Special Issue "Seismic Sequence in Mediterranean Region"

A special issue of Geosciences (ISSN 2076-3263). This special issue belongs to the section "Geophysics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Giovanni Lanzano
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Istituto Nazionale Di Geofisica E Vulcanologia, Milan, Italy
Interests: ground motion predicton equations; strong motion records; residual analysis; non ergodic seismic hazard; ground motion variability; seismic engineering parameters
Dr. Stefano Pucci
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Via di Vigna Murata, 605, 00143 Roma, Italy
Interests: earthquake geology; tectonic geomorphology; quantitative geomorphology; geochronology; geophysics; paleoseismology; structural geology; geological mapping
Dr. Sara Sgobba
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Via A. Corti 12, 20133 Milano, Italy
Interests: empirical ground-motion models; engineering intensity measures; ground motion spatial prediction; near-source ground motion; selection and scaling of ground motion records; strong-motion accelerometric databases
Prof. Dr. Salvatore Grasso
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania, Catania 95131, Italy
Interests: seismic geotechnical hazard; ground response analysis; landslides induced by earthquakes; liquefaction; disaster management; environmental geotechnics and climate change
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Mediterranean is a very seismically active region due to its tectonic setting being a boundary zone between African and European plates. It is also a densely populated area with consequent high seismic risk exposure. In light of this, several studies have been focused on this region, largely improving upon the knowledge of Mediterranean seismicity and its seismic sources, as well as in the related ground motion analysis and modelling. Advances have also been produced on applied aspects, including the creation of new infrastructures for observation and monitoring (e.g., geodetic networks, data structures and repositories, etc.).

This Special Issue aims to cover these different topics with particular reference to the most recent sequences and events, such as in Italy, Greece, and Turkey. We encourage the submission of papers concerning topics such as:

  • Lessons learned from the past events;
  • Historical seismicity;
  • Seismotectonics and seismicity of the area;
  • Data acquisition and collection;
  • Analysis of the ground motion;
  • Seismic hazard assessment;
  • Risk and earthquake losses;
  • Developments in seismic design codes of countries in the Mediterranean area;
  • Tsunami and earthquake-induced hazard.

Dr. Giovanni Lanzano
Dr. Stefano Pucci
Dr. Sara Sgobba
Dr. Salvatore Grasso
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • active faults
  • historical earthquakes
  • geological data
  • geodetic data
  • seismological data
  • ground motion
  • seismic hazard
  • seismic risk
  • design code
  • earthquake-induced hazard

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Mainshock Anticipated by Intra-Sequence Ground Deformations: Insights from Multiscale Field and SAR Interferometric Measurements
Geosciences 2020, 10(5), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10050186 - 15 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1256
Abstract
The 2016 Central Italy seismic sequence was characterized by two main events: 24 August, Mw 6, and 30 October, Mw 6.5. We carried out high-resolution field sampling and DInSAR analysis of the coseismic and intra-sequence ground deformations along the Mt Vettore-Mt Bove causative [...] Read more.
The 2016 Central Italy seismic sequence was characterized by two main events: 24 August, Mw 6, and 30 October, Mw 6.5. We carried out high-resolution field sampling and DInSAR analysis of the coseismic and intra-sequence ground deformations along the Mt Vettore-Mt Bove causative fault (VBF). We found that during the intra-sequence period (24 August–30 October), the ground experienced some deformations whose final patterns seemed to be retraced and amplified by the following mainshock. We interpreted that (i) immediately after the 24 August earthquake, the deformation observed in the southern VBF expanded northwards and westwards over a Length of Deforming Ground (LDG) ranging between 28.7 and 36.3 km, and (ii) it extended to the whole portion of the hanging wall that was later affected by mainshock coseismic deformation. Assuming the LDG to be an indicator for an expected (=coseismic) surface rupture length and using known scaling functions, we obtained 6.4 ≤ Mw ≤ 6.7 for a possible incoming earthquake, which is consistent with the mainshock magnitude. We suggest that the evolution of the ground deformations after a significant seismic event might provide insights on the occurrence of new earthquakes with magnitudes comparable to or larger than the former. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismic Sequence in Mediterranean Region)
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Open AccessArticle
Late Quaternary Tectonic Activity of the Udine-Buttrio Thrust, Friulian Plain, NE Italy
Geosciences 2020, 10(2), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10020084 - 23 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1343
Abstract
The NW-SE trending Udine-Buttrio Thrust is a partly blind fault that affects the Friulian plain southeast of Udine in NE Italy. It is part of a wider fault system that accommodates the northward motion of the Adriatic plate. Although seismic reflection data and [...] Read more.
The NW-SE trending Udine-Buttrio Thrust is a partly blind fault that affects the Friulian plain southeast of Udine in NE Italy. It is part of a wider fault system that accommodates the northward motion of the Adriatic plate. Although seismic reflection data and morphological evidence show that the fault was active during the Quaternary, comparably little is known about its tectonic activity. We used high-resolution digital elevation models to investigate the surface expression of the fault. Measured vertical surface offsets show significant changes along strike with uplift rates varying between 0 and 0.5 mm/yr. We then analyze a topographic scarp near the village of Manzano in more detail. Field mapping and geophysical prospections (Georadar and Electrical Resistivity Tomography) were used to image the subsurface geometry of the fault. We found vertical offsets of 1–3 m in Natisone River terraces younger than 20 ka. The geophysical data allowed the identification of deformation of the fluvial sediments, supporting the idea that the topographic scarp is a tectonic feature and that the terraces have been uplifted systematically over time. Our findings fit the long-term behaviour of the Udine-Buttrio Thrust. We estimate a post-glacial vertical uplift rate of 0.08–0.17 mm/yr recorded by the offset terraces. Our results shed light on the Late Quaternary behaviour of this thrust fault in the complicated regional tectonic setting and inform about its hitherto overlooked possible seismic hazard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismic Sequence in Mediterranean Region)
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Open AccessArticle
The 2013–2018 Matese and Beneventano Seismic Sequences (Central–Southern Apennines): New Constraints on the Hypocentral Depth Determination
Geosciences 2020, 10(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10010017 - 30 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 928
Abstract
The Matese and Beneventano areas coincide with the transition from the central to the southern Apennines and are characterized by both SW- and NE-dipping normal faulting seismogenic structures, responsible for the large historical earthquakes. We studied the Matese and Beneventano seismicity by means [...] Read more.
The Matese and Beneventano areas coincide with the transition from the central to the southern Apennines and are characterized by both SW- and NE-dipping normal faulting seismogenic structures, responsible for the large historical earthquakes. We studied the Matese and Beneventano seismicity by means of high-precision locations of earthquakes spanning from 29 December 2013 to 4 September 2018. Events were located by using all of the available data from temporary and permanent stations in the area and a 1D computed velocity model, inverting the dataset with the Velest code. For events M > 2.8 we used P- and S-waves arrival times of the strong motion stations located in the study area. A constant value of 1.83 for Vp/Vs was computed with a modified Wadati method. The dataset consists of 2378 earthquakes, 18,715 P- and 12,295 S-wave arrival times. We computed 55 new fault plane solutions. The mechanisms show predominantly normal fault movements, with T-axis trends oriented NE–SW. Only relatively small E–W trending clusters in the eastern peripheral zones of the Apenninic belt show right-lateral strike-slip kinematics similar to that observed in the Potenza (1990–1991) and Molise (2002 and 2018) sequences. These belong to transfer zones associated with differential slab retreat of the Adriatic plate subduction beneath the Apennines. The Matese sequence (December 2013–February 2014; main shock Mw 5.0) is the most relevant part of our dataset. Hypocentral depths along the axis of the Apenninic belt are in agreement with previous seismological studies that place most of the earthquakes in the brittle upper crust. We confirm a general deepening of seismicity moving from west to the east along the Apennines. Seismicity depth is controlled by heat-flow, which is lower in the eastern side, thus causing a deeper brittle–ductile transition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismic Sequence in Mediterranean Region)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of The Seismic Hazard in The Marmara Region (Turkey) Based on Updated Databases
Geosciences 2019, 9(12), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9120489 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1178
Abstract
The increase in the wealth of information on the seismotectonic structure of the Marmara region after two devastating earthquakes (M7.6 Izmit and M7.2 Duzce events) in the year 1999 opened the way for the reassessment of the probabilistic seismic hazard [...] Read more.
The increase in the wealth of information on the seismotectonic structure of the Marmara region after two devastating earthquakes (M7.6 Izmit and M7.2 Duzce events) in the year 1999 opened the way for the reassessment of the probabilistic seismic hazard in the light of new datasets. In this connection, the most recent findings and outputs of different national and international projects concerning seismicity and fault characterization in terms of geometric and kinematic properties are exploited in the present study to build an updated seismic hazard model. A revised fault segmentation model, alternative earthquake rupture models under a Poisson and renewal assumptions, as well as recently derived global and regional ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) are put together in the present model to assess the seismic hazard in the region. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) is conducted based on characteristic earthquake modelling for the fault segments capable of producing large earthquakes and smoothed seismicity modelling for the background smaller magnitude earthquake activity. The time-independent and time-dependent seismic hazard results in terms of spatial distributions of three ground-shaking intensity measures (peak ground acceleration, PGA, and 0.2 s and 1.0 s spectral accelerations (SA) on rock having 10% and 2% probabilities of exceedance in 50 years) as well as the corresponding hazard curves for selected cities are shown and compared with previous studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismic Sequence in Mediterranean Region)
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Shear Wave Velocity and Non-Linearity of Soil in the Seismic Response of a Coupled Tunnel-Soil-Above Ground Building System
Geosciences 2019, 9(11), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9110473 - 09 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 948
Abstract
The presence of tunnels close to aboveground structures may modify the response of these structures, while the contrary is also true, the presence of aboveground structures may modify the dynamic response of tunnels. In this context, the dynamic properties of the soil through [...] Read more.
The presence of tunnels close to aboveground structures may modify the response of these structures, while the contrary is also true, the presence of aboveground structures may modify the dynamic response of tunnels. In this context, the dynamic properties of the soil through which the aboveground and underground structures are “connected” could play an important role. The paper reports dynamic FEM (Finite Element Method) analyses of a coupled tunnel-soil-above ground structure system (TSS system), which differ in regards to the soil shear wave velocity and in turns for the damping ratio, in order to investigate the role of these parameters in the full-coupled TSS system response. The analyses were performed using three different seismic inputs. Moreover, the soil non-linearity was taken into account adopting two different constitutive models: i) an equivalent linear visco-elastic model, characterized by degraded soil shear moduli and damping ratios, according to suggestions given by EC8 in 2003; and ii) a visco-elasto-plastic constitutive model, characterized by isotropic and kinematic hardening and a non-associated flow rule. The seismic response of the system was investigated in the time and frequency domains, in terms of: acceleration ratios; amplification ratios and response spectra; and bending moments in the tunnel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismic Sequence in Mediterranean Region)
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Open AccessArticle
Coseismic Ground Deformation Reproduced through Numerical Modeling: A Parameter Sensitivity Analysis
Geosciences 2019, 9(9), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9090370 - 25 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1392
Abstract
Coseismic ground displacements detected through remote sensing surveys are often used to invert the coseismic slip distribution on geologically reliable fault planes. We analyze a well-known case study (2009 L’Aquila earthquake) to investigate how three-dimensional (3D) slip configuration affects coseismic ground surface deformation. [...] Read more.
Coseismic ground displacements detected through remote sensing surveys are often used to invert the coseismic slip distribution on geologically reliable fault planes. We analyze a well-known case study (2009 L’Aquila earthquake) to investigate how three-dimensional (3D) slip configuration affects coseismic ground surface deformation. Different coseismic slip surface configurations reconstructed using aftershocks distribution and coseismic cracks, were tested using 3D boundary element method numerical models. The models include two with slip patches that reach the surface and three models of blind normal-slip surfaces with different configurations of slip along shallowly-dipping secondary faults. We test the sensitivity of surface deformation to variations in stress drop and rock stiffness. We compare numerical models’ results with line of sight (LOS) surface deformation detected from differential SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) interferometry (DInSAR). The variations in fault configuration, rock stiffness and stress drop associated with the earthquake considerably impact the pattern of surface subsidence. In particular, the models with a coseismic slip patch that does not reach the surface have a better match to the line of sight coseismic surface deformation, as well as better match to the aftershock pattern, than models with rupture that reaches the surface. The coseismic slip along shallowly dipping secondary faults seems to provide a minor contribution toward surface deformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismic Sequence in Mediterranean Region)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of the Seismic Site Amplification in the City of Ivanec (NW Part of Croatia) Using the Microtremor HVSR Method and Equivalent-Linear Site Response Analysis
Geosciences 2019, 9(7), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9070312 - 14 Jul 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1793
Abstract
The city of Ivanec is located between valley of the Bednja River and Mt. Ivanščica and this area can be prone to significant seismic site amplification due to local site characteristics. This study presents the first assessment of seismic site amplification for the [...] Read more.
The city of Ivanec is located between valley of the Bednja River and Mt. Ivanščica and this area can be prone to significant seismic site amplification due to local site characteristics. This study presents the first assessment of seismic site amplification for the city of Ivanec by the microtremor horizontal-to-vertical-spectral-ratio (HVSR) method and the equivalent-linear (EQL) site response analysis. Based on microtremor measurements and HVSR analysis, fundamental soil frequency and HVSR peak amplitude maps indicate potentially seismic danger zones. The 1-D EQL site response analysis was performed using multiple suites of earthquake ground motions scaled to the 95- and 475-year return periods of peak ground accelerations. Site amplification maps at the predominant peak frequency and ground surface indicate two microzones, one with high amplification in the central part of the city due to soft soil characteristics, and the other with small amplification in the transitional zone from alluvial basin towards the foothills of Mt. Ivanščica. HVSR peak amplitudes and site response peak amplifications showed similar spatial distributions with similar predominant peak frequencies but with different amplitude levels. Site amplification maps provided significant information about potential resonance effects for structures of certain heights that can be correlated with the local ground shaking characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismic Sequence in Mediterranean Region)
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