ijerph-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Sustainable Agriculture: Soil Health and Waste Management

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (17 April 2023) | Viewed by 19419

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Ul. Oczapowskiego 8, 10-519 Olsztyn, Poland
Interests: agricultural waste management; cellulose; organic waste; waste valorization; soil amendments
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Awareness of the fact that healthy soils are central to achieving the sustainable development goals adopted by the United Nations General Assembly is growing. Soils, as the thinnest life supporting system, not only sustain our food systems but filter and regulate the flow of freshwater, store vast quantities of carbon and support whole so far unknown ecosystems where micro- and macro-organisms are able to maintain the homeostasis of life.

The widely accepted definition of soil sustainability was given by Abbott and Murphy, who defined soil sustainability based on the Brundtland idea as “soil management that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs from that soil”.

It has to be mentioned that in the world’s scale, soils are increasingly under anthropogenic pressure driven by climate change, population growth and poor land management. In the light of the global economy producing large amounts of wastes, there is an obvious necessity of finding an environmentally and economically sound methods of utilization these wastes as soil amendments.

The most important approach seems to be recycling the large amounts of organic wastes produced by agriculture, forestry, urban and industrial activities as soil organic amendments. This is the most popular and efficient option for avoiding their dispersion into the environment and restoring, maintaining or even improving the content of the most valuable fraction of soils, i.e., its soil organic matter.

The wide introduction of the concept of waste upgrading may contribute to application of value-added materials such as biochar and activated carbon, as well as compost generated form municipal and agricultural wastes, which are produced using the thermo-chemical conversion of organic waste. Their use has gained an emerging interest because of their low cost and unique physico-chemical properties. The anaerobic digestion of some organic wastes (slurry of different origins, manures, by-products of food industry, including spoil food, etc.) is a technology which has been successfully implemented in many regions of the world as a method of generating renewable energy. However, its by-product, i.e., digestate, is generated in huge quantities, and although its application to soil is a prevailing option of managing it, the effects of digestate application in a long-term perspective have yet to be studied. Organic-waste-derived materials seem to have multifunctional abilities in the environment for capturing greenhouse gases and the remediation of contaminated soil.

So, the intention of this Special Issue is to present a wide scope of studies focused on the above-mentioned aspects of soil sustainability. Reviews as well as reports are welcome. We would like to ensure potential authors that manuscripts will be peer-reviewed, and efforts will be given to ensure a quick publishing time.

Dr. Andrzej Klasa
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • organic waste upgrading
  • soil organic matter
  • wastes as soil amendments
  • soil properties under effects of wastes application
  • biochar produced from organic wastes
  • MSW compost
  • soil digestate application
  • soil microbiome sustainability
  • microbial activity of the soil

Published Papers (11 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

16 pages, 1354 KiB  
Article
Variability of Micro- and Macro-Elements in Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Municipal Sewage Sludge and Food Industrial By-Products
by Aleksandra Szaja, Agnieszka Montusiewicz and Magdalena Lebiocka
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(7), 5405; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20075405 - 5 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1494
Abstract
The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of selected industrial food wastes on the fate of micro- and macro-elements within an anaerobic digestion process (AD), as well as define the relationship between their content and AD [...] Read more.
The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of selected industrial food wastes on the fate of micro- and macro-elements within an anaerobic digestion process (AD), as well as define the relationship between their content and AD efficiency. Orange peels, (OP), orange pulp (PL) and brewery spent grain (BSG) were used as co-substrates, while municipal sewage sludge (SS) was applied as the main component. The introduction of co-substrates resulted in improvements in feedstock composition in terms of macro-elements, with a simultaneous decrease in the content of HMs (heavy metals). Such beneficial effects led to enhanced methane production, and improved process performance at the highest doses of PL and BSG. In turn, reduced biogas and methane production was found in the three-component digestion mixtures in the presence of OP and BSG; therein, the highest accumulation of most HMs within the process was also revealed. Considering the agricultural application of all digestates, exceedances for Cu, Zn and Hg were recorded, thereby excluding their further use for that purpose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Agriculture: Soil Health and Waste Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 7750 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Spring Barley Fertilization on the Content of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Microbial Counts and Enzymatic Activity in Soil
by Ewa Mackiewicz-Walec, Sławomir Józef Krzebietke, Agata Borowik and Andrzej Klasa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 3796; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20053796 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1700
Abstract
Soil-dwelling microorganisms play an important role in the environment by decomposing organic matter, degrading toxic compounds and participating in the nutrient cycle. The microbiological properties of soil are determined mainly by the soil pH, granulometric composition, temperature and organic carbon content. In agricultural [...] Read more.
Soil-dwelling microorganisms play an important role in the environment by decomposing organic matter, degrading toxic compounds and participating in the nutrient cycle. The microbiological properties of soil are determined mainly by the soil pH, granulometric composition, temperature and organic carbon content. In agricultural soils, these parameters are modified by agronomic operations, in particular fertilization. Soil enzymes participate in nutrient cycling and they are regarded as sensitive indicators of microbial activity and changes in the soil environment. The aim of the present study was to determine whether PAH content in soil is associated with the microbial activity and biochemical properties of soil during the growing season of spring barley treated with manure and mineral fertilizers. Soil samples for analysis were collected on four dates in 2015 from a long-term field experiment established in 1986 in Bałcyny near Ostróda (Poland). The total content of PAHs was lowest in August (194.8 µg kg−1) and highest in May (484.6 µg kg−1), whereas the concentrations of heavier weight PAHs was highest in September (158.3 µg kg−1). The study demonstrated that weather conditions and microbial activity induced considerable seasonal variations in PAHs content. Manure increased the content of organic carbon and total nitrogen, the abundance of organotrophic, ammonifying and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, actinobacteria and fungi and enhanced the activity of soil enzymes, including dehydrogenases, catalase, urease, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Agriculture: Soil Health and Waste Management)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 1752 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Mealworm Frass on the Chemical and Microbiological Properties of Horticultural Peat in an Incubation Experiment
by Anna Nogalska, Sebastian Wojciech Przemieniecki, Sławomir Józef Krzebietke, Dariusz Załuski, Agnieszka Kosewska, Małgorzata Skwierawska and Stanisław Sienkiewicz
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010021 - 20 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2188
Abstract
Insect farming is growing in popularity, and in addition to insect meal, it generates waste products such as exuviae and frass, which can be recycled in agriculture. The aim of this incubation experiment was to evaluate the effect of Tenebrio molitor L. frass [...] Read more.
Insect farming is growing in popularity, and in addition to insect meal, it generates waste products such as exuviae and frass, which can be recycled in agriculture. The aim of this incubation experiment was to evaluate the effect of Tenebrio molitor L. frass on selected chemical and biological properties of deacidified peat, which is widely used in horticulture. The optimal rate of frass fertilizer in peat for growing vegetables and ornamental plants was determined, with special emphasis on mineral nitrogen levels. Peat was fertilized with five nitrogen rates, 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg dm−3, and supplied with frass or urea. The study demonstrated that frass can be used as organic fertilizer. An increase in the nitrogen rate significantly increased mineral nitrogen content and electrical conductivity and decreased Ca content in peat. Both frass and urea increased the ammonification rate at the beginning of incubation and the nitrification rate from the second week of the experiment. Higher frass rates (5 and 10 g dm−3) increased the content of plant-available nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, and sodium) in peat as well as the abundance of microorganisms supporting organic matter mineralization. Unlike frass, urea increased the counts of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in peat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Agriculture: Soil Health and Waste Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 738 KiB  
Article
Effect of Mineral–Microbial Deodorizing Preparation on the Value of Poultry Manure as Soil Amendment
by Andrzej Cezary Żołnowski, Tadeusz Bakuła, Elżbieta Rolka and Andrzej Klasa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 16639; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192416639 - 11 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1418
Abstract
Poultry farming involves the production of poultry manures (PMs), which, if properly managed, are excellent organic soil amendments. Poultry farms generally do not have adequate arable land, and therefore, valuable fertilizer becomes a problematic waste. During the production and storage of PMs, odorous [...] Read more.
Poultry farming involves the production of poultry manures (PMs), which, if properly managed, are excellent organic soil amendments. Poultry farms generally do not have adequate arable land, and therefore, valuable fertilizer becomes a problematic waste. During the production and storage of PMs, odorous VOCs, NH4, H2S, and potent greenhouse gases such as CH4, CO2 are emitted. It influences the productivity of poultry and negatively affects the working conditions of working staff. In the present study, mineral–microbial deodorizing preparations (MMDP) based on perlite and bentonite as well as the following microorganism strains Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Bacillus megaterium, B. subtilis, and Pseudomonas fluorescens were added to the litter of turkey broilers (TB) and egg-laying hens (LH). PMs were compared with treatments without the addition of MMDP, and maize, sunflower, and rapeseed forage crops were tested. The influence on soil parameters such as pH, EC, HAC, SBC, CEC, BS, Ntot, Ctot, and plant yield and parameter of photosynthesis, i.e., SPAD index, was tested. Soil amending with manure resulted in an increase in pH and a decrease in HAC; in addition, an increase in EC, which was counteracted by the addition of MMDP, was noted. MMDP positively affected parameters such as SBC, CEC, and BS. It was shown that PMs, with the addition of MMDP, improved crops’ yield in the first year of the study, whereas this effect was not seen for the after-crop plants (lupine). The main ‘added value’ related to the usage of MMDP in poultry production is the improvement in the properties of PMs, which mainly had a positive effect on soil indicators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Agriculture: Soil Health and Waste Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2770 KiB  
Article
Matured Manure and Compost from the Organic Fraction of Solid Waste Digestate Application in Intensive Apple Orchards
by Daniela Bona, Andrea Cristoforetti, Roberto Zanzotti, Daniela Bertoldi, Nicole Dellai and Silvia Silvestri
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 15512; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192315512 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1254
Abstract
In intensive fruit growing systems, the recovery and maintenance of soil fertility play a crucial role in both environmental protection and sustainable support to plant productivity. The circular economy approach adopted at the EU level strongly promotes the use of organic products instead [...] Read more.
In intensive fruit growing systems, the recovery and maintenance of soil fertility play a crucial role in both environmental protection and sustainable support to plant productivity. The circular economy approach adopted at the EU level strongly promotes the use of organic products instead of mineral fertilizers. This work focuses on two different soil improvers, compost from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste digestate (CO) and “matured” manure, produced after a fast and controlled aerobic treatment in an aerated pile (MM), which were applied in three apple orchards with different soil tillage. The soil improvers have been characterized for amendment and fertilizing properties. After the amendment, the soils were sampled twice a year (Spring and Autumn) for three years. Each sample has been characterized for texture, pH, cation exchange capacity, nutrients, soil organic matter, and micronutrients. The amendments obtained differed on C, N, P, and K contents, but had similar biological stability. The main effects on soils were the increasing of N and soil organic matter after compost application, while the use of matured manure mainly act on available P and exchangeable K. The treatments showed significant effects among fields with a linear increasing trend only for compost. Matured manure showed more effects in earlier times. The data collected aim to improve the knowledge about sustainable management of soil organic matter and organic nutrients in intensive fruit-growing agriculture by using local products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Agriculture: Soil Health and Waste Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 1249 KiB  
Article
Impact of Soil Fertilized with Biomass Ash on Depth-Related Variability of Culturable Bacterial Diversity and Selected Physicochemical Parameters in Spring Barley Cultivation
by Miłosz Pastuszczak, Jadwiga Stanek-Tarkowska and Miroslava Kačániová
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(21), 13721; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192113721 - 22 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1601
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of different doses of fertilization with biomass combustion ash (Salix viminalis L. willow) on changes in the biological, chemical, and physical properties of soil. The experiment was carried out on podzolic and chernozem soils in a one-way [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effect of different doses of fertilization with biomass combustion ash (Salix viminalis L. willow) on changes in the biological, chemical, and physical properties of soil. The experiment was carried out on podzolic and chernozem soils in a one-way field experiment (fertilization dose: control (without fertilization), NPK (nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K)), 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 kg K2O ha−1). The biomass ash was characterized by a pH value of 12.83 ± 0.68 and a high content of macronutrients. The samples were collected from 0–5, 10–15, and 20–25 cm soil layers under the cultivation of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L) cv. Planet in April and August 2021. Mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used for microbiological analyses, which revealed the presence of 53 culturable species from 11 genera: Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Paenibacillus, Lysinibacillus, Pseudarthrobacter, Arthrobacter, Staphylococcus, Paenarthrobacter, Micrococcus, Rhodococcus, and Flavobacterium. The podzolic and chernozem soils exhibited the presence of 28 and 44 culturable species, respectively. The study showed an increase in the number of microorganisms in the top layer of the soil profile. However, the number of bacteria decreased at the depths of 10–15 cm and 20–25 cm. With depth, the bulk density (BD) and moisture increased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Agriculture: Soil Health and Waste Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1253 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Crops on the Content of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soil Fertilized with Manure and Mineral Fertilizers
by Ewa Mackiewicz-Walec, Sławomir Józef Krzebietke and Stanisław Sienkiewicz
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(20), 13627; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192013627 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1478
Abstract
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are mainly accumulated in soil. Plants secrete enzymes that transform or biodegrade PAHs in soil. Some plant species are more effective in stimulating the biodegradation of these pollutants than other species. This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence [...] Read more.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are mainly accumulated in soil. Plants secrete enzymes that transform or biodegrade PAHs in soil. Some plant species are more effective in stimulating the biodegradation of these pollutants than other species. This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of crop rotation on PAH concentrations in soil. Four crops were grown in rotation: sugar beets, spring barley, maize, and spring wheat. Soil samples for the study were obtained from a long-term field experiment established in 1986 in Bałcyny, Poland. The concentrations of PAHs were analyzed in soil samples gathered over a period of 12 years (1998–2009). An attempt was made to evaluate the effect of crop rotation (sugar beets, spring barley, maize, and spring wheat) on PAH concentrations in soil. The content of PAHs in soil samples was measured by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Data were processed statistically by repeated measures ANOVA. The concentrations of ∑16 PAHs were lowest in soil after sugar beet cultivation, and highest in soil after maize cultivation. It can be concluded that maize was the plant with the greatest adverse effect on the content of heavy PAH in the soil, a completely different effect can be attributed to spring wheat, which has always been shown to reduce the content of heavy PAH in the soil. Weather conditions affected PAHs levels in soil, and PAH content was highest in soil samples collected in a year with the driest growing season. This arrangement suggests a greater influence of weather conditions than of the cultivated plant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Agriculture: Soil Health and Waste Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 5597 KiB  
Article
Effects of Agricultural Management of Spent Mushroom Waste on Phytotoxicity and Microbiological Transformations of C, P, and S in Soil and Their Consequences for the Greenhouse Effect
by Edyta Kwiatkowska and Jolanta Joniec
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12915; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912915 - 9 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1892
Abstract
The huge volumes of currently generated agricultural waste pose a challenge to the economy of the 21st century. One of the directions for their reuse may be as fertilizer. Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) could become an alternative to manure (M). A three-year field [...] Read more.
The huge volumes of currently generated agricultural waste pose a challenge to the economy of the 21st century. One of the directions for their reuse may be as fertilizer. Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) could become an alternative to manure (M). A three-year field experiment was carried out, in which the purpose was to test and compare the effect of SMS alone, as well as in multiple variants with mineral fertilization, and in manure with a variety of soil quality indices—such as enzymatic activity, soil phytotoxicity, and greenhouse gas emissions, i.e., CO2. The use of SMS resulted in significant stimulation of respiratory and dehydrogenase activity. Inhibition of acid phosphatase and arylsulfatase activity via SMS was recorded. SMS showed varying effects on soil phytotoxicity, dependent on time. A positive effect was noted for the growth index (GI), while inhibition of root growth was observed in the first two years of the experiment. The effect of M on soil respiratory and dehydrogenase activity was significantly weaker compared to SMS. Therefore, M is a safer fertilizer as it does not cause a significant persistent increase in CO2 emissions. Changes in the phytotoxicity parameters of the soil fertilized with manure, however, showed a similar trend as in the soil fertilized with SMS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Agriculture: Soil Health and Waste Management)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 2748 KiB  
Article
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soil at Different Depths under a Long-Term Experiment Depending on Fertilization
by Sławomir Józef Krzebietke, Ewa Mackiewicz-Walec, Stanisław Sienkiewicz, Jadwiga Wierzbowska, Dariusz Załuski and Agata Borowik
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(16), 10460; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191610460 - 22 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1840
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of long-term fertilization with manure and mineral fertilizers on the content and distribution of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)—the content of a sum of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, light and heavy PAHs in [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of long-term fertilization with manure and mineral fertilizers on the content and distribution of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)—the content of a sum of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, light and heavy PAHs in two soil layers (0–30 cm and 30–60 cm). The material for the study was composed of soil samples collected from the sixth rotation in a long-term, controlled field experiment, conducted in Bałcyny since 1986. The content of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was determined on a gas chromatographer coupled with an FID detector. In order to evaluate the significance of differences between the mean effects on the tested characteristics, a non-parametric Mann–Whitney U test for two independent samples was applied. A higher content of the sum (16) of PAHs was found in the 0–30 cm than in the 30–60 cm soil layer. The research results also demonstrated a higher content of the sum of light PAHs in the 30–60 cm than in the 0–30 cm soil layer. The content of heavy PAHs, in turn, was significantly higher in the upper than in the deeper soil layer. This dependence appeared in both the soil fertilized with manure and soil nourished only with mineral fertilizers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Agriculture: Soil Health and Waste Management)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 532 KiB  
Article
Study on the Influencing Factors of Farmers’ Adoption of Conservation Tillage Technology in Black Soil Region in China: A Logistic-ISM Model Approach
by Hongpeng Guo, Wenkai Zhao, Chulin Pan, Guijie Qiu, Shuang Xu and Shun Liu
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(13), 7762; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19137762 - 24 Jun 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2177
Abstract
The adoption of conservation tillage technology can improve the production efficiency of black soils (mollisols), and it has great significance to ensure the sustainable development of agriculture. This paper takes farmers in the black soil region of Jilin Province as the research object, [...] Read more.
The adoption of conservation tillage technology can improve the production efficiency of black soils (mollisols), and it has great significance to ensure the sustainable development of agriculture. This paper takes farmers in the black soil region of Jilin Province as the research object, uses 442 survey data of farmers in seven municipal areas in the black soil region of Jilin Province, constructs a logistic-ISM model, first determines the influencing factors of farmers’ adoption of conservation tillage technology, and then analyzes the hierarchical structure of each influencing factor. The results show that: (1) among the eight significant influencing factors of farmers’ adoption of conservation tillage technology, age, whether they know the government’s subsidies for conservation tillage and the number of labor force are the deep-rooted factors; (2) Education level, whether you know that the government is promoting conservation tillage, and the planting area are intermediate level factors; (3) whether they have received the technical services of conservation tillage and whether the cultivated land is scattered is the direct factors. Based on the significance analysis of the influencing factors of farmers’ adoption of conservation tillage technology and the research on the action mechanism of the influencing factors of farmers’ adoption of conservation tillage technology, this paper puts forward policy suggestions to improve the extension system of conservation tillage technology, improve the implementation of land transfer and subsidy policies, strengthen the ability of rural socialized services, and strengthen the publicity of black soils protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Agriculture: Soil Health and Waste Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 3341 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Using Different Doses of Biomass Ash on Some Physical Properties of Podzolic Soil under the Cultivation of Winter Oilseed Rape
by Jadwiga Stanek-Tarkowska, Ewa Antonina Czyż, Miłosz Pastuszczak and Karol Skrobacz
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(11), 6693; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19116693 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1413
Abstract
This two-year study was focused on the effect of the application of different biomass ash doses on selected soil physical properties, i.e., soil moisture (SM), bulk density (BD), penetration resistance (PR), and soil stability in water measured by the content of readily dispersible [...] Read more.
This two-year study was focused on the effect of the application of different biomass ash doses on selected soil physical properties, i.e., soil moisture (SM), bulk density (BD), penetration resistance (PR), and soil stability in water measured by the content of readily dispersible clay (RDC), following control and mineral NPK fertilization in the cultivation of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. var. napus). A one-factor field experiment conducted on podzolic soil (control, NPK, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 kg K2O·ha−1) showed that the use of biomass combustion ash significantly improved soil moisture at all depths and variants, and especially at a depth of 30–35 cm in the 500 kg·ha−1 variant, i.e., by 2.99% v/v, compared to NPK. In turn, the moisture content in the 30–35 cm layer increased by 3.19% v/v in all variants in both years compared to the control. In 2020 and 2021, bulk density in the 0–5 cm layer treated with a dose of 500 kg·ha−1 exhibited a positive 0.15 and 0.12 Mg·m−3 decrease, respectively, compared to the control. In both years, the BD values in the 30–35 cm layer were reduced by 0.14 and 0.16 Mg·m−3 compared to the control. The PR values decreased in the treatments with doses of 300, 400, and 500 kg·ha−1, especially in 2021. The RDC content was found to decline in both years, i.e., 2020 and 2021, upon the application of even the lowest dose (100 kg·ha−1) in all the analysed layers. The reduction in the RDC content, especially in the 0–5 cm layer, is very important for soil structure stability and to protect the soil environment. This layer is most susceptible to crusting, which results in poor aeration and weak plant emergence during drought and/or periods of excessive moisture. It may also increase surface runoff and intensify soil erosion processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Agriculture: Soil Health and Waste Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop