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Occupational and General Public Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Occupational Safety and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 32662

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica - CNR, 56124 Pisa, Italy
Interests: magnetic resonance; MRI safety; occupational exposure; electromagnetic fields; exposure assessment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical, Dental and Morphological and Functional Imaging Sciences, University of Messina, Via Consolare Valeria, 98125 Messina, Italy
Interests: Raman spectroscopy; medical imaging; magnetic resonance
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The human population is chronically exposed to natural and man-made sources of electromagnetic fields (EMFs). During the 20th century, environmental exposure to man-made EMFs increased, mainly due to the advance in technologies. Everyone is exposed to EMFs both at home and at work, produced by domestic and industrial equipment and by telecommunication devices.

The ICNIRP guidelines establish the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the occupational and general public exposure to the risks arising from EMFs in many ranges of frequencies. National legislations worldwide are based on these guidelines to set specific safe limits.

Numerous studies have been performed to investigate EMF effects and possible health risks of EMF exposure. Despite many years of studies and some success, there is still controversy over the effects of low-level exposure, doubts regarding the possibility of a non-thermal mechanism of radiofrequency EMF effect and uncertainties in the assessment of health risk. The problems are complicated due to the complexity of living systems and the large variation of exposure conditions.

In this Special Issue, many typical exposure scenarios, both domestic and occupational, will be taken into account, considering EMF sources, possible critical points and necessary actions.

Dear Colleagues,

The International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health welcomes submissions for a Special Issue entitled “Occupational and General Public Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields”.

In the last century, environmental exposure to man-made EMFs has been increasing, mainly due to the advance in technologies. Everyone is exposed to EMFs, both at home and at work, produced by domestic and industrial equipment and by telecommunications devices.

EMF exposure leads to some well-known short-term biological effects, while potential risks of long-term effects are still being investigated. Despite many years of studies and some success, there is still controversy over the effects of low-level exposure, doubts regarding the possibility of a non-thermal mechanism of radiofrequency EMF effect and uncertainties in the assessment of health risk. For example, consider the controversial current discussion about 5G.

This Special Issue will enrich the literature on this topic, which is now more relevant than ever, by reporting the most recent advances in multidisciplinary research on the exposure to EMF. Many typical exposure scenarios, both domestic and occupational, will be taken into account, considering EMF sources, possible critical points and necessary actions. Contributions on topics associated with occupational and general public safety and risks, risk modeling and assessment, studies on biological effects, reports on current regulations and expert opinions on open questions are invited.

Original papers, case studies, reviews and letters to editors are welcome.

Dr. Valentina Hartwig
Dr. Giuseppe Acri
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • occupational exposure
  • electromagnetic fields
  • exposure assessment
  • static magnetic field

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 1532 KiB  
Article
Occupational Exposure Assessment of the Static Magnetic Field Generated by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Case Study
by Valentina Hartwig, Carlo Sansotta, Maria Sole Morelli, Barbara Testagrossa and Giuseppe Acri
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(13), 7674; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19137674 - 23 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1368
Abstract
Magnetic resonance (MR) systems are used in academic research laboratories and industrial research fields, besides representing one of the most important imaging modalities in clinical radiology. This technology does not use ionizing radiation, but it cannot be considered without risks. These risks are [...] Read more.
Magnetic resonance (MR) systems are used in academic research laboratories and industrial research fields, besides representing one of the most important imaging modalities in clinical radiology. This technology does not use ionizing radiation, but it cannot be considered without risks. These risks are associated with the working principle of the technique, which mainly involves static magnetic fields that continuously increase—namely, the radiofrequency (RF) field and spatial magnetic field gradient. To prevent electromagnetic hazards, the EU and ICNIRP have defined workers’ exposure limits. Several studies that assess health risks for workers and patients of diagnostic MR are reported in the literature, but data on workers’ risk evaluation using nuclear MR (NMR) spectroscopy are very poor. Therefore, the aim of this research is the risk assessment of an NMR environment, paying particular attention to workers with active implantable medical devices (AIMDs). Our perspective study consisted of the measurement of the static magnetic field around a 300 MHz (7 T) NMR research spectrometer and the computation of the electric field induced by the movements of an operator. None of the calculated exposure parameters exceeded the threshold limits imposed by legislation for protection against short-term effects of acute occupational exposure, but our results revealed that the level of exposure exceeded the action level threshold limit for workers with AIMD during the execution of tasks requiring the closest proximity to the spectrometer. Moreover, the strong dependence of the induced electric field results from the walking speed models is shown. This case study represents a snapshot of the NMR risk assessment with the specific goal to increase the interest in the safety of NMR environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational and General Public Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields)
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16 pages, 5200 KiB  
Article
Modulation of Sleep Architecture by Whole-Body Static Magnetic Exposure: A Study Based on EEG-Based Automatic Sleep Staging
by Lei Yang, Haoyu Jiang, Xiaotong Ding, Zhongcai Liao, Min Wei, Juan Li, Tongning Wu, Congsheng Li and Yanwen Fang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 741; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020741 - 10 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1681
Abstract
A steady increase in sleep problems has been observed along with the development of society. Overnight exposure to a static magnetic field has been found to improve sleep quality; however, such studies were mainly based on subjective evaluation. Thus, the presented data cannot [...] Read more.
A steady increase in sleep problems has been observed along with the development of society. Overnight exposure to a static magnetic field has been found to improve sleep quality; however, such studies were mainly based on subjective evaluation. Thus, the presented data cannot be used to infer sleep architecture in detail. In this study, the subjects slept on a magneto-static mattress for four nights, and self-reported scales and electroencephalogram (EEG) were used to determine the effect of static magnetic field exposure (SMFE) on sleep. Machine learning operators, i.e., decision tree and supporting vector machine, were trained and optimized with the open access sleep EEG dataset to automatically discriminate the individual sleep stages, determined experimentally. SMEF was found to decrease light sleep duration (N2%) by 3.51%, and sleep onset latency (SOL) by 15.83%, while it increased deep sleep duration (N3%) by 8.43%, compared with the sham SMFE group. Further, the overall sleep efficiency (SE) was also enhanced by SMFE. It is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, where the change in sleep architecture was explored by SMFE. Our findings will be useful in developing a non-invasive sleep-facilitating instrument. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational and General Public Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields)
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15 pages, 2564 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Peripheral Electrostimulation Thresholds in Human Model for Uniform Magnetic Field Exposure
by Yosuke Suzuki, Jose Gomez-Tames, Yinliang Diao and Akimasa Hirata
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(1), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010390 - 30 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1835
Abstract
The external field strength according to the international guidelines and standards for human protection are derived to prevent peripheral nerve system pain at frequencies from 300–750 Hz to 1 MHz. In this frequency range, the stimulation is attributable to axon electrostimulation. One limitation [...] Read more.
The external field strength according to the international guidelines and standards for human protection are derived to prevent peripheral nerve system pain at frequencies from 300–750 Hz to 1 MHz. In this frequency range, the stimulation is attributable to axon electrostimulation. One limitation in the current international guidelines is the lack of respective stimulation thresholds in the brain and peripheral nervous system from in vivo human measurements over a wide frequency range. This study investigates peripheral stimulation thresholds using a multi-scale computation based on a human anatomical model for uniform exposure. The nerve parameters are first adjusted from the measured data to fit the peripheral nerve in the trunk. From the parameters, the external magnetic field strength to stimulate the nerve was estimated. Here, the conservativeness of protection limits of the international guidelines and standards for peripheral stimulation was confirmed. The results showed a margin factor of 4–6 and 10–24 times between internal and external protection limits of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers standard (IEEE C95.1) and International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines, with the computed pain thresholds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational and General Public Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields)
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16 pages, 1942 KiB  
Article
Electromagnetic Exposure of Personnel Involved in Cardiac MRI Examinations in 1.5T, 3T and 7T Scanners
by Katarzyna Sklinda, Jolanta Karpowicz and Andrzej Stępniewski
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(1), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010076 - 22 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2584
Abstract
(1) Background: It has been hypothesised that a significant increase in the use of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), for example, when examining COVID-19 convalescents using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has an influence the exposure profiles of medical personnel to static magnetic fields (STmf). [...] Read more.
(1) Background: It has been hypothesised that a significant increase in the use of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), for example, when examining COVID-19 convalescents using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has an influence the exposure profiles of medical personnel to static magnetic fields (STmf). (2) Methods: Static exposure to STmf (SEmf) was recorded during activities that modelled performing CMR by radiographers. The motion-induced time variability of that exposure (TVEmf) was calculated from SEmf samples. The results were compared with: (i) labour law requirements; (ii) the distribution of vertigo perception probability near MRI magnets; and (iii) the exposure profile when actually performing a head MRI. (3) Results: The exposure profiles of personnel managing 42 CMR scans (modelled using medium (1.5T), high (3T) and ultrahigh (7T) field scanners) were significantly different than when managing a head MRI. The majority of SEmf and TVEmf samples (up to the 95th percentile) were at low vertigo perception probability (SEmf < 500 mT, TVEmf < 600 mT/s), but a small fraction were at medium/high levels; (4) Conclusion: Even under the “normal working conditions” defined for SEmf (STmf < 2T) by labour legislation (Directive 2013/35/EC), increased CMR usage increases vertigo-related hazards experienced by MRI personnel (a re-evaluation of electromagnetic safety hazards is suggested in the case of these or similar changes in work organisation). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational and General Public Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields)
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12 pages, 3769 KiB  
Article
Improved Calculation Method of Coupling Factors for Low-Frequency Wireless Power Transfer Systems
by Jangyong Ahn, Seon-Eui Hong, Haerim Kim, Kyunghwan Song, Hyung-Do Choi and Seungyoung Ahn
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010044 - 21 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1365
Abstract
The concept of a coupling factor was introduced in International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 62311 and 62233 to provide a product safety assessment that considers the localized exposure when an electromagnetic field (EMF) source is close to the human body. To calculate the coupling [...] Read more.
The concept of a coupling factor was introduced in International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 62311 and 62233 to provide a product safety assessment that considers the localized exposure when an electromagnetic field (EMF) source is close to the human body. To calculate the coupling factors between the human body and EMF source, a numerical calculation should be carried out to calculate the internal quantities of the human body models. However, at frequencies below 10 MHz, the computed current density or internal electric field has computational artifacts from segmentation or discretization errors. Specifically, coupling factors are calculated based on the maximum values, which may include computational artifacts due to abnormal peaks. In this study, we propose an improved calculation method to remove computational artifacts by applying the 99.99th percentile in calculating the coupling factors without underestimation. The performance of the proposed method is verified through a comparison based on various human body models with wireless power transfer (WPT) systems and compliance with the reference levels and basic restrictions. The results indicate that the proposed method can provide uniform coupling factors by reducing the computational errors by up to 65.3% compared to a conventional method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational and General Public Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields)
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15 pages, 333 KiB  
Article
Issues in the Implementation of Directive 2013/35/EU Regarding the Protection of Workers against Electromagnetic Fields
by Gian Marco Contessa, Simona D’Agostino, Rosaria Falsaperla, Carlo Grandi and Alessandro Polichetti
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10673; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010673 - 12 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1705
Abstract
In 2016 the Directive 2013/35/EU regarding the protection of health and safety of workers exposed to electromagnetic fields was transposed in Italy. Since then, the authors of this paper have been faced with several issues related to the implementation of the provisions of [...] Read more.
In 2016 the Directive 2013/35/EU regarding the protection of health and safety of workers exposed to electromagnetic fields was transposed in Italy. Since then, the authors of this paper have been faced with several issues related to the implementation of the provisions of the Directive, which pose some interpretative and operative concerns. A primary critical feature of the Directive is that, in some circumstances, conditions of “overexposure”, i.e., of exceeding the exposure limits, are allowed. In the case of transient effects, the “flexibility” concerning the compliance with exposure limits is based on the approach introduced by ICNIRP in its guidelines on static magnetic fields and on time-varying electric and magnetic fields. On the contrary, the possibility of exceeding the exposure limits for health effects, formally recognized in the article of the Directive dealing with derogations, is not included in the ICNIRP guidelines. This paper analyzes the main concerns in interpreting and managing some provisions of the Directive with particular reference to the issue of how the employer can manage the situations of overexposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational and General Public Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields)
15 pages, 492 KiB  
Article
Workers with Cardiac AIMD Exposed to EMF: Methods and Case Studies for Risk Analysis in the Framework of the European Regulations
by Eugenio Mattei, Federica Censi, Giovanni Calcagnini and Rosaria Falsaperla
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(18), 9709; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189709 - 15 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1983
Abstract
Workers with cardiac active implantable medical devices (AIMD), such as a pacemaker (PM) or an implantable defibrillator (ICD), are considered by the occupational health and safety regulation framework as a particularly sensitive risk group that must be protected against the dangers caused by [...] Read more.
Workers with cardiac active implantable medical devices (AIMD), such as a pacemaker (PM) or an implantable defibrillator (ICD), are considered by the occupational health and safety regulation framework as a particularly sensitive risk group that must be protected against the dangers caused by the interference of electromagnetic field (EMF). In this paper, we first describe the general methodology that shall be followed for the risk assessment of employees with a cardiac AIMD exposed to EMF, according to the EU regulation, and in particular to the EN 50527-2-1:2016 and 50527-2-2:2018 standards. Then, three case studies related to specific EMF sources are presented, to better describe how the initial analysis of the risk assessment can be performed in practice, and to understand if a further specific risk assessment analysis is required or not. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational and General Public Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields)
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15 pages, 22373 KiB  
Article
Anti-Oxidative and Immune Regulatory Responses of THP-1 and PBMC to Pulsed EMF Are Field-Strength Dependent
by Silvia Groiss, Roland Lammegger and Dagmar Brislinger
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(18), 9519; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189519 - 09 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2367
Abstract
Innate immune cells react to electromagnetic fields (EMF) by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), crucial intracellular messengers. Discrepancies in applied parameters of EMF studies, e.g., flux densities, complicate direct comparison of downstream anti-oxidative responses and immune regulatory signaling. We therefore compared the impact [...] Read more.
Innate immune cells react to electromagnetic fields (EMF) by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), crucial intracellular messengers. Discrepancies in applied parameters of EMF studies, e.g., flux densities, complicate direct comparison of downstream anti-oxidative responses and immune regulatory signaling. We therefore compared the impact of different EMF flux densities in human leukemic THP1 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of healthy donors to additionally consider a potential disparate receptivity based on medical origin. ROS levels increased in THP1 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) after one hour of EMF exposure. Moreover, weak EMF mitigated the depletion of the reducing agent NAD(P)H in THP1. Neither of these effects occurred in PBMC. Landscaping transcriptional responses to varied EMF revealed elevation of the anti-oxidative enzymes PRDX6 (2-fold) and DHCR24 (6-fold) in THP1, implying involvement in lipid metabolism. Furthermore, our study confirmed anti-inflammatory effects of EMF by 6-fold increased expression of IL10. Strikingly, THP1 responded to weak EMF, while PBMC were primarily affected by strong EMF, yet with severe cellular stress and enhanced rates of apoptosis, indicated by HSP70 and caspase 3 (CASP3). Taken together, our results emphasize an altered susceptibility of immune cells of different origin and associate EMF-related effects with anti-inflammatory signaling and lipid metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational and General Public Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields)
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10 pages, 2808 KiB  
Article
Radiofrequency Exposure Levels from Mobile Phone Base Stations in Outdoor Environments and an Underground Shopping Mall in Japan
by Teruo Onishi, Miwa Ikuyo, Kazuhiro Tobita, Sen Liu, Masao Taki and Soichi Watanabe
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8068; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18158068 - 30 Jul 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3045
Abstract
Recent progress in wireless technologies has made human exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) increasingly complex. The situation can increase public concerns related to possible health effects due to EMF exposure. Monitoring EMF exposure levels and characterizing them are indispensable for risk communications of [...] Read more.
Recent progress in wireless technologies has made human exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) increasingly complex. The situation can increase public concerns related to possible health effects due to EMF exposure. Monitoring EMF exposure levels and characterizing them are indispensable for risk communications of human exposure to EMFs. From this background, a project on the acquisition, accumulation, and applications of EMF exposure monitoring data in Japan was started in 2019. One of the objectives of this project is to obtain a comprehensive picture of EMF exposure in actual daily lives. In 2019 and 2020, we measured the electric field (E-field) strength from mainly mobile phone base stations in the same areas as those in measurements conducted in 2006 and 2007 by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC), Japan, and compared the data to investigate the time-course of the EMF environment. The number of measured points was 100 (10 × 10 grids) in an area of 1 km × 1 km in two urban and two suburban areas, and that in an underground shopping mall was 158. This large-scale study is the first in Japan. As a result, we found that the measured E-field strengths tended to be higher in 2019 and 2020 than those in 2006 and 2007, especially in the mall. However, the median ratios to the Japanese radio wave protection guideline values for urban areas and malls are lower than −40 dB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational and General Public Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields)
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12 pages, 345 KiB  
Article
Occupational Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields and Health Surveillance according to the European Directive 2013/35/EU
by Alberto Modenese and Fabriziomaria Gobba
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1730; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041730 - 10 Feb 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2755
Abstract
In the European Union, health surveillance (HS) of electromagnetic fields (EMF)-exposed workers is mandatory according to the Directive 2013/35/EU, aimed at the prevention of known direct biophysical effects and indirect EMF’s effects. Long-term effects are not addressed in the Directive as the evidence [...] Read more.
In the European Union, health surveillance (HS) of electromagnetic fields (EMF)-exposed workers is mandatory according to the Directive 2013/35/EU, aimed at the prevention of known direct biophysical effects and indirect EMF’s effects. Long-term effects are not addressed in the Directive as the evidence of a causal relationship is considered inadequate. Objectives of HS are the prevention or early detection of EMF adverse effects, but scant evidence is hitherto available on the specific procedures. A first issue is that no specific laboratory tests or medical investigations have been demonstrated as useful for exposure monitoring and/or prevention of the effects. Another problem is the existence of workers at particular risk (WPR), i.e., subjects with specific conditions inducing an increased susceptibility to the EMF-related risk (e.g., workers with active medical devices or other conditions); exposures within the occupational exposure limit values (ELVs) are usually adequately protective against EMF’s effects, but lower exposures can possibly induce a health risk in WPR. Consequently, the HS of EMF-exposed workers according to the EU Directive should be aimed at the early detection and monitoring of the recognized adverse effects, as well as an early identification of WPR for the adoption of adequate preventive measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational and General Public Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields)
13 pages, 3721 KiB  
Article
Numerical Analysis of Electromagnetic Field Exposure from 5G Mobile Communications at 28 GHZ in Adults and Children Users for Real-World Exposure Scenarios
by Maria Sole Morelli, Silvia Gallucci, Beatrice Siervo and Valentina Hartwig
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 1073; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031073 - 26 Jan 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3406
Abstract
The recent development of millimeter-wave (mmW) technologies, such as the fifth-generation (5G) network, comes with concerns related to user exposure. A quite large number of dosimetry studies above 6 GHz have been conducted, with the main purpose being to establish the correlation between [...] Read more.
The recent development of millimeter-wave (mmW) technologies, such as the fifth-generation (5G) network, comes with concerns related to user exposure. A quite large number of dosimetry studies above 6 GHz have been conducted, with the main purpose being to establish the correlation between different dosimetric parameters and the skin surface temperature elevation. However, the dosimetric studies from 28 GHz user equipment using different voxel models have not been comprehensively discussed yet. In this study, we used the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for the estimation of the absorption of radiofrequency (RF) energy from a microstrip patch antenna array (28 GHz) in different human models. Specifically, we analyzed different exposure conditions simulating three real common scenarios (a phone call scenario, message writing scenario, and browsing scenario) regarding the use of smartphones/tablets by four different individuals (adult male and female, child male and female). From the results of Absorbed Power Density (Sab), it is possible to conclude that all the considered exposure scenarios comply with the safety limits, both for adult and children models. However, the high values of the local Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the superficial tissues and the slight differences in its distribution between adults and children suggest the need for further and more detailed analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational and General Public Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields)
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Review

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10 pages, 461 KiB  
Review
Three Quarters of a Century of Research on RF Exposure Assessment and Dosimetry—What Have We Learned?
by Kenneth R. Foster, Marvin C. Ziskin and Quirino Balzano
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(4), 2067; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042067 - 12 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2929
Abstract
This commentary, by three authors with an aggregate experience of more than a century in technology and health and safety studies concerning radiofrequency (RF) energy, asks what has been learned over the past 75 years of research on radiofrequency and health, focusing on [...] Read more.
This commentary, by three authors with an aggregate experience of more than a century in technology and health and safety studies concerning radiofrequency (RF) energy, asks what has been learned over the past 75 years of research on radiofrequency and health, focusing on technologies for exposure assessment and dosimetry. Research programs on health and safety of RF exposure began in the 1950s, initially motivated by occupational health concerns for military personnel, and later to address public concerns about exposures to RF energy from environmental sources and near-field exposures from RF transmitting devices such as mobile phones that are used near the body. While this research largely focused on the biological effects of RF energy, it also led to important improvements in exposure assessment and dosimetry. This work in the aggregate has made RF energy one of the best studied potential technological hazards and represents a productive response by large numbers of scientists and engineers, working in many countries and supported by diverse funding agencies, to the ever rapidly evolving uses of the electromagnetic spectrum. This review comments on present needs of the field, which include raising the quality of dosimetry in many RF bioeffects studies and developing improved exposure/dosimetric techniques for the higher microwave frequencies to be used by forthcoming communications technologies. At present, however, the major uncertainties in dosimetric modeling/exposure assessment are likely to be related to the inherent variability in real-world exposures, rather than imprecision in measurement technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational and General Public Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields)
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Other

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9 pages, 320 KiB  
Commentary
Methodology of Studying Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation on Organisms: Technical Aspects
by Katerina Bartosova, Marek Neruda and Lukas Vojtech
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(23), 12642; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312642 - 30 Nov 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2540
Abstract
The negative influence of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation on organisms, including humans, has been discussed widely in recent years. This paper deals with the methodology of examining possible harmful effects of mobile phone radiation, focusing on in vivo and in vitro laboratory methods of [...] Read more.
The negative influence of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation on organisms, including humans, has been discussed widely in recent years. This paper deals with the methodology of examining possible harmful effects of mobile phone radiation, focusing on in vivo and in vitro laboratory methods of investigation and evaluation and their main problems and difficulties. Basic experimental parameters are summarized and discussed, and recent large studies are also mentioned. For the laboratory experiments, accurate setting and description of dosimetry are essential; therefore, we give recommendations for the technical parameters of the experiments, especially for a well-defined source of radiation by Software Defined Radio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational and General Public Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields)
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