Dyes in History and Archaeology 41

A special issue of Heritage (ISSN 2571-9408). This special issue belongs to the section "Museum and Heritage".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 36254

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Guest Editor
Heritage Laboratory, Swedish National Heritage Board, Artillerigatan 33A, 621 22 Visby, Sweden
Interests: heritage science; materials science; conservation; textiles; plastics; colourants

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Guest Editor
Heritage Laboratory, Swedish National Heritage Board, Artillerigatan 33A, 621 22 Visby, Sweden
Interests: heritage science; organic chemistry; non-invasive techniques; multispectral imaging; pigments; dyes; preventive conservation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Scientific Research, British Museum, Great Russell Street, London, UK
Interests: colours and colourants; pigments; dyes; textiles; sculpture; ancient painting techniques and craft practices; noninvasive techniques; multispectral imaging
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
National Gallery, London, UK
Interests: pigments; paints; dyes; art history; artists materials; paint technology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Interests: organic colorants; synthetic colorants; organic lake pigments; chromatographic techniques

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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy
Interests: analytical chemistry; chromatography; mass spectrometry; dyes analysis; photodegradation

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Guest Editor
The Edelstein Center for the Analysis of Ancient Artifacts, Department of Chemical Engineering, Shenkar College of Engineering, Design and Art, 12 Anna Frank St., 52526 Ramat Gan, Israel
Interests: chemistry of ancient organic dyes and pigments, especially purple molluskan colorants; instrumental methods of analysis, especially HPLC

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1. EaSTCHEM School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, David Brewster Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FJ, UK
2. Department of Collections Services, National Museums Collections Centre, 242 West Granton Road, Edinburgh EH5 1JA, UK
Interests: heritage science; separation science; mass spectrometry; microanalysis; dyes; textiles; pigments

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue features contributions from the conference DHA41. Dyes in History and Archaeology (DHA) is an annual international conference that focuses on the academic discussion of dyes and organic pigments which have been used in the past. Every year since 1982, this meeting has drawn together conservators; curators; (technical) art historians; craftspeople; artists; independent scholars; and scientists and academics from museums, universities, research centres and other public or private institutions. Their common interest is to delve deeply into organic colourants' history, production, application, and properties, as well as their analytical characterization and identification, often in textile objects, but also on other substrates as well as painted surfaces. In the autumn of 2022, the 41st DHA conference was hosted by the Swedish National Heritage Board in Visby. This was the first time that DHA came to Scandinavia, and it attracted over 50 participants in person, 70% of whom travelled from other countries to attend this conference on the beautiful island of Gotland. During the morning sessions of the three-day conference, the attendants in Visby had the opportunity to participate in workshops, tours, and activities. The afternoons were reserved for the scientific conference sessions, with all lectures being broadcast live and over 650 people registered to participate online. The book of abstracts is published on the DiVA portal (Digitala Vetenskapliga Arkivet), and many of the presented posters are available for download from the conference programme. We are very grateful to the authors of the following 16 articles in this Special Issue for submitting their manuscripts and allowing us to put together a publication that presents the fascinating breadth of research into Dyes in History and Archaeology.

For more information about future meetings of the Dyes in History and Archaeology group, see https://www.dyesinhistoryandarchaeology.com.

Dr. Marei Hacke
Dr. Sara Norrehed
Dr. Joanne Dyer
Dr. Jo Kirby
Dr. Art Proaño Gaibor
Prof. Dr. Ilaria Degano
Prof. Dr. Zvi Koren
Dr. Edith Sandström
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Heritage is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dyes
  • colourants
  • organic pigments
  • mordants
  • archives
  • crafts
  • industry

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Editorial

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9 pages, 3004 KiB  
Editorial
Dyes in History and Archaeology 41: Reflections on the Conference and Its Assembly of Articles
by Jo Kirby, Marei Hacke, Sara Norrehed, Joanne Dyer, Art Proaño Gaibor, Ilaria Degano, Zvi Koren and Edith Sandström
Heritage 2023, 6(7), 5107-5115; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6070271 - 01 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1187
Abstract
In 1982, eight people—archaeologists, colour scientists and analysts—met in a room in King’s Manor, York University, to discuss a subject of significance to them all: the analysis of dyes on archaeological and historical textiles [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyes in History and Archaeology 41)
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Research

Jump to: Editorial

12 pages, 2258 KiB  
Article
Historical Textile Dye Analysis Using DESI-MS
by Edith Sandström, Chiara Vettorazzo, C. Logan Mackay, Lore G. Troalen and Alison N. Hulme
Heritage 2023, 6(5), 4042-4053; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6050212 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1666
Abstract
Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is an ambient mass spectrometry technique that shows great potential for the analysis of fragile heritage objects in situ. This article focuses on the application of a recently built DESI source to characterize natural dyestuffs in historical [...] Read more.
Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is an ambient mass spectrometry technique that shows great potential for the analysis of fragile heritage objects in situ. This article focuses on the application of a recently built DESI source to characterize natural dyestuffs in historical textiles and a presentation of initial imaging experiments. Optimization of the instrumental settings, geometrical parameters, and solvent system on the DESI-MS analysis was conducted on rhodamine B samples. Some variables, including an increased flow rate, a narrower range of optimized geometrical variables and a solvent system without additives, were applicable to both early synthetic and natural dyes. Direct dye turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) could be reliably analyzed on both silk and wool, as could anthraquinone standards without mordanting. These preliminary results suggest that the dye application process (direct, mordant, vat) has a large impact on the ionization efficiency of DESI-MS. Imaging trials highlighted the suitability of DESI-MS for the analysis of patterned textiles that are difficult to sample, such as calico fabrics, or other currently inaccessible objects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyes in History and Archaeology 41)
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16 pages, 7955 KiB  
Article
A First Approach to the Study of Winsor & Newton’s 19th-Century Manufacture of Madder Red Lake Pigments
by Tiago Veiga, Artur J. Moro, Paula Nabais, Márcia Vilarigues and Vanessa Otero
Heritage 2023, 6(4), 3606-3621; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6040192 - 12 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1897
Abstract
This paper focuses on the first investigation of the 19th-century manufacture of red lake pigments obtained from madder by Winsor & Newton (W&N), prominent artists’ colourman at that time. The first approach to their manufacture was carried out by studying the madder entries [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the first investigation of the 19th-century manufacture of red lake pigments obtained from madder by Winsor & Newton (W&N), prominent artists’ colourman at that time. The first approach to their manufacture was carried out by studying the madder entries of the company’s book P1, found in the W&N 19th Century Archive Database. Eleven production records were discovered under names such as Rose Madder, Madder Carmine, Madder Lake and Madder Rose. Three main methods of synthesis were identified and reproduced, revealing three main steps: washing of the madder roots (Rubia tinctorum L.); extraction in acid media and complexation with Al3+ using alum; and precipitation by the addition of salts such as ammonium carbonate and sodium borate. The syntheses were followed by UV-VIS spectroscopy, and the pigments were further characterised by colourimetry, Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD). They all exhibited a rose hue in a highly insoluble aluminate matrix. Although the dye extraction was incomplete, alizarin, purpurin and pseudopurpurin were identified. An analytical comparison with a Rose Madder 19th-century oil paint tube was also performed by micro-FTIR and microspectrofluorimetry. This work intends to be foundational to a systematic study of the W&N’s 19th-century madder colours aiming to contribute new knowledge towards their identification and preservation in heritage objects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyes in History and Archaeology 41)
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11 pages, 38867 KiB  
Article
Traditional Natural Dyeing Materials Used in Greece from the 19th Century Onwards
by Athanasia Tsatsarou, Athina Alexopoulou, Nadia Bizoumi Macha and Anna Karatzani
Heritage 2023, 6(4), 3567-3577; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6040189 - 10 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1903
Abstract
Textiles and clothing were and still are an important source of culture as well as an indicator of a robust economy and social status. Textile household goods and clothing are important heirlooms, providing valuable information about the standard of living, socio-political events, and [...] Read more.
Textiles and clothing were and still are an important source of culture as well as an indicator of a robust economy and social status. Textile household goods and clothing are important heirlooms, providing valuable information about the standard of living, socio-political events, and cultural influences of the regions from which they originate. This paper presents the preliminary results of a research project dealing with the traditional natural dyes used in Greece for the decoration of garments from the 19th century onwards (from the 19th until the mid-20th century). The research aims to identify and record all the different plants and dyeing techniques used in Greece during this period and also to propose a non-destructive methodology for the study of dyed textiles in order to facilitate their preservation. In this paper, the focus is on the presentation of the classification and identification data of the plants used as the dyeing sources, according to recipes collected in various areas in Greece, as well as the description of their botanical characteristics. The research was based on the study of more than 2000 manuscripts and many interviews with older people who have used these materials. Thus, more than 140 plants have been documented, together with their recipes. The data produced include the phytological characteristics of the plants, as well as the parts of the plant used, the period collected and the areas they were used, together with images of the plants and various details regarding the recipes used in many places around Greece, along with the related documentation. The study also refers to ethics and traditions related to the dyes, the color, or the dyeing procedures used. Woolen samples were prepared based on the data collected in order to investigate how the differences recorded from place to place are reflected in the final result. Through this research, it was possible to identify and replicate some of the non-common recipes which use the Mediterranean strawflower, Helichrysum stoechas (L.) Moench, red algae, Rytiphloea tinctoria (Clemente) C.Agardh, and the common poppy Papaver rhoeas L as dyestuffs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyes in History and Archaeology 41)
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24 pages, 82604 KiB  
Article
Mapping Materials and Dyes on Historic Tapestries Using Hyperspectral Imaging
by Constantina Vlachou-Mogire, Jon Danskin, John R. Gilchrist and Kathryn Hallett
Heritage 2023, 6(3), 3159-3182; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6030168 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2501
Abstract
Hyperspectral imaging has emerged as a promising analytical method of artwork due to its potential in combining non-invasive analytical capabilities and imaging allowing the survey of the entire (or of a large area of the) surface of an artwork, which is a highly [...] Read more.
Hyperspectral imaging has emerged as a promising analytical method of artwork due to its potential in combining non-invasive analytical capabilities and imaging allowing the survey of the entire (or of a large area of the) surface of an artwork, which is a highly significant application for historic tapestries. This project deployed a high-resolution ClydeHSI Art Scanner, which was used with both a push-broom visible to very-near infrared (VNIR; 400–1000 nm) and near infrared (NIR; 900–1700 nm) hyperspectral cameras. Initial testing focused on the characterisation and mapping of the different materials used on historic tapestries (wool, silk, metal threads). To facilitate the dye characterisation, a collection of wool and silk samples dyed with recipes based on medieval practices was used. The samples measured using the system and the data collected formed an external reference library including the type of the natural dyes and mordants used during their production. The outcomes of the on-site deployment of this analytical instrumentation for the characterisation and analysis of 16th century tapestries on display at Hampton Court Palace will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyes in History and Archaeology 41)
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24 pages, 20365 KiB  
Article
Heritage Science Contribution to the Understanding of Meaningful Khipu Colours
by Lucrezia Milillo, Marei Hacke, Sara Norrehed, Ilaria Degano, Francesca Gherardi and Ellinor Gunnarsson
Heritage 2023, 6(3), 2355-2378; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6030124 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3136
Abstract
This work is the first scientific study of khipu dyes and inorganic mordants and auxiliaries, paving the way for a new approach to understanding khipus’ meaningful materiality, technology, and colours. Khipus have usually been described as “Andean knotted records”, but they are much [...] Read more.
This work is the first scientific study of khipu dyes and inorganic mordants and auxiliaries, paving the way for a new approach to understanding khipus’ meaningful materiality, technology, and colours. Khipus have usually been described as “Andean knotted records”, but they are much more than complex knotted cords: a great part of the information encoded resides in khipus’ incredible colours. The objects of this study are two Wari khipus, 1932.08.0001 and 1932.08.0002, now at the Museum of World Culture in Gothenburg, Sweden. After a morphological study of the khipus, the objects were imaged with multiband imaging (MBI) as an aid for the sampling decisional process. The khipus were then analysed non-invasively by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy on selected areas of particular interest. The khipus were consequently sampled for elemental characterisation by micro-XRF, and liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC–HRMS) for characterising the organic dye composition. This paper presents a part of the results of the project “Meaningful materials in the khipu code”, with the intent to shed light on the difficulties and possibilities of investigating khipu colours and dyestuffs. MBI and XRF revealed unforeseeable structural characteristics, such as remnants from a heavily degraded thread in an area of missing thread wrapping and a dual-coloured thread that was previously deemed single-coloured. The organic dyes identified by HPLC–HRMS comprised indigoids, cochineal, and an unknown flavonoid-based dyestuff. XRF of the inorganic components revealed associations of several elements with specific colours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyes in History and Archaeology 41)
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27 pages, 33132 KiB  
Article
Ancient Chromophores and Auxiliaries: Phrygian Colorants from Tumulus MM at Gordion, Turkey, ca 740 BCE
by Mary Ballard, Asher Newsome, Elizabeth Simpson and Brendan Burke
Heritage 2023, 6(2), 2220-2246; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6020118 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1532
Abstract
This paper discusses colorants found in Tumulus MM, the tomb of King Midas or his father, at Gordion, the capital of the Phrygian kingdom. Chromophores, colorants, and auxiliaries are preserved largely independent of the textiles they once colored. The Tumulus MM textiles are [...] Read more.
This paper discusses colorants found in Tumulus MM, the tomb of King Midas or his father, at Gordion, the capital of the Phrygian kingdom. Chromophores, colorants, and auxiliaries are preserved largely independent of the textiles they once colored. The Tumulus MM textiles are now fragmentary due to the degradation processes that occurred inside the tomb chamber. For DHA 26 (Vienna, Austria, 2007), we discussed a group of golden-yellow fragments from Tumulus MM that appeared to be tabby cloth but were skeletal lattices of goethite, αFeOOH (yellow ochre), as identified by FTIR, with SEM/EDS, XRD with molybdenum Kα radiation, NIR, and Raman spectroscopy. The “dyeing” has been replicated using a patented method; originally it may have involved a controlled redox reaction, based on our preliminary experiments. Amidst the goethite lattices, some skeletal fragments were green, with near-black lines within the yarn spiral, identified as indigo by FTIR at the time. Other masses with colorations of red, orange/brown, and purple with deep red veins did not yield identifiable inorganic coloration profiles with SEM/EDS. A purple fragment (2003-Tx-6 Front) was assayed by ICP-MS for mordants and for bromine, but neither could be found. Recently, direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) enabled us to successfully detect organic colorants. For one fragment, indoxyl, isatin, indigo, and leuco-indigo were identified. One striated red-to-brown mass (2003-Tx-3) contained alizarin, purpurin, xanthopurpurin, lucidin, and other madder substituents; it also contained indigo/isatin but neither indoxyl nor leuco-indigo. Other beige-brown masses like 2003-Tx-5 sometimes contained alizarin, xanthopurpurin, rubiadin, and lucidin but rarely purpurin or indigo-related compounds. The purple (2003-Tx-6) shared the madder analogues with browner hues. The versatility appears related to that found in Anatolian pile carpets and flat weaves. Our new analyses confirm that the Phrygian textile colorists were indeed superb, versatile dyers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyes in History and Archaeology 41)
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18 pages, 13598 KiB  
Article
Giving a New Status to a Dyes Collection: A Contribution to the Chromotope Project
by Irene Bilbao Zubiri and Anne-Laure Carré
Heritage 2023, 6(2), 2202-2219; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6020117 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1663
Abstract
Chromotope, the 19th Century Chromatic Turn, is a multidisciplinary ERC research programme that focuses on the “chromatic turn” of the 1860s in France and England, following the invention of the first synthetic dyes. This project, based on a partnership between Sorbonne University (PI: [...] Read more.
Chromotope, the 19th Century Chromatic Turn, is a multidisciplinary ERC research programme that focuses on the “chromatic turn” of the 1860s in France and England, following the invention of the first synthetic dyes. This project, based on a partnership between Sorbonne University (PI: Charlotte Ribeyrol), Oxford University, and the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers (Cnam), investigates how this turn led to new ways of thinking about colour in art, literature, history, and science throughout the second half of the 19th century. One of the key aims of this research is to reappraise the role played by the Cnam in the dissemination of knowledge about synthetic dyes, from the creation in 1852 of the first chair in dyeing and printing until the Interwar period, when a collection of dyes including more than 2500 references, obtained from major European firms, was formed. A full inventory based on the description of each container has just been made together with a bibliographical research. Nevertheless, 2% of the containers are unlabeled and the reattribution of their composition is the main goal of our study. In order to set an appropriate analysis protocol to identify these orphan containers, a preliminary work was conducted on a random selection of identified dyes. For this purpose, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy were used on 13 samples from different dye classes. The relevance of this protocol will be discussed for the identification of unknown compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyes in History and Archaeology 41)
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16 pages, 4096 KiB  
Article
Chromatographic Characterization of Archaeological Molluskan Colorants via the Di-Mono Index and Ternary Diagram
by Zvi C. Koren
Heritage 2023, 6(2), 2186-2201; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6020116 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1736
Abstract
One of the main research questions regarding archaeological molluscan purple pigments and dyes is whether it is possible to determine which malacological species produced these colorants. For this determination of the zoological provenance of the pigment, a multicomponent analysis must be performed, which [...] Read more.
One of the main research questions regarding archaeological molluscan purple pigments and dyes is whether it is possible to determine which malacological species produced these colorants. For this determination of the zoological provenance of the pigment, a multicomponent analysis must be performed, which can only be obtained from the HPLC technique—the optimal method for identifying all the detectable colorants in a sample. In order to find any trends in the compositions of the dye components from various species of purple-producing sea snails, a statistical formulation is needed. Though principal component analysis (PCA) is a powerful statistical tool that has been used in the analysis of these components, it is based on an algorithm that combines all the componential values and produces new two-dimensional parameters whereby the individualities of the original dye component values are lost. To maintain the integrity of the dye compositions in the purple pigments, a very simple formulation was first published in 2008 and applied to a limited number of samples. This property is known as DMI (short for Di-Mono Index), and for each sample, it is simply the ratio of the peak area of DBI relative to that of MBI, evaluated at the standard wavelength of 288 nm, which has been used for such peak calculations. Currently, considerably more modern and archaeological pigments have been analyzed via HPLC; thus, in the current study, the DMI has been expanded to characterize these purple pigments. Furthermore, a ternary diagram comprising the blue, violet, and red components that can be found in purple colorants is presented for both modern and archaeological purple pigments from the three Muricidae species known in antiquity to produce purple pigments. This triangular diagram is intuitive, retains the integrity of the original dyes, and is presented here for the first time. Both the DMI and the ternary diagram can discern whether a Hexaplex trunculus species or perhaps the Bolinus brandaris or Stramonita haemastoma species were used to produce the pigment. Further, these two representations can also determine whether the IND-rich or the DBI-rich varieties, or both, of H. trunculus were used to produce the purple pigment, either as a paint pigment or as a textile dye. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyes in History and Archaeology 41)
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29 pages, 3718 KiB  
Article
Plantae tinctoriae: The 1759 Dissertation on Dye Plants by Engelbert Jörlin
by Regina Hofmann-de Keijzer and Matthijs de Keijzer
Heritage 2023, 6(2), 1502-1530; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6020081 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1604
Abstract
In the late 1750s, the Swedish botanist Engelbert Jörlin (1733–1810), one of Carl Linnaeus’ students wrote his dissertation Plantae tinctoriae on more than one hundred dye plants. The article presents a systematic study on these dyeing materials and reflects the knowledge in the [...] Read more.
In the late 1750s, the Swedish botanist Engelbert Jörlin (1733–1810), one of Carl Linnaeus’ students wrote his dissertation Plantae tinctoriae on more than one hundred dye plants. The article presents a systematic study on these dyeing materials and reflects the knowledge in the mid-18th century. His dissertation focused on domestic plants that could be suitable instead of expensive imported trade goods and was published during the Age of Utility (1719–1771). The Latin text of Jörlin’s dissertation was first converted into a digital version by the ‘Noscemus General Model’ from Transkribus and then translated into English. The current scientific names were obtained from various biological websites. The dyestuffs were assigned to four groups: native and applied in Sweden (A); imported trade products (B); native to Sweden with potential use for dyeing (C); non-native and used abroad (D). They were mainly applied for dyeing textiles, less frequently for pharmaceuticals, cosmetics (make-up), inks and artists’ pigments. In his dissertation, Jörlin refers to scriptures from antiquity, Latin botanical literature from the 16th and 17th centuries but especially to the publications of Carl Linnaeus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyes in History and Archaeology 41)
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18 pages, 5765 KiB  
Article
Colorants Detected by HPLC-PDA in Textiles from 13th Century Lieto Ristinpelto, Finland
by Krista Wright, Ina Vanden Berghe, Jenni Sahramaa and Jenni A. Suomela
Heritage 2023, 6(2), 1209-1226; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6020067 - 27 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1563
Abstract
Organic colorants of textiles found in the female burial of Lieto Ristinpelto, SW Finland, were analyzed by HPLC-PDA. The textiles’ visible colors varied from different brownish shades to blueish, greenish, and reddish hues. The aim of the chromatographic analysis was to deepen the [...] Read more.
Organic colorants of textiles found in the female burial of Lieto Ristinpelto, SW Finland, were analyzed by HPLC-PDA. The textiles’ visible colors varied from different brownish shades to blueish, greenish, and reddish hues. The aim of the chromatographic analysis was to deepen the current understandings of the dyes used in Finland at the transition between the 12th and 13th centuries AD, i.e., at the beginning of the local Medieval period, and to contribute important new information about dyes and clothing from this less-known period of textile history of Finland. The textile finds consisted of a bronze spiral ornamented shawl, an apron tied at the waist, two tablet-woven bands, and a diagonally plaited band with plaited tassels. A unique find was a textile possibly made using the sprang technique. Other textile finds were an orange wool tabby and twill fragments. Analysis of thirty samples from fourteen different textiles indicated that woad colorants were present in most samples, accompanied with lichen compounds, and dyer’s madder was in two visually orange fragments. The visually reddish samples contained luteolin, but no red colorants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyes in History and Archaeology 41)
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17 pages, 21756 KiB  
Article
The Unexpected Discovery of Syngenite on Margarito d’Arezzo’s The Virgin and Child Enthroned, with Scenes of the Nativity and the Lives of the Saints (Probably 1263–4) and Its Possible Use as a Yellow Lake Substrate
by David Peggie, Helen Howard, Jo Kirby and Jens Najorka
Heritage 2023, 6(2), 762-778; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6020041 - 17 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1444
Abstract
The oldest painting in the National Gallery collection, The Virgin and Child Enthroned by Margarito d’Arezzo (NG564), dated to about 1263–4, depicts the Virgin and Child in a mandorla, surrounded by scenes of the Nativity and lives of the saints, set within red [...] Read more.
The oldest painting in the National Gallery collection, The Virgin and Child Enthroned by Margarito d’Arezzo (NG564), dated to about 1263–4, depicts the Virgin and Child in a mandorla, surrounded by scenes of the Nativity and lives of the saints, set within red and decorative black borders, against a gilded background. The materials and technique were investigated using a combination of non-invasive techniques, such as Fibre Optic Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS) and macro X-ray fluorescence scanning (MA-XRF), and the analysis of a small number of paint samples using energy dispersive X-ray analysis in the scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS), High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Attenuated Total Reflectance—Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and micro X-ray Diffraction (micro-XRD). The results provided evidence for the use of a number of organic colourants, with both indigo and red lake pigments identified. The finding of an unusual compound, syngenite (K2Ca(SO4)2·H2O), is here postulated as a potential substrate for an organic yellow lake pigment. In addition, reference pigments were prepared to explore this hypothesis. Although documentary evidence confirms that yellow lakes were being produced from an early date, there is very little direct evidence for their use in 13th-century panel paintings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyes in History and Archaeology 41)
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24 pages, 41385 KiB  
Article
Woaded Blue: A Colorful Approach to the Dialectic between Written Historical Sources, Experimental Archaeology, Chromatographic Analyses, and Biochemical Research
by Dominique Cardon, Zvi C. Koren and Hisako Sumi
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 681-704; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010037 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3185
Abstract
Research into the sustainability of natural, potentially renewable, resources is one of the major issues of our time. It naturally includes the quest for sustainable sources of colorants for textiles, cosmetics, and food. In industrialized countries, natural dyeing with plants and a few [...] Read more.
Research into the sustainability of natural, potentially renewable, resources is one of the major issues of our time. It naturally includes the quest for sustainable sources of colorants for textiles, cosmetics, and food. In industrialized countries, natural dyeing with plants and a few species of coccid insects was practiced on a large scale for centuries before synthetic colorants were developed. Therefore, historical documents on the growing of dye plants and dyeing processes offer a relevant basis from which to start reconsidering the potential of natural colorants in our time. However, written sources need to be completed by experimental archaeologists to allow a scientific understanding of the biochemical reactions at work in the historical processes described. The results of such interdisciplinary research can then inspire contemporary programs to revive the production of natural dyes. The long history of dyeing blue with woad, Isatis tinctoria L., is revisited here as an illustration of the fruitful complementarity of sources and approaches. This article presents a step-by-step re-assessment of the production chain of woad as described in historical texts, from the growing of the plant to its use as a source of indigo in the woad and indigo vats. The experimental reconstitution of the processing of woad leaves into couched woad allowed us to follow the evolution of the composition and proportions of indigoid colorants in the leaves by HPLC analyses. Additionally, HPLC analyses allowed a comparison of the respective indigoid contents of couched woad and sukumo, the form of indigo dye resulting from another couching process, traditionally used in Japan for dyers’ knotweed, Persicaria tinctoria (Ait.) H. Gross. The reconstitution of the 18th century woad and indigo vat process allowed investigations into the bacterial flora associated with the use of couched woad in vat liquors, which were found to contain different indigo-reducing bacteria, including two distinct strains of a new indigo-reducing species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyes in History and Archaeology 41)
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9 pages, 2107 KiB  
Article
Thermochromicity in Wool Dyed with 6-Bromoindigo Depends on the Presence and Identity of a Solvent
by Keith Ramig, Timone Eskaros, Tazrian Islam, Olga Lavinda, Sasan Karimi, Lou Massa and Christopher Cooksey
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 672-680; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010036 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1496
Abstract
The thermochromic effect of wool dyed with 6-bromoindigo was found to depend on both heat and a solvent. The dyed fabric must be immersed in a solvent while heating for a color change from purple to blue to occur. Ethanol was the most [...] Read more.
The thermochromic effect of wool dyed with 6-bromoindigo was found to depend on both heat and a solvent. The dyed fabric must be immersed in a solvent while heating for a color change from purple to blue to occur. Ethanol was the most effective solvent in causing the color change. Water was effective as well. 1-Butanol caused a slight color change, while toluene was completely ineffective. These results are interpreted as interaction of the solvent with both the wool surface and adsorbed dye molecular aggregates, causing changes in the size of large red aggregates to smaller blue ones. The mildest conditions for the color change, immersion in water at 60 °C, are so easily obtained that it is possible that ancient dyers knew of this as a finishing process for their dyeing, or knew to avoid post-dyeing heat treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyes in History and Archaeology 41)
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19 pages, 1571 KiB  
Article
Transition from Natural to Early Synthetic Dyes in the Romanian Traditional Shirts Decoration
by Irina Petroviciu, Iulia Claudia Teodorescu, Silvana Vasilca and Florin Albu
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 505-523; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010027 - 09 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2035
Abstract
The traditional shirt (“ie”) is the most well-known element of Romanian anonymous textile art. Apart from aesthetic and utilitarian roles, it has strong symbolic significance, mainly through the colours used for decoration. Very recently, the traditional shirt with decoration over the [...] Read more.
The traditional shirt (“ie”) is the most well-known element of Romanian anonymous textile art. Apart from aesthetic and utilitarian roles, it has strong symbolic significance, mainly through the colours used for decoration. Very recently, the traditional shirt with decoration over the shoulder (“ia cu altiță”) was introduced as a Romanian identity element as part of UNESCO heritage. Depending on the ethnographic area, the traditional shirt with decoration over the shoulder has acquired special expressive particularities over time. Particularly relevant is that from Valea Hârtibaciului, an area of Transylvania in the very centre of Romania. Although sober in appearance with large fields of white plain weave, it is discreetly decorated with elaborated embroidery on the sleeve bracelets, over the shoulders and neck. Even the colour range and decoration motifs remain unchanged in time, evolution in the materials used and a subtle transition from natural hues to more strident alternatives were observed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. For the present study, samples were taken from representative objects in the collections of the ASTRA Museum, Sibiu and Ethnographical Museum, Brasov, documented as belonging to the area of Valea Hârtibaciului and dated in the museum archives as from the late 19th and early 20th century. The textile materials and the dyes used in the shirts’ embroidery were monitored. Fibre identification was made by optical microscopy and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR). Dye analysis was performed by liquid chromatography coupled with UV-Vis (diode array) detection, while some of the samples were also analysed by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection (LC-DAD-MS). Dyes were extracted from the fibres by acid hydrolysis. Identification was based on data collected on standards, dyes and dyed fibres. For the early synthetic dyes, a dedicated library of references was built, which includes information relative to the most relevant representatives used between 1850 and 1900, the ‘Helmut Schweppe list’. According to the study, in the last decades of the 19th century, natural dye sources such as dyer’s broom, madder, Mexican cochineal and indigoid dyes were gradually replaced by early synthetic dyes: fuchsine (1856), methyl violet (1861), synthetic alizarin (1871), brilliant green (1879), azo flavine 3R (1880), rhodamine B (1887) and others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyes in History and Archaeology 41)
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23 pages, 7096 KiB  
Article
Dye Identification in Mounting Textiles of Traditional Korean Paintings from the Late Joseon Dynasty
by Diego Tamburini, Meejung Kim-Marandet and Sang-ah Kim
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 44-66; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010003 - 21 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1893
Abstract
In the framework of the ‘Amorepacific Project for the conservation of Korean pictorial art’ (2018–2023) at the British Museum, three traditional Korean paintings have been investigated with the aim of supporting their conservation and obtaining information about the dyes used in the mounting [...] Read more.
In the framework of the ‘Amorepacific Project for the conservation of Korean pictorial art’ (2018–2023) at the British Museum, three traditional Korean paintings have been investigated with the aim of supporting their conservation and obtaining information about the dyes used in the mounting textiles and other mounting elements. The paintings include a rare example of late 18th-century traditional Korean portraiture (accession number 1996,0329,0.1); a late 19th-century two-panel screen silk painting of Pyeongsaeng-do-Scenes of life (accession number 2016,3028.1); and a late 19th-century twelve-panel screen silk painting representing the Five Confucian virtues (accession number 1957,1214,0.1). The mounting textiles were investigated non-invasively by using digital microscopy and fibre optic reflectance spectroscopy (FORS), and the results guided a minimally invasive sampling campaign. Fourteen samples were analysed by using high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and tandem mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS), leading to the identification of the natural dyes indigo, sappanwood (Biancaea sappan, formerly Caesalpinia sappan), amur cork tree (Phellodendron amurense) and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) in the mounting elements of the 18th-century portrait. These results confirmed some of the non-invasive observations and were in agreement with the production date of the painting. Both natural and synthetic dyes were identified in the mounting textiles of the panel screens. Among the synthetic dyes, fuchsin (C.I. 42510), methyl violet 3B (C.I. 42536), methyl blue (C.I. 42780) and benzopurpurin 4B (C.I. 23500) were identified. These are early synthetic dyes first synthesised between the 1860s and the 1880s, suggesting that the silk textiles are likely to have been dyed in the last part of the 19th century. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyes in History and Archaeology 41)
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32 pages, 4599 KiB  
Article
Increased Imports of Colorants and Constituent Components during the 18th Century Reflects the Start of the Consumer Society in Norway
by Margaret Aasness Knudtzon
Heritage 2022, 5(4), 3705-3736; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage5040193 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1653
Abstract
The start of the consumer society in Norway is examined by studying the increased imports of colorants and their constituents during the 18th century. Based on historical customs records, 82 imported pigments and dyes, 27 binders and additives and nine mordants and auxiliaries [...] Read more.
The start of the consumer society in Norway is examined by studying the increased imports of colorants and their constituents during the 18th century. Based on historical customs records, 82 imported pigments and dyes, 27 binders and additives and nine mordants and auxiliaries are presented. Imports increased significantly in the middle and at end of the century, representing two chromatic “revolutions”. This was especially evident for lead white and indigo; being the only particularly white and blue pigments used for painting and dyeing, respectively. Red dyes at different prices and properties (brazilwood, madder and cochineal) met the demands for red textile coloring in different social groups. The study presents a comprehensive overview of colorant imports and provides new insights in the development of consumption in Norway. Colorant imports were probably initiated by a supply-driven positive feed-back loop as a result of increased export trade. This was followed by a demand-driven loop, involving increased domestic trade, product preferences, “fashionability”, consumer culture, economic conditions and enlightenment. A model is presented that can contribute to a further understanding of the start of the consumer society in the second half of the 18th century in Norway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyes in History and Archaeology 41)
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