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Open AccessArticle

Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases at Baseline and Their Short-Term Changes in a Workplace Cohort in Singapore

1
Centre for Population Health Sciences, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, 11 Mandalay Road, Singapore 308232, Singapore
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Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University, 237 Barton Street East, Hamilton, ON L8L 2X2, Canada
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Department of Health Promotion, CAPHRI Care and Public Health Research Institute, Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
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Department of Primary Care & Public Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College, London W6 8RP, UK
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Research Institute for Primary Care & Health Sciences, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK
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Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Health and Life Sciences, Brunel University London, London UB8 3PH, UK
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School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798, Singapore
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Division of Leadership, Management and Organisation, Nanyang Business School, College of Business, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798, Singapore
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Decision, Environmental and Organizational Neuroscience Lab, Culture Science Institute, Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798, Singapore
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Global Digital Health Unit, Department of Primary Care and Public Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4551; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224551
Received: 13 October 2019 / Revised: 31 October 2019 / Accepted: 12 November 2019 / Published: 18 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
We aimed to examine the behavioural and clinical risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) at baseline and their changes over 12 months in a workplace cohort in Singapore. A total of 464 full-time employees (age ≥ 21 years) were recruited from a variety of occupational settings, including offices, control rooms, and workshops. Of these, 424 (91.4%) were followed-up at three months and 334 (72.0%) were followed up at 12 months. Standardized questionnaires were used to collect data on health behaviours and clinical measurements were performed by trained staff using standard instruments and protocols. Age-adjusted changes in risk factors over time were examined using generalized estimating equations or linear mixed-effects models where appropriate. The mean age of the participants at baseline was 39.0 (SD: 11.4) years and 79.5% were men. Nearly a quarter (24.4%) were current smokers, slightly more than half (53.5%) were alcohol drinkers, two-thirds (66%) were consuming <5 servings of fruit and vegetables per day, and 23.1% were physically inactive. More than two-thirds (67%) were overweight or obese and 34.5% had central obesity. The mean follow-up was 8.6 months. After adjusting for age, over 12 months, there was a significant increase in the proportion consuming <5 servings of fruit and vegetables per day by 33% (p = 0.030), who were physically inactive by 64% (p < 0.001), and of overweight or obese people by 15% (p = 0.018). The burden of several key NCD risk factors at baseline was high and some worsened within a short period of time in this working population. There is a need for more targeted strategies for behaviour change towards a healthy lifestyle as part of the ongoing health and wellness programs at workplaces in Singapore. View Full-Text
Keywords: cohort study; workplace; chronic disease; risk factors; Singapore cohort study; workplace; chronic disease; risk factors; Singapore
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sathish, T.; Dunleavy, G.; Soljak, M.; Visvalingam, N.; Nazeha, N.; Divakar, U.; Bajpai, R.; Thach, T.-Q.; Cheung, K.L; Vries, H.d.; Soh, C.-K.; Christopoulos, G.; Car, J. Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases at Baseline and Their Short-Term Changes in a Workplace Cohort in Singapore. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4551. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224551

AMA Style

Sathish T, Dunleavy G, Soljak M, Visvalingam N, Nazeha N, Divakar U, Bajpai R, Thach T-Q, Cheung KL, Vries Hd, Soh C-K, Christopoulos G, Car J. Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases at Baseline and Their Short-Term Changes in a Workplace Cohort in Singapore. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(22):4551. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224551

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sathish, Thirunavukkarasu; Dunleavy, Gerard; Soljak, Michael; Visvalingam, Nanthini; Nazeha, Nuraini; Divakar, Ushashree; Bajpai, Ram; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Cheung, Kei L; Vries, Hein d.; Soh, Chee-Kiong; Christopoulos, Georgios; Car, Josip. 2019. "Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases at Baseline and Their Short-Term Changes in a Workplace Cohort in Singapore" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16, no. 22: 4551. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224551

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