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Special Issue "The Environment and Children’s Health"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Children's Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Jason Gilliland
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Human Environments Analysis Laboratory, Department of Geography, Western University, 1151 Richmond St, London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada
Interests: children’s health; children’s geographies; built environment; social environment; nature; health behaviours; mental health; well-being
Dr. Gina Martin
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Human Environments Analysis Laboratory, Department of Geography, Western University, 1151 Richmond St, London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada
Interests: children and adolescents; children’s geographies; neighbourhoods; built environment; social environment; nature; health behaviours and outcomes; mental well-being; substance use

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The environments where children live, play, and learn have key roles in their behaviour, well-being, and development. Both physical and social environments have been found to influence many childhood health outcomes, such as physical activity, diet, mental well-being, cognitive performance, and sleep. The physical environment includes built or natural features, while the social environment includes elements such as social cohesion and residential segregation. Children’s environmental exposures occur at various geographic scales (i.e, from micro to macro), such as homes, schools, streets, parks, neighborhoods, and regions. Understanding how the various environments that children are exposed to affect their health and well-being has gained considerable attention in public health research. Accordingly, the aim of this Special Issue is to highlight the broad scope of novel and contemporary research focused on the environment and children’s health.

This Special Issue of IJERPH, entitled “The Environment and Children’s Health” offers an opportunity to publish high-quality research, reviews, and theoretical notes that further the understanding of the role that the environment plays in children’s health and well-being. We welcome quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-methods research. Submissions that discuss new knowledge, developments, and innovations in the field of environmental determinants of children’s health are particularly encouraged.

We invite you to submit articles on topics including, but not limited to, the following:

  • Evaluation of environmental interventions and/or natural experiments, and their impact on children’s health;
  • Environmental factors associated with children’s health behaviours or outcomes;
  • Innovations in the measurement of environments that children are exposed to;
  • Elements of school and schoolyard design that impact social and cognitive development;
  • Stakeholder perspectives related to the environments that impact children’s health;
  • Children’s views and perspectives of their environments;
  • Child-friendly cities and child well-being.

Dr. Jason Gilliland
Dr. Gina Martin
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • natural environment
  • built environment
  • social environment
  • child
  • adolescent
  • youth
  • health
  • well-being
  • children’s geographies
  • health geography

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Article
The Effect of Season and Neighbourhood-Built Environment on Home Area Sedentary Behaviour in 9–14 Year Old Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1968; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041968 - 18 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 912
Abstract
There is little understanding of how the built environment shapes activity behaviours in children over different seasons. This study sought to establish how seasonal weather patterns, in a given year in a mid-western Canadian city, affect sedentary time (SED) in youth and how [...] Read more.
There is little understanding of how the built environment shapes activity behaviours in children over different seasons. This study sought to establish how seasonal weather patterns, in a given year in a mid-western Canadian city, affect sedentary time (SED) in youth and how the relationship between season and SED are moderated by the built environment in their home neighbourhood. Families with children aged 9–14 years were recruited from the prairie city of Saskatoon, Canada. Location-specific, device-based SED was captured in children during three timeframes over a one-year period using GPS-paired accelerometers. Multilevel models are presented. Children accumulated significantly greater levels of SED in spring but significantly less SED in the fall months in comparison to the winter months. Children living in neighbourhoods with the highest density of destinations accumulated significantly less SED while in their home area in comparison to their counterparts, and this effect was more pronounced in the spring and summer months. On weekends, the rise in sedentariness within the home area was completely diminished in children living in neighbourhoods with the greatest number of destinations and highest activity friendliness. These results suggested that increasing neighbourhood amenities can lead to a reduced sedentariness of youth, though more so in the warmers months of the year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Environment and Children’s Health)
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Article
Impact of Environmental Factors on the Prevalence Changes of Allergic Diseases in Elementary School Students in Ulsan, Korea: A Longitudinal Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 8831; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238831 - 27 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 740
Abstract
We examined the effect of long-term changes in environmental factors on the prevalence of allergic diseases in elementary school students in Ulsan, Korea. This longitudinal study was conducted among 390 students who were enrolled from three elementary schools in Ulsan in both the [...] Read more.
We examined the effect of long-term changes in environmental factors on the prevalence of allergic diseases in elementary school students in Ulsan, Korea. This longitudinal study was conducted among 390 students who were enrolled from three elementary schools in Ulsan in both the first (2009–2010) and second survey (2013–2014). The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire was used to determine the prevalence of allergic diseases and hazardous environmental factors. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to investigate the impact of environmental factors on the change in the prevalence of allergic diseases. The survey revealed that an increased risk of allergic rhinitis was associated with exposure to secondhand smoke, the remodeling of a room, the replacement of wallpaper or flooring, the use of a humidifier, and irritation symptoms of air pollution. Atopic dermatitis was associated with the relocation to or repairs of a new house, and allergic conjunctivitis was associated with low levels of weekly physical activity, the use of insecticides, and irritation symptoms of air pollution. The results indicate that (1) allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis are associated with indoor pollution, (2) allergic conjunctivitis is associated with exposure to indoor chemical compounds and low levels of weekly physical activity. This study suggested that the proper evaluation and decrease in the number of environmental risk factors could effectively manage allergic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Environment and Children’s Health)
Article
Measuring Temporal Differences in Rural Canadian Children’s Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 8734; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238734 - 24 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 661
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to measure the factors that influence children’s moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during school curriculum time, recess time, and outside school time in a rural area. During the Fall and Winter of 2016, 34 boys and 55 girls [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to measure the factors that influence children’s moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during school curriculum time, recess time, and outside school time in a rural area. During the Fall and Winter of 2016, 34 boys and 55 girls aged 8–14 years from rural communities in rural Northwestern Ontario participated in the Spatial Temporal Environment and Activity Monitoring project. The children’s MVPA was measured using an accelerometer, and child-level demographic, behavioral, and environmental data were gathered from surveys, passively logging global positioning units, and municipal datasets. Data on daily temperature and precipitation were gathered from the closest Environment Canada weather station. A mixed model was used to assess the relationship between child- and day-level factors and children’s MVPA. On average, children were getting 12.9 min of MVPA during recess, 17.7 min during curriculum time, and 29.0 min of MVPA outside school time. During all three time points, boys were more active than girls. During curriculum time, children in lower grades were more active, and the weather had differing impacts depending on the time of day. The findings of this study illustrate the differences in MVPA and the factors that influence MVPA by time of day. Examining different time segments provides valuable information for understanding children’s MVPA patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Environment and Children’s Health)
Article
Fruit and Vegetable Lesson Plan Pilot Intervention for Grade 5 Students from Southwestern Ontario
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(22), 8422; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228422 - 13 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 891
Abstract
The purpose was to create and assess the impact of food literacy curriculum alongside a centrally procured school snack program among grade five students in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. Grade five students (N = 287) from five intervention and three controls schools participated [...] Read more.
The purpose was to create and assess the impact of food literacy curriculum alongside a centrally procured school snack program among grade five students in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. Grade five students (N = 287) from five intervention and three controls schools participated in an 8-week food delivery program. In addition to the food delivery program, intervention schools received a resource kit and access to 42 multidisciplinary food literacy lesson plans using the produce delivered as part of the food delivery program. Participants completed matched pre- and post-test online surveys to assess fruit and vegetable intake, knowledge, preferences, and attitudes. Descriptive analyses and changes in scores between the intervention and control schools were assessed using one-way ANOVAs, paired samples t-tests, and McNemar’s tests. In total, there were 220 participants that completed both the pre- and post-test surveys. There was a significant improvement in fruit and vegetable intake (p = 0.038), yet no differences in knowledge of the recommended number of food group servings, knowledge of food groups, or fruit and vegetable preferences or attitudes were observed. Integrating nutrition lesson plans within core curricula classes (e.g., math, science, and literacy) can lead to modest increases in fruit and vegetable intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Environment and Children’s Health)
Article
Tool for Observing Play Outdoors (TOPO): A New Typology for Capturing Children’s Play Behaviors in Outdoor Environments
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5611; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155611 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2298
Abstract
Engagement in play has been definitively linked to the healthy development of children across physical, social, cognitive, and emotional domains. The enriched nature of high-quality outdoor play environments can afford a greater diversity of opportunities for play than indoor settings. To more effectively [...] Read more.
Engagement in play has been definitively linked to the healthy development of children across physical, social, cognitive, and emotional domains. The enriched nature of high-quality outdoor play environments can afford a greater diversity of opportunities for play than indoor settings. To more effectively design outdoor play settings, we must better understand how the physical environment supports, or hinders, the different types of play which suit children’s needs and interests. However, play typologies or observation tools available to date do not adequately capture the unique characteristics of outdoor play. This paper outlines the development and testing of the Tool for Observing Play Outdoors (TOPO), a new typology of outdoor play, as well as a systematic field observational protocol which can be used to effectively depict children’s behaviors in outdoor spaces, as well as evaluate the play environment itself. The tool can be deployed in either a collapsed or expanded form to serve the needs of a wide range of studies and environments. This new tool represents a significant advance in the ability to fully and effectively study and plan outdoor play environments to provide more diverse, high-quality play settings that will support the healthy development of children across the spectrum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Environment and Children’s Health)
Article
Let the Children Listen: A First Approximation to the Sound Environment Assessment of Children through a Soundwalk Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4185; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124185 - 12 Jun 2020
Viewed by 826
Abstract
The urban sound environment is one of the layers that characterizes a city, and several methodologies are used for its assessment, including the soundwalk approach. However, this approach has been tested mainly with adults. In the work presented here, the aim is to [...] Read more.
The urban sound environment is one of the layers that characterizes a city, and several methodologies are used for its assessment, including the soundwalk approach. However, this approach has been tested mainly with adults. In the work presented here, the aim is to investigate a soundwalk methodology for children, analyzing the sound environment of five different sites of Gothenburg, Sweden, from children’s view-point, giving them the opportunity to take action as an active part of society. Both individual assessment of the sound environment and acoustic data were collected. The findings suggested that among significant results, children tended to rank the sound environment as slightly better when lower levels of background noise were present ( L A 90 ). Moreover, traffic dominance ratings appeared as the best predictor among the studied sound sources: when traffic dominated as a sound source, the children rated the sound environment as less good. Additionally, traffic volume appeared as a plausible predictor for sound environment quality judgments, since the higher the traffic volume, the lower the quality of the sound environment. The incorporation of children into urban sound environment research may be able to generate new results in terms of children’s understanding of their sound environment. Moreover, sound environment policies can be developed from and for children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Environment and Children’s Health)
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Article
Child Growth Curves in High-Altitude Ladakh: Results from a Cohort Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3652; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103652 - 22 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1039
Abstract
High prevalence of child underweight and stunting in high-altitude areas has often been reported. However, most previous studies on this topic were cross-sectional. Another critical concern is that using the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards to evaluate child growth in high-altitude [...] Read more.
High prevalence of child underweight and stunting in high-altitude areas has often been reported. However, most previous studies on this topic were cross-sectional. Another critical concern is that using the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards to evaluate child growth in high-altitude areas may lead to overestimations of underweight and stunting. Our study aimed to evaluate the long-term growth pattern of children (3 to 18 years) above the altitude of 3500 m in Ladakh, India. The participants’ body weight (BW), body height (BH), and body mass index (BMI) were measured annually according to the WHO Child Growth Standards for children under 5 years old and the WHO reference data for children aged 5 to 19 years. The generalized estimating equation (GEE) was used to estimate the means and z-scores of BW, BH, and BMI at different ages. A total of 401 children were enrolled from 2012 to 2018. Their mean z-scores of BW, BH, and BMI were −1.47, −1.44, and −0.85 in 2012 and increased to −0.74, −0.92, and −0.63 in 2018. This population’s specific growth curve was also depicted, which generally fell below the 85th percentile of the WHO standards. This is the first cohort study about long-term child growth patterns in a high-altitude area. The detailed underlying mechanisms of our findings need future research on more representative data of high-altitude populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Environment and Children’s Health)
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Article
Participation in Activities Fostering Children’s Development and Parental Concerns about Children’s Development: Results from a Population-Health Survey of Children Aged 0–5 Years in Quebec, Canada
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2878; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082878 - 21 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1053
Abstract
This study aims to: (1) describe children’s participation in activities fostering their development, (2) document parental concerns about their children’s development, and (3) explore the influences of family characteristics on children’s activity participation and parental concerns. We conducted a phone survey with parents [...] Read more.
This study aims to: (1) describe children’s participation in activities fostering their development, (2) document parental concerns about their children’s development, and (3) explore the influences of family characteristics on children’s activity participation and parental concerns. We conducted a phone survey with parents of children aged 0-5 years (n = 895). Survey results are presented as weighted proportions for the parent’s age, sex, and area of residence. Statistical comparisons were made using chi-square with p < 0.05. Most children were exposed at least weekly to fine motor (85.1% ± 2.4%), physical (83.0% ± 2.5%), and reading (84.2% ± 2.4%) activities. However, only a small proportion were exposed to those activities daily (49.7% ± 3.3%, 35.4% ± 3.2%, and 32.4% ± 3.1% respectively). Many (46.8%) parents had concerns about their children’s development. The most frequent domains of concern were communication skills (22.8% ± 2.8%), affective and behaviour skills (22.1% ± 2.7%), and autonomy (19.6% ± 2.6%). The proportion of parents having concerns was higher among families with lower incomes. The small proportion of children exposed daily to activities fostering their development, and the high proportion of parents with concerns about their children’s development are alarming. The integration of health and education services and the use of best practices fostering children’s development at home, at school, and in daycare centres is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Environment and Children’s Health)
Article
Preschoolers’ Developmental Profiles and School-Readiness in a Low-Income Canadian City: A Cross-Sectional Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2529; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072529 - 07 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1053
Abstract
A joint initiative between community and public health stakeholders in a low-income Canadian city was created to describe the developmental profiles of children aged 2–5 years. A two-phase, cross-sectional design was used. Children’s development was assessed using an online screening procedure. Those at [...] Read more.
A joint initiative between community and public health stakeholders in a low-income Canadian city was created to describe the developmental profiles of children aged 2–5 years. A two-phase, cross-sectional design was used. Children’s development was assessed using an online screening procedure. Those at risk of delays were invited for a school-readiness face-to-face brief assessment. Descriptive and exploratory analyses were conducted. In Phase 1, 223 families were screened; 100 children were at risk of delays (45%); 13% were at risk in ≥3 developmental domains; 26% were at risk in the fine motor domain. Risk of delay was associated with parental concerns, accessing more healthcare professionals, and using fewer public health/community programs. Lower incomes, and not attending day care showed trends towards an increased risk of delay. In Phase 2, 49 children were assessed; 69% were at risk of school-readiness delays; 22% had potential motor delays; 37% were at risk in the social domain. This study found a higher proportion of children at risk of delay than typically reported. Creating community partnerships could help identify all children needing developmental and school-readiness support. More research is needed to ensure these community-based partnerships are integrated into health/community programs responding to children’s needs and parental concerns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Environment and Children’s Health)
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Article
A GIS-Based Method for Analysing the Association Between School-Built Environment and Home-School Route Measures with Active Commuting to School in Urban Children and Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2295; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072295 - 29 Mar 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1263
Abstract
In the current call for a greater human health and well-being as a sustainable development goal, to encourage active commuting to and from school (ACS) seems to be a key factor. Research focusing on the analysis of the association between environmental factors and [...] Read more.
In the current call for a greater human health and well-being as a sustainable development goal, to encourage active commuting to and from school (ACS) seems to be a key factor. Research focusing on the analysis of the association between environmental factors and ACS in children and adolescents has reported limited and inconclusive evidence, so more knowledge is needed about it. The main aim of this study is to examine the association between different built environmental factors of both school neighbourhood and home-school route with ACS of children and adolescents belonging to urban areas. The ACS level was evaluated using a self-reported questionnaire. Built environment variables (i.e., density of residents, street connectivity and mixed land use) within a school catchment area and home-school route characteristics (i.e., distance and pedestrian route directness—PRD) were measured using a geographic information system (GIS) and examined together with ACS levels. Subsequently, the association between environmental factors and ACS was analysed by binary logistic regression. Several cut-off points of the route measures were explored using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. In addition, the PRD was further studied regarding different thresholds. The results showed that 70.5% of the participants were active and there were significant associations between most environmental factors and ACS. Most participants walked to school when routes were short (distance variable in children: OR = 0.980; p = 0.038; and adolescents: OR = 0.866; p < 0.001) and partially direct (PRD variable in children: OR = 11.334; p < 0.001; and adolescents: OR = 3.513; p < 0.001), the latter specially for children. Mixed land uses (OR = 2.037; p < 0.001) and a high density of street intersections (OR = 1.640; p < 0.001) clearly encouraged adolescents walking and slightly discouraged children walking (OR = 0.657, p = 0.010; and OR = 0.692, p = 0.025, respectively). The assessment of ACS together with the environmental factors using GIS separately for children and adolescents can inform future friendly and sustainable communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Environment and Children’s Health)
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Review

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Review
Are Environmental Interventions Targeting Skin Cancer Prevention among Children and Adolescents Effective? A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020529 - 14 Jan 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1854
Abstract
Skin cancer, which is increasing exceedingly worldwide, is substantially preventable by reducing unprotected exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Several comprehensive interventions targeting sun protection behaviors among children and adolescents in various outdoor settings have been developed; however, there is a lack of insight [...] Read more.
Skin cancer, which is increasing exceedingly worldwide, is substantially preventable by reducing unprotected exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Several comprehensive interventions targeting sun protection behaviors among children and adolescents in various outdoor settings have been developed; however, there is a lack of insight on stand-alone effectiveness of environmental elements. To compose future skin cancer prevention interventions optimally, identification of effective environmental components is necessary. Hence, an extensive systematic literature search was conducted, using four scientific databases and one academic search engine. Seven relevant studies were evaluated based on stand-alone effects of various types of environmental sun safety interventions on socio-cognitive determinants, sun protection behaviors, UVR exposure, and incidence of sunburns and nevi. Free provision of sunscreen was most often the environmental component of interest, however showing inconsistent results in terms of effectiveness. Evidence regarding shade provision on shade-seeking behavior was most apparent. Even though more research is necessary to consolidate the findings, this review accentuates the promising role of environmental components in skin cancer prevention interventions and provides directions for future multi-component sun safety interventions targeted at children and adolescents in various outdoor settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Environment and Children’s Health)
Review
Particulate Matter Exposure and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children: A Systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010067 - 20 Dec 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1758
Abstract
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common cognitive and behavioural disorder affecting children, with a worldwide-pooled prevalence of around 5%. Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution is suspected to be associated with autism spectrum disorders and recent studies have investigated the relationship [...] Read more.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common cognitive and behavioural disorder affecting children, with a worldwide-pooled prevalence of around 5%. Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution is suspected to be associated with autism spectrum disorders and recent studies have investigated the relationship between PM exposure and ADHD. In the absence of any synthesis of the relevant literature on this topic, this systematic review of epidemiological studies aimed to investigate the relationship between the exposure of children to PM and ADHD and identify gaps in our current knowledge. In December 2018, we searched the PubMed and EMBASE databases. We only included epidemiological studies carried out on children without any age limit, measuring PM exposure and health outcomes related to ADHD. We assessed the quality of the articles and the risk of bias for each included article using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale and the Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) approach, respectively. The keyword search yielded 774 results. Twelve studies with a total number of 181,144 children met our inclusion criteria, of which 10 were prospective cohort studies and 2 were cross-sectional studies. We subsequently classified the selected articles as high or good quality studies. A total of 9 out of the 12 studies reported a positive association between PM exposure to outdoor air pollution and behavioral problems related to attention. Despite these results, we found a significant degree of heterogeneity among the study designs. Furthermore, 11 studies were judged to be at a probably high risk of bias in the exposure assessment. In conclusion, we opine that further high quality studies are still needed in order to clarify the association between PM exposure and ADHD diagnosis Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Environment and Children’s Health)
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