Next Article in Journal
Health-Related Rehabilitation after the 2008 Great Wenchuan Earthquake in China: A Ten Year Retrospective Systematic Review
Next Article in Special Issue
Preschoolers’ Developmental Profiles and School-Readiness in a Low-Income Canadian City: A Cross-Sectional Survey
Previous Article in Journal
How Servant Leadership Leads to Employees’ Customer-Oriented Behavior in the Service Industry? A Dual-Mechanism Model
Previous Article in Special Issue
Are Environmental Interventions Targeting Skin Cancer Prevention among Children and Adolescents Effective? A Systematic Review
Open AccessArticle

A GIS-Based Method for Analysing the Association Between School-Built Environment and Home-School Route Measures with Active Commuting to School in Urban Children and Adolescents

1
Department of Urban and Spatial Planning, School of Architecture, University of Granada, 18009 Granada, Spain
2
AFIPS research group, Department of Teaching of Musical, Visual and Corporal Expression, University of Valencia, Avda. dels Tarongers, 4, 46022 Valencia, Spain
3
PROFITH ‘PROmoting FITness and Health through Physical Activity’ Research Group, Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2295; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072295
Received: 4 March 2020 / Revised: 25 March 2020 / Accepted: 26 March 2020 / Published: 29 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Environment and Children’s Health)
In the current call for a greater human health and well-being as a sustainable development goal, to encourage active commuting to and from school (ACS) seems to be a key factor. Research focusing on the analysis of the association between environmental factors and ACS in children and adolescents has reported limited and inconclusive evidence, so more knowledge is needed about it. The main aim of this study is to examine the association between different built environmental factors of both school neighbourhood and home-school route with ACS of children and adolescents belonging to urban areas. The ACS level was evaluated using a self-reported questionnaire. Built environment variables (i.e., density of residents, street connectivity and mixed land use) within a school catchment area and home-school route characteristics (i.e., distance and pedestrian route directness—PRD) were measured using a geographic information system (GIS) and examined together with ACS levels. Subsequently, the association between environmental factors and ACS was analysed by binary logistic regression. Several cut-off points of the route measures were explored using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. In addition, the PRD was further studied regarding different thresholds. The results showed that 70.5% of the participants were active and there were significant associations between most environmental factors and ACS. Most participants walked to school when routes were short (distance variable in children: OR = 0.980; p = 0.038; and adolescents: OR = 0.866; p < 0.001) and partially direct (PRD variable in children: OR = 11.334; p < 0.001; and adolescents: OR = 3.513; p < 0.001), the latter specially for children. Mixed land uses (OR = 2.037; p < 0.001) and a high density of street intersections (OR = 1.640; p < 0.001) clearly encouraged adolescents walking and slightly discouraged children walking (OR = 0.657, p = 0.010; and OR = 0.692, p = 0.025, respectively). The assessment of ACS together with the environmental factors using GIS separately for children and adolescents can inform future friendly and sustainable communities. View Full-Text
Keywords: active transportation; connectivity; logistic regression; pedestrian route directness; ROC curve; sustainable development goals; walkability active transportation; connectivity; logistic regression; pedestrian route directness; ROC curve; sustainable development goals; walkability
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Campos-Sánchez, F.S.; Abarca-Álvarez, F.J.; Molina-García, J.; Chillón, P. A GIS-Based Method for Analysing the Association Between School-Built Environment and Home-School Route Measures with Active Commuting to School in Urban Children and Adolescents. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2295.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop