies and interventions are the main approach addressing bullying behaviours in Australian schools. However, the evidence supporting these approaches is inconsistent and its theoretical underpinning may be problematic. The current study examined the effects of a martial arts based psycho-social intervention on participants’ ratings of resilience and self-efficacy, delivered as a randomised controlled trial to 283 secondary school students. Results found a consistent pattern for strengths-based wellbeing outcomes. All measures relating to resilience and self-efficacy improved for the intervention group, whereas results declined for the control group. These findings suggest that a martial arts based psycho-social intervention may be an efficacious method of improving wellbeing outcomes including resilience and self-efficacy. The study proposes utilising alternatives to the anti-bullying approach and that interventions should be aimed towards helping individuals develop strengths and cope more effectively, which has specific relevance to bullying and more generalised importance to positive mental health. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Efficacy of the Tabby Improved Prevention and Intervention Program in Reducing Cyberbullying and Cybervictimization among Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2536; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112536
Received: 24 September 2018 / Revised: 23 October 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1728 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background. This article presents results from the evaluation of the Tabby Improved Prevention and Intervention Program (TIPIP) for cyberbullying and cybervictimization. TIPIP is theoretically designed to address cyberbullying and cybervictimization. It is the first program in this field developed combining the Ecological [...] Read more.
Background. This article presents results from the evaluation of the Tabby Improved Prevention and Intervention Program (TIPIP) for cyberbullying and cybervictimization. TIPIP is theoretically designed to address cyberbullying and cybervictimization. It is the first program in this field developed combining the Ecological System Theory and the Threat Assessment Approach. Method. The Tabby Improved program was evaluated using an experimental design with 759 Italian students (aged 10–17 years) randomly allocated via their classes to either the Experimental or Control Group. Results. Repeated measures ANOVAs showed a significant decrease both in cyberbullying and cybervictimization among students who received the intervention with a follow-up period of six months. The program was more effective for boys than for girls. Conclusions. Because cyberbullying is a cruel problem negatively affecting those involved, validated interventions that prove their efficacy in reducing the problem using experimental designs should be widely tested and promoted, paying particular attention to implementing a program fully to increase and guarantee its effectiveness. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pre-Service Teachers’ Intervention in School Bullying Episodes with Special Education Needs Students: A Research in Italian and Greek Samples
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1908; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091908
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 30 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 2 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (345 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: The aim of the study was to compare the level of self-confidence in dealing with problems at school, the attitude towards bullying situations and the recommended strategies to cope with bullying in two samples of pre-service teachers (PSTs). The PSTs were [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of the study was to compare the level of self-confidence in dealing with problems at school, the attitude towards bullying situations and the recommended strategies to cope with bullying in two samples of pre-service teachers (PSTs). The PSTs were in training to become teachers with special education needs students (SEN) and came from two different countries (Italy and Greece). Methods: A questionnaire survey was made involving 110 Italian and 84 Greek PSTs. Results: The results about self-confidence showed that Greek PSTs had lower outcome expectations and a higher external locus of causality than Italian PSTs. Teachers’ training programs and school preventive intervention were also discussed. Conclusions: Because the participants in this investigation will be teachers in the near future, they require specific training on bullying in general and in students with SEN in particular. Full article

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Open AccessBrief Report
Teacher Authority in Long-Lasting Cases of Bullying: A Qualitative Study from Norway and Ireland
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1163; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071163
Received: 15 February 2019 / Revised: 27 March 2019 / Accepted: 29 March 2019 / Published: 31 March 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (281 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A growing body of research shows a correlation between an authoritative school climate and lower levels of bullying. One objective of this study is to conceptualize authoritative intervention in bullying cases. A second goal is to explore whether, and how, the pupils, having [...] Read more.
A growing body of research shows a correlation between an authoritative school climate and lower levels of bullying. One objective of this study is to conceptualize authoritative intervention in bullying cases. A second goal is to explore whether, and how, the pupils, having experienced traditional and/or cyber victimization, perceive that the class teacher is demonstrating authoritative leadership when intervening in long-lasting cases of bullying. Class teacher refers to the teacher that has a special responsibility for the class. The article presents the findings from nine semi-structured interviews with four Irish and five Norwegian pupils. The informants were between 12 to 18 years of age and had experienced either traditional victimization or both traditional and cyber victimization for 1 to 7 years. The informants were selected because their cases had been reported as resolved. The findings showed no descriptions of the class teacher that appeared to fit with the authoritative style of leadership, both high on warmth and control. The possible practical implications of these findings are discussed. Full article
Open AccessBrief Report
Students’ Willingness to Intervene in Bullying: Direct and Indirect Associations with Classroom Cohesion and Self-Efficacy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2577; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112577
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 13 November 2018 / Accepted: 15 November 2018 / Published: 17 November 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (355 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although school climate and self-efficacy have received some attention in the literature, as correlates of students’ willingness to intervene in bullying, to date, very little is known about the potential mediating role of self-efficacy in the relationship between classroom climate and students’ willingness [...] Read more.
Although school climate and self-efficacy have received some attention in the literature, as correlates of students’ willingness to intervene in bullying, to date, very little is known about the potential mediating role of self-efficacy in the relationship between classroom climate and students’ willingness to intervene in bullying. To this end, the present study analyzes whether the relationship between classroom cohesion (as one facet of classroom climate) and students’ willingness to intervene in bullying situations is mediated by self-efficacy in social conflicts. This study is based on a representative stratified random sample of two thousand and seventy-one students (51.3% male), between the ages of twelve and seventeen, from twenty-four schools in Germany. Results showed that between 43% and 48% of students reported that they would not intervene in bullying. A mediation test using the structural equation modeling framework revealed that classroom cohesion and self-efficacy in social conflicts were directly associated with students’ willingness to intervene in bullying situations. Furthermore, classroom cohesion was indirectly associated with higher levels of students’ willingness to intervene in bullying situations, due to self-efficacy in social conflicts. We thus conclude that: (1) It is crucial to increase students’ willingness to intervene in bullying; (2) efforts to increase students’ willingness to intervene in bullying should promote students’ confidence in dealing with social conflicts and interpersonal relationships; and (3) self-efficacy plays an important role in understanding the relationship between classroom cohesion and students’ willingness to intervene in bullying. Recommendations are provided to help increase adolescents’ willingness to intervene in bullying and for future research. Full article
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