Special Issue "Modelling and Numerical Simulation of Tsunami"

A special issue of GeoHazards (ISSN 2624-795X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2023) | Viewed by 12126

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Jorge Macías
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Mathematical Analysis, Statistics and I.O., and Applied Mathematics Science Faculty, Universidad de Málaga, 29080 Málaga, Spain
Interests: mathematical modeling; numerical simulation; tsunamis; landslides; numerical models; FTRT simulations; TEWS; shallow water systems; geophysical flows

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The present Special Issue on “Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Tsunamis” aims to address all aspects of mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of tsunamis regardless of the mechanism by which they are generated: seismic source, aerial or underwater landslides, volcanic activity, asteroids or meteorological forcing (meteo-tsunamis). Research articles can cover a broad spectrum of topics, from case studies, model benchmarking (lab-based or reporting field cases), description and testing of new models or parameterizations, new source models and approximations, model inter-comparison, HPC in tsunami modeling, FTRT tsunami simulations, application to TEWS, high-resolution inundation simulations, probabilistic approximations (such as PTHA or PTF), IA, etc. Interdisciplinary work related to tsunami hazard assessment and risk analysis is also welcome. This Special Issue aims to collect the state of the art and most advanced knowledge in the very active area of ​​tsunami modeling and numerical simulation.

Dr. Jorge Macías
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. GeoHazards is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • tsunamis
  • seismic tsunamis
  • landslide-generated tsunamis
  • mathematical modeling
  • numerical simulation
  • numerical models
  • FTRT tsunami simulations (faster than real time)
  • TEWS (tsunami early warning systems)
  • model benchmarking and validation
  • tsunami forecasting
  • tsunami hazard assessment
  • PTHA (probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis)
  • PTF (probabilistic tsunami forecast)

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Accelerating Tsunami Modeling for Evacuation Studies through Modification of the Manning Roughness Values
GeoHazards 2022, 3(4), 492-507; https://doi.org/10.3390/geohazards3040025 - 26 Oct 2022
Viewed by 623
Abstract
The role of the Manning roughness coefficient in modifying a tsunami time series of flow depth inundation was studied in Iquique, Chile, using a single synthetic earthquake scenario. A high-resolution digital surface model was used as a reference configuration, and several bare land [...] Read more.
The role of the Manning roughness coefficient in modifying a tsunami time series of flow depth inundation was studied in Iquique, Chile, using a single synthetic earthquake scenario. A high-resolution digital surface model was used as a reference configuration, and several bare land models using constant roughness were tested with different grid resolutions. As previously reported, increasing the Manning n value beyond the standard values is essential to reproduce mean statistics such as the inundated area extent and maximum flow depth. The arrival time showed to be less sensitive to changes in the Manning n value, at least in terms of the magnitude of the error. However, increasing the Manning n value too much leads to a critical change in the characteristics of the flow, which departs from its bore-like structure to a more gradual and persistent inundation. It was found that it is possible to find a Manning n value that resembles most features of the reference flow using less resolution in the numerical grids. This allows us to speed up inundation tsunami modeling, which could be useful when multiple inundation simulations are required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Numerical Simulation of Tsunami)
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Article
Analysis of Faster-Than-Real-Time (FTRT) Tsunami Simulations for the Spanish Tsunami Warning System for the Atlantic
GeoHazards 2022, 3(3), 371-394; https://doi.org/10.3390/geohazards3030019 - 01 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1085
Abstract
Real-time local tsunami warnings embody uncertainty from unknowns in the source definition within the first minutes after the tsunami generates. In general, Tsunami Warning Systems (TWS) provide a quick estimate for tsunami action from deterministic simulations of a single event. In this study, [...] Read more.
Real-time local tsunami warnings embody uncertainty from unknowns in the source definition within the first minutes after the tsunami generates. In general, Tsunami Warning Systems (TWS) provide a quick estimate for tsunami action from deterministic simulations of a single event. In this study, variability in tsunami source parameters has been included by running 135 tsunami simulations; besides this, four different computational domains in the northeastern Atlantic ocean have been considered, resulting in 540 simulations associated with a single event. This was done for tsunamis generated by earthquakes in the Gulf of Cadiz with impact in the western Iberian peninsula and the Canary Islands. A first answer is provided after one minute, and 7 min are required to perform all the simulations in the four computational domains. The fast computation allows alert levels all along the coast to be incorporated into the Spanish National Tsunami Early Warning System. The main findings are that the use of a set of scenarios that account for the uncertainty in source parameters can produce higher tsunami warnings in certain coastal areas than those obtained from a single deterministic reference scenario. Therefore, this work shows that considering uncertainties in tsunami source parameters helps to avoid possible tsunami warning level underestimations. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that this is possible to do in real time in an actual TWS with the use of high-performance computing resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Numerical Simulation of Tsunami)
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Article
Systematic Comparison of Tsunami Simulations on the Chilean Coast Based on Different Numerical Approaches
GeoHazards 2022, 3(2), 345-370; https://doi.org/10.3390/geohazards3020018 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1713
Abstract
Tsunami inundation estimates are of crucial importance to hazard and risk assessments. In the context of tsunami forecast, numerical simulations are becoming more feasible with the growth of computational power. Uncertainties regarding source determination within the first minutes after a tsunami generation might [...] Read more.
Tsunami inundation estimates are of crucial importance to hazard and risk assessments. In the context of tsunami forecast, numerical simulations are becoming more feasible with the growth of computational power. Uncertainties regarding source determination within the first minutes after a tsunami generation might be a major concern in the issuing of an appropriate warning on the coast. However, it is also crucial to investigate differences emerging from the chosen algorithms for the tsunami simulations due to a dependency of the outcomes on the suitable model settings. In this study, we compare the tsunami inundation in three cities in central Chile (Coquimbo, Viña del Mar, and Valparaíso) using three different models (TsunAWI, Tsunami-HySEA, COMCOT) while varying the parameters such as bottom friction. TsunAWI operates on triangular meshes with variable resolution, whereas the other two codes use nested grids for the coastal area. As initial conditions of the experiments, three seismic sources (2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, 2015 Mw 8.3 Coquimbo, and 1730 Mw 9.1 Valparaíso) are considered for the experiments. Inundation areas are determined with high-resolution topo-bathymetric datasets based on specific wetting and drying implementations of the numerical models. We compare each model’s results and sensitivities with respect to parameters such as bottom friction and bathymetry representation in the varying mesh geometries. The outcomes show consistent estimates for the nearshore wave amplitude of the leading wave crest based on identical seismic source models within the codes. However, with respect to inundation, we show high sensitivity to Manning values where a non-linear behaviour is difficult to predict. Differences between the relative decrease in inundation areas and the Manning n-range (0.015–0.060) are high (11–65%), with a strong dependency on the characterization of the local topo-bathymery in the Coquimbo and Valparaíso areas. Since simulations carried out with such models are used to generate hazard estimates and warning products in an early tsunami warning context, it is crucial to investigate differences that emerge from the chosen algorithms for the tsunami simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Numerical Simulation of Tsunami)
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Article
Use of Neural Networks for Tsunami Maximum Height and Arrival Time Predictions
GeoHazards 2022, 3(2), 323-344; https://doi.org/10.3390/geohazards3020017 - 13 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2520
Abstract
Operational TEWS play a key role in reducing tsunami impact on populated coastal areas around the world in the event of an earthquake-generated tsunami. Traditionally, these systems in the NEAM region have relied on the implementation of decision matrices. The very short [...] Read more.
Operational TEWS play a key role in reducing tsunami impact on populated coastal areas around the world in the event of an earthquake-generated tsunami. Traditionally, these systems in the NEAM region have relied on the implementation of decision matrices. The very short arrival times of the tsunami waves from generation to impact in this region have made it not possible to use real-time on-the-fly simulations to produce more accurate alert levels. In these cases, when time restriction is so demanding, an alternative to the use of decision matrices is the use of datasets of precomputed tsunami scenarios. In this paper we propose the use of neural networks to predict the tsunami maximum height and arrival time in the context of TEWS. Different neural networks were trained to solve these problems. Additionally, ensemble techniques were used to obtain better results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Numerical Simulation of Tsunami)
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Article
Pseudo-Probabilistic Design for High-Resolution Tsunami Simulations in the Southwestern Spanish Coast
GeoHazards 2022, 3(2), 294-322; https://doi.org/10.3390/geohazards3020016 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 2035
Abstract
The application of simulation software has proven to be a crucial tool for tsunami hazard assessment studies. Understanding the potentially devastating effects of tsunamis leads to the development of safety and resilience measures, such as the design of evacuation plans or the planning [...] Read more.
The application of simulation software has proven to be a crucial tool for tsunami hazard assessment studies. Understanding the potentially devastating effects of tsunamis leads to the development of safety and resilience measures, such as the design of evacuation plans or the planning of the economic investment necessary to quickly mitigate their consequences. This article introduces a pseudo-probabilistic seismic-triggered tsunami simulation approach to investigate the potential impact of tsunamis in the southwestern coast of Spain, in the provinces of Huelva and Cádiz. Selected faults, probabilistic distributions and sampling methods are presented as well as some results for the nearly 900 Atlantic-origin tsunamis computed along the 250 km-long coast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Numerical Simulation of Tsunami)
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Article
Multiscale Quantification of Tsunami Hazard Exposure in a Pacific Small Island Developing State: The Case of Samoa
GeoHazards 2021, 2(2), 63-79; https://doi.org/10.3390/geohazards2020004 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2785
Abstract
This study presents a scenario-based approach for identifying and comparing tsunami exposure across different sociopolitical scales. In Samoa, a country with a high threat to local tsunamis, we apply scenarios for the 2009 South Pacific tsunami inundation at different grid resolutions (50 and [...] Read more.
This study presents a scenario-based approach for identifying and comparing tsunami exposure across different sociopolitical scales. In Samoa, a country with a high threat to local tsunamis, we apply scenarios for the 2009 South Pacific tsunami inundation at different grid resolutions (50 and 10 m) to quantify building and road exposure at the national, district and village levels. We show that while the coarser 50 m model is adequate for use in the rapid identification of exposure at the national and district levels, it can overestimate exposure by up to three times more at the village level. Overestimation typically occurs in areas characterized by flat, low-lying, gentle-rising terrain. Overall, a 35% increase in buildings exposed to the 50 m model is observed compared with the 10 m scenario on southeast Upolu island. Similarly, a 31% increase in road exposure is observed for the 50 m scenario. These observations are discussed within the context of tsunami evacuation planning and logistics. Notwithstanding the variability in exposure, a precautionary approach leads us to conclude that while higher-resolution models are recommended where available data and/or financial resources permit, the absence of such datasets should not preclude the use of coarser hazard datasets in risk assessments. Finer-resolution models provide more credence in detailed local-level exposure evaluation. While the results of this study are specific to the Samoan context, the results can be applied to the multiscale assessment of tsunami risk exposure in similar hazard contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Numerical Simulation of Tsunami)
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