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Are Environmental Interventions Targeting Skin Cancer Prevention among Children and Adolescents Effective? A Systematic Review

1
Department of Health Promotion, School CAPHRI, Maastricht University, 6229 ER Maastricht, The Netherlands
2
Education Support department, University Library Maastricht University, 6211 JH Maastricht, The Netherlands
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020529
Received: 12 November 2019 / Revised: 20 December 2019 / Accepted: 24 December 2019 / Published: 14 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Environment and Children’s Health)
Skin cancer, which is increasing exceedingly worldwide, is substantially preventable by reducing unprotected exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Several comprehensive interventions targeting sun protection behaviors among children and adolescents in various outdoor settings have been developed; however, there is a lack of insight on stand-alone effectiveness of environmental elements. To compose future skin cancer prevention interventions optimally, identification of effective environmental components is necessary. Hence, an extensive systematic literature search was conducted, using four scientific databases and one academic search engine. Seven relevant studies were evaluated based on stand-alone effects of various types of environmental sun safety interventions on socio-cognitive determinants, sun protection behaviors, UVR exposure, and incidence of sunburns and nevi. Free provision of sunscreen was most often the environmental component of interest, however showing inconsistent results in terms of effectiveness. Evidence regarding shade provision on shade-seeking behavior was most apparent. Even though more research is necessary to consolidate the findings, this review accentuates the promising role of environmental components in skin cancer prevention interventions and provides directions for future multi-component sun safety interventions targeted at children and adolescents in various outdoor settings. View Full-Text
Keywords: skin cancer prevention; environmental interventions; sun protection behaviors; children’s health; adolescent health; health promotion skin cancer prevention; environmental interventions; sun protection behaviors; children’s health; adolescent health; health promotion
MDPI and ACS Style

Thoonen, K.; van Osch, L.; de Vries, H.; Jongen, S.; Schneider, F. Are Environmental Interventions Targeting Skin Cancer Prevention among Children and Adolescents Effective? A Systematic Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 529.

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