Mangrove Wetland Restoration and Rehabilitation

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907). This special issue belongs to the section "Forest Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2022) | Viewed by 53970

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Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences, College of the Coast and the Environment, 3209 Energy, Coast, & Environ Bldg, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA

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CRETUS, Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, School of Biology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15705 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Interests: environmental geochemistry; soil and water degradation and recovery
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Instituto de Ecología, A.C., INECOL, Red de Ecología Funcional, Carretera antigua a Coatepec 351, Xalapa, Veracruz 91070, Mexico

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Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo (ESALQ-USP), Av. Pádua Dias 11, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13418-900, Brazil
Interests: soil geochemistry; land reclamation; technosols
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mangrove forests are critical sources of goods and services to society in tropical and subtropical latitudes. However, despite their ecological and economic value, they have been negatively impacted at different local and regional scales in the last 60 years. Causes driving the global reduction in area include the conversion of forest to urban and agriculture/aquaculture areas and indirect human impacts due to hydrological alterations that trigger landscape level loss of critical ecological services such as biodiversity, coastal protection, fisheries, and carbon sequestration. Any wetland loss underscores the urgency of implementing better management of current healthy mangrove areas. Nevertheless, we lack data and information to develop effective strategies for the conservation and sustainability of mangrove wetlands under different levels of deterioration and environmental settings. Thus, a comparative analysis of “what works” and “what does not“ when rehabilitating or restoring mangrove wetlands is needed. For this Special Issue, we encourage studies from all fields, including experimental and observational studies, monitoring approaches, and modeling. This collective effort will help to synthesize the most recent “lessons learned” to continue advancing knowledge, understanding, and adaptation strategies to protect and conserve one of the most productive ecosystems in the world.

Dr. Victor H. Rivera-Monroy
Dr. Xosé Lois Otero-Pérez
Dr. Jorge Lopez-Portillo
Prof. Dr. Tiago Osorio Ferreira
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Biodiversity
  • Biogeochemistry
  • Blue carbon
  • Community-based restoration
  • Ecophysiology
  • Ecosystem services
  • Hydrological restoration
  • Monitoring and modeling
  • Natural regeneration
  • Stakeholder participation.

Published Papers (15 papers)

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15 pages, 3081 KiB  
Article
Porewater Sulfide: The Most Critical Regulator in the Degradation of Mangroves Dominated by Tides
by Rosela Pérez-Ceballos, Arturo Zaldívar-Jiménez, Sveidy Melgarejo-Salas, Julio Canales-Delgadillo, Jorge López-Portillo, Martín Merino-Ibarra, Omar Celis-Hernandez, Ana Laura Lara-Domínguez and Jonathan Ochoa-Gómez
Forests 2022, 13(8), 1307; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13081307 - 16 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1593
Abstract
The hydroperiod determines the biogeochemical conditions and processes developing in the mangrove soil. Floods control the input of nutrients and the presence of regulators such as salinity and sulfides that, in high concentrations, degrade mangrove vegetation. This work aimed to determine biogeochemical and [...] Read more.
The hydroperiod determines the biogeochemical conditions and processes developing in the mangrove soil. Floods control the input of nutrients and the presence of regulators such as salinity and sulfides that, in high concentrations, degrade mangrove vegetation. This work aimed to determine biogeochemical and hydroperiod characteristics in natural and degraded mangrove conditions. Three sampling sites were placed along a spatial gradient, including fringe and basin mangroves with different conditions. Tree characteristics and biogeochemical variables (temperature, salinity, pH, redox potential, sulfides) were measured. The structural analysis indicated two conditions: undisturbed (Rhizophora mangle fringe and Avicennia germinans basin under natural conditions) and disturbed (degraded basin, with standing A. germinans tree trunks). The soil porewater salinity, concentration of sulfides, and temperature were significantly higher, and redox potential lower in the disturbed site. The fringe mangrove was permanently waterlogged with higher tides than the basin mangrove. There were more extended flooding periods on the degraded mangrove due to the loss of hydrological connection with the adjacent water body. Waterlogging in basin mangroves increased soil porewater salinity to 87.8 and sulfides to 153 mg L−1, causing stress and death in A. germinans mangroves. Our results show that the loss of hydraulic connectivity causes the chronic accumulation of salinity and sulfides, with consequences on tree metabolism, ultimately causing its death. It probably also involves the succession in microbial communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mangrove Wetland Restoration and Rehabilitation)
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19 pages, 5872 KiB  
Article
Mangrove Forests in Ecuador: A Two-Decade Analysis
by Ramiro Morocho, Ivonne González, Tiago Osorio Ferreira and Xosé Luis Otero
Forests 2022, 13(5), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13050656 - 23 Apr 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3927
Abstract
Mangroves are one of the most important ecosystems especially due to the services they provide, but in contrast are one of the most threatened by human activities at a global level. In Ecuador, mangrove forests are currently fragile and threatened due to the [...] Read more.
Mangroves are one of the most important ecosystems especially due to the services they provide, but in contrast are one of the most threatened by human activities at a global level. In Ecuador, mangrove forests are currently fragile and threatened due to the great anthropic pressure, which has largely reduced the area they occupy. However, there is already evidence that certain actions are contributing both to their conservation and the recovery of the lost mangrove area. In this study, we assessed the multitemporal dynamics of changes in mangrove cover in four coastal provinces of the country over a period of 20 years (1998–2018) based on remote sensing data analyzed using GIS tools. Our results showed that the area affected by mangrove forest destruction reached its maximum during the 1998–2010 period, when 4.56% (194.57 km2) of the mangrove forest was lost. This situation especially affected the provinces of El Oro and Guayas. The main cause for the loss of mangrove cover was the expansion of shrimp farms, followed by agriculture and construction. However, a slight recovery of ~2.9% has been observed, although loss remains constant. Mangrove ecosystem conservation policies, mainly applied to zones within protected areas; the establishment of use and custody agreements and the halt of shrimp farm expansion; the development of mangrove forests on areas with sediment deposits; and natural mangrove recovery processes are key factors for mangrove restoration. These results suggest that it is possible to continue restoring mangrove cover and thus maintain some of the main ecosystem services they provide for the benefit of humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mangrove Wetland Restoration and Rehabilitation)
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31 pages, 4814 KiB  
Article
Development and Structural Organization of Mexico’s Mangrove Monitoring System (SMMM) as a Foundation for Conservation and Restoration Initiatives: A Hierarchical Approach
by María Teresa Rodríguez-Zúñiga, Carlos Troche-Souza, María Isabel Cruz-López and Victor H. Rivera-Monroy
Forests 2022, 13(4), 621; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13040621 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3733
Abstract
Mangroves provide ecosystem services worth billions of dollars worldwide. Although countries with extensive mangrove areas implemented management and conservation programs since the 1980s, the global area is still decreasing. To recuperate this lost area, both restoration and rehabilitation (R/R) projects have been implemented [...] Read more.
Mangroves provide ecosystem services worth billions of dollars worldwide. Although countries with extensive mangrove areas implemented management and conservation programs since the 1980s, the global area is still decreasing. To recuperate this lost area, both restoration and rehabilitation (R/R) projects have been implemented but with limited success, especially at spatial scales needed to restore functional properties. Monitoring mangroves at different spatial scales in the long term (decades) is critical to detect potential threats and select cost-effective management criteria and performance measures to improve R/R program success. Here, we analyze the origin, development, implementation, and outcomes of a country-level mangrove monitoring system in the Neotropics covering >9000 km2 over 15 years. The Mexico’s Mangrove Monitoring System (SMMM) considers a spatiotemporal hierarchical approach as a conceptual framework where remote sensing is a key component. We analyze the role of the SMMM’s remote sensing products as a “hub” of multi- and interdisciplinary ecological and social-ecological studies to develop national priorities and inform local and regional mangrove management decisions. We propose that the SMMM products, outcomes, and lessons learned can be used as a blueprint in other developing countries where cost-effective R/R projects are planned as part of mangrove protection, conservation, and management programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mangrove Wetland Restoration and Rehabilitation)
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15 pages, 2064 KiB  
Article
Geochemical Behavior of Sedimentary Phosphorus Species in Northernmost Artificial Mangroves in China
by Shuzhen You, Peisun Loh, Zilong Li, Haiyan Qin, Siriporn Pradit, Thi Phuong Quynh Le, Chantha Oeurng, Che Abdul Rahim Mohamed, Choon Weng Lee, Xixi Lu, Gusti Z. Anshari, Selvaraj Kandasamy, Jianjun Wang, Lili Ji and Jian Guo
Forests 2022, 13(4), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13040610 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2480
Abstract
Mangroves are typically found in tropical coastal areas, and these ecosystems face deterioration and loss due to threats from climate and human factors. In this study, sediment cores were collected from human-planted mangroves in sub-tropical Ximen Island, China, and were determined for sedimentary [...] Read more.
Mangroves are typically found in tropical coastal areas, and these ecosystems face deterioration and loss due to threats from climate and human factors. In this study, sediment cores were collected from human-planted mangroves in sub-tropical Ximen Island, China, and were determined for sedimentary phosphorus (P) species. The objective was to investigate the ability of mangroves planted in a zone bordering their temperature limit to preserve and regulate P. Our results showed that bioavailable P (BAP), which includes exchangeable-P (Ex-P), iron-bound P (Fe-P), and organic P (OP), accounted for approximately 64% of total P (TP). Apatite P (Ca-P), which accounted for 24% of TP, most likely originated from aquaculture activities surrounding the island. The vertical distribution of sedimentary P species along the sediment cores showed a rather constant trend along the salt marsh stand but considerable fluctuations for the mangroves and bare mudflat. These results indicate that mangroves accumulated P when there was a high P discharge event, and that this P was eventually released during organic matter decomposition and contributed to Ca-P formation. Nevertheless, old and young mangroves accumulated higher sedimentary P species, OP, and BAP compared to the salt marsh stand and bare mudflat areas. This study showed the potential of mangroves planted outside their suitable climate zone to preserve and regulate P. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mangrove Wetland Restoration and Rehabilitation)
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19 pages, 43656 KiB  
Article
Recovery of Soil Processes in Replanted Mangroves: Implications for Soil Functions
by Laís Coutinho Zayas Jimenez, Hermano Melo Queiroz, Gabriel Nuto Nóbrega, Danilo Jefferson Romero, Youjun Deng, Xosé Luis Otero and Tiago Osório Ferreira
Forests 2022, 13(3), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030422 - 08 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2915
Abstract
Mangrove revegetation is a vital strategy to recover ecosystem services (e.g., climate regulation and pollutants retention) provided by these ecosystems. Although soils are directly or indirectly responsible for diverse ecosystem services in mangrove ecosystems, few studies have focused on the recovery of soil [...] Read more.
Mangrove revegetation is a vital strategy to recover ecosystem services (e.g., climate regulation and pollutants retention) provided by these ecosystems. Although soils are directly or indirectly responsible for diverse ecosystem services in mangrove ecosystems, few studies have focused on the recovery of soil functions (e.g., carbon sequestration) after mangrove replanting. This study aimed to evaluate the recovery of soil processes associated with Fe, S, and C dynamics and its implications for the restoration of soil functions. Two mangrove sites under replanting initiatives were studied along the Brazilian coast (i.e., NE and SE). The study was conducted in 3- and 7-year-old replanted mangrove forests, and a comparison was made with degraded and mature mangroves. Particle size, soil C stocks, Fe forms, total Fe and S contents, degrees of pyritization of Fe, and mineralogical assemblages were assessed. Seven years after replanting, soil C stocks increased by 42% and 29% in mangrove soils from the NE and SE sites, respectively. In addition, significant increases were observed in fine particles, reactive Fe, and pyrite contents in replanted plots. These new conditions promoted organic matter accumulation, stabilization, and potential metal retention. Our findings highlight the potential of revegetation programs for recovering soil processes and essential soil functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mangrove Wetland Restoration and Rehabilitation)
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16 pages, 3986 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Analysis of Methodological and Environmental Influences on Survival of Planted Mangroves in Restoration and Afforestation
by Daniel Gorman, Mathew A. Vanderklift and Anna Lafratta
Forests 2022, 13(3), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030404 - 02 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2993
Abstract
Mangrove planting has been employed for decades to achieve aims associated with restoration and afforestation. Often, survival of planted mangroves is low. Improving survival might be aided by augmenting the understanding of which planting methods and environmental variables most influence plant survival across [...] Read more.
Mangrove planting has been employed for decades to achieve aims associated with restoration and afforestation. Often, survival of planted mangroves is low. Improving survival might be aided by augmenting the understanding of which planting methods and environmental variables most influence plant survival across a range of contexts. The aim of this study was to provide a global synthesis of the influence of planting methods and background environment on mangrove survival. This was achieved through a global meta-analysis, which compiled published survival rates for the period 1979–2021 and analyzed the influence of decisions about minimum spacing and which life stage to plant, and environmental contexts such as climate, tidal range and coastal setting on the reported survival of planted individuals, classified by species and root morphology. Generalized Additive Mixed Modeling (GAMM) revealed that planting larger mangrove saplings was associated with increased survival for pencil-rooted species such as Avicennia spp. and Sonneratia spp. (17% increase cf. seedlings), while greater plant spacing was associated with higher survival of stilt-rooted species in the family Rhizophoraceae (39% increase when doubling plant spacing from 1.5 to 3.0 m). Tidal range showed a nonlinear positive correlation with survival for pencil-rooted species, and the coastal environmental setting was associated with significant variation in survival for both pencil- and stilt-rooted species. The results suggest that improving decisions about which species to plant in different contexts, and intensive care after planting, is likely to improve the survival of planted mangroves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mangrove Wetland Restoration and Rehabilitation)
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18 pages, 4772 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Effect of Age and Geomorphic Setting on Organic Carbon Accumulation in High-Latitude Human-Planted Mangroves
by Jianxiong Hu, Pei Sun Loh, Siriporn Pradit, Thi Phuong Quynh Le, Chantha Oeurng, Che Abdul Rahim Mohamed, Choon Weng Lee, Xixi Lu, Gusti Z. Anshari, Selvaraj Kandasamy, Jianjun Wang, Zilong Li, Haiyan Qin, Lili Ji and Jian Guo
Forests 2022, 13(1), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13010105 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2808
Abstract
Mangroves are highly productive blue carbon ecosystems that preserve high organic carbon concentrations in soils. In this study, particle size, bulk elemental composition and stable carbon isotope were determined for the sediment cores collected from the landward and seaward sides of two mangrove [...] Read more.
Mangroves are highly productive blue carbon ecosystems that preserve high organic carbon concentrations in soils. In this study, particle size, bulk elemental composition and stable carbon isotope were determined for the sediment cores collected from the landward and seaward sides of two mangrove forests of different ages (M1, ca. 60; M2, ca. 4 years old) to determine the effects of geomorphic setting and age (L1 = old mangrove and S1 = salt marsh stand in M1; L2 = young mangrove and S2 = bare mudflat in M2) on sediments and organic carbon accumulation. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of the northernmost human-planted mangroves in China to accumulate sediment and carbon. Our results showed that fine-grained materials were preserved well in the interior part of the mangroves, and the capacity to capture fine-grained materials increased as the forest aged. The biogeochemical properties (C/N: 5.9 to 10.8; δ13C: −21.60‰ to −26.07‰) indicated that the local organic carbon pool was composed of a mixture of autochthonous and allochthonous sources. Moreover, the accumulation of organic carbon increased with the forest age. The interior part of the old mangrove had the highest organic carbon stock (81.93 Mg Corg ha−1). These findings revealed that mangrove reforestation had positive effects on sediments and organic carbon accretion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mangrove Wetland Restoration and Rehabilitation)
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21 pages, 4028 KiB  
Article
Development of Mangrove Sediment Quality Index in Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve, Malaysia: A Synergetic Approach
by Ahmad Mustapha Mohamad Pazi, Waseem Razzaq Khan, Ahmad Ainuddin Nuruddin, Mohd Bakri Adam and Seca Gandaseca
Forests 2021, 12(9), 1279; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12091279 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2629
Abstract
Sediment is an important part of heavy metal cycling in the coastal ecosystem, acting as a potential sink and source of inorganic and organic contaminants as environmental conditions change. The productivity of mangroves is utterly dependent on sediment enrichment. Moreover, mangrove sediment can [...] Read more.
Sediment is an important part of heavy metal cycling in the coastal ecosystem, acting as a potential sink and source of inorganic and organic contaminants as environmental conditions change. The productivity of mangroves is utterly dependent on sediment enrichment. Moreover, mangrove sediment can trap pollutants discharged by households, industries, and agriculture activities. In this regard, it is essential to assess sediment quality in the presence–absence of heavy metals that are toxic to most living organisms. Thus, the question of how sediment quality is used as an index in the mangrove domain has arisen. Due to the many complex characteristics such as seasonal zones, tidal patterns, flora and fauna, and water, no specific method is used in Malaysia for assessing and monitoring mangrove sediment quality. Thus, the current study intended to develop a mangrove sediment quality index (MSQi) in the Matang mangrove forest in Perak, Malaysia. An area was selected based on the distinct level of mangrove disturbances. At 1.5 m depth, sediments were sampled in five segments (0–15, 15–30, 30–50, 50–100, and 100–150 cm). All the sediment physicochemical properties were then analysed. Fourteen variables were chosen and included in MSQi. This index categorises mangrove sediment levels as I = Very Bad, II = Bad, III = Moderate, IV = Good, and V = Excellent. MSQi will be used as a guideline in monitoring mangrove sediment pollution. In conclusion, the data analysis showed that the Sepetang River (SR) was highly disturbed, followed by the Tinggi River (TR) (moderately disturbed), and the Tiram Laut River (TLR) (least disturbed). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mangrove Wetland Restoration and Rehabilitation)
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13 pages, 2124 KiB  
Article
Microcosm Study on Allelopathic Effects of Leaf Litter Leachates and Purified Condensed Tannins from Kandelia obovata on Germination and Growth of Aegiceras corniculatum
by Tao Lang, Pingping Wei, Xiaoxia Chen, Yijian Fu, Nora Fung-yee Tam, Zhangli Hu, Zhiteng Chen, Fenglan Li and Haichao Zhou
Forests 2021, 12(8), 1000; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12081000 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2324
Abstract
Kandelia obovata (Ko) and Aegiceras corniculatum (Ac) are common and dominant plant species in mangrove wetlands in South China, which are distributed in similar tidal zones along the coastline. The present study aimed to determine the allelopathic effects of leaf litter leachates (LLLs) [...] Read more.
Kandelia obovata (Ko) and Aegiceras corniculatum (Ac) are common and dominant plant species in mangrove wetlands in South China, which are distributed in similar tidal zones along the coastline. The present study aimed to determine the allelopathic effects of leaf litter leachates (LLLs) from Ko and their purified condensed tannins (PCTs) on the germination and growth of Ac by mangrove microcosms. Replicate pots containing five different levels of LLLs and PCTs were separately prepared and propagules of Ac were placed in each treatment. Both LLLs and PCTs significantly inhibited the germination and growth of Ac, especially at high concentrations. The final germination rates of the roots and stems and the numbers of fine roots declined continuously, while other growth indicators, including the lengths of fine roots and nutritive roots and the biomasses of roots, stems, and leaves first increased and then decreased with increasing levels. These results indicate that LLLs from the leaf litter of Ko, in particular their PCTs, exerted an inhibition effect on propagule germination and seedling growth of Ac, and the inhibitory effects were concentration dependent. This study suggested that condensed tannins from leaf litter, acting as allelochemicals, could regulate the natural regeneration of a mangrove forest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mangrove Wetland Restoration and Rehabilitation)
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12 pages, 3388 KiB  
Article
Forest Structure and Projections of Avicennia germinans (L.) L. at Three Levels of Perturbation in a Southwestern Gulf of Mexico Mangrove
by Agustín de Jesús Basáñez-Muñoz, Adán Guillermo Jordán-Garza and Arturo Serrano
Forests 2021, 12(8), 989; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12080989 - 26 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2066
Abstract
Mangrove forests have declined worldwide and understanding the key drivers of regeneration at different perturbation levels can help manage and preserve these critical ecosystems. For example, the Ramsar site # 1602, located at the Tampamachoco lagoon, Veracruz, México, consists of a dense forest [...] Read more.
Mangrove forests have declined worldwide and understanding the key drivers of regeneration at different perturbation levels can help manage and preserve these critical ecosystems. For example, the Ramsar site # 1602, located at the Tampamachoco lagoon, Veracruz, México, consists of a dense forest of medium-sized trees composed of three mangrove species. Due to several human activities, including the construction of a power plant around the 1990s, an area of approximately 2.3 km2 has suffered differential levels of perturbation: complete mortality, partial tree loss (divided into two sections: main and isolated patch), and apparently undisturbed sites. The number and size of trees, from seedlings to adults, were measured using transects and quadrats. With a matrix of the abundance of trees by size categories and species, an ordination (nMDS) showed three distinct groups corresponding to the degree of perturbation. Projection matrices based on the size structure of Avicennia germinans showed transition probabilities that varied according to perturbation levels. Lambda showed growing populations except on the zone that showed partial tree loss; a relatively high abundance of seedlings is not enough to ensure stable mangrove dynamics or start regeneration; and the survival of young trees and adult trees showed high sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mangrove Wetland Restoration and Rehabilitation)
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15 pages, 2258 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Heterogeneity of Mangrove Root Sphere under a Tropical Monsoon Climate in Eastern Thailand
by Sarawan Hongwiset, Chadtip Rodtassana, Sasitorn Poungparn, Suthathip Umnouysin and Akira Komiyama
Forests 2021, 12(8), 966; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12080966 - 21 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2366
Abstract
Mangrove ecosystems under tropical monsoon climates experience changes in environmental factors, especially seasonal variations in salinity. These changes might have direct influences on the mangrove root sphere, which plays an important role in carbon dynamics and supports mangrove growth. We aimed to elucidate [...] Read more.
Mangrove ecosystems under tropical monsoon climates experience changes in environmental factors, especially seasonal variations in salinity. These changes might have direct influences on the mangrove root sphere, which plays an important role in carbon dynamics and supports mangrove growth. We aimed to elucidate how the soil properties including salinity and nutrient budget affect the mangrove roots in the wet and dry seasons across the mangrove zonation (Avicennia, Rhizophora, and Xylocarpus zones). This area is in a secondary forest at the Trat River estuary, eastern Thailand. Root mass was observed at 0–10 and 10–20 cm depths across all zones and the living roots were separated into diameter classes. The soil water salinity was measured at a 10 cm depth. We analyzed the nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon contents in the roots and soil. Spatiotemporal changes occurred due to the vegetation zonation and the variations in salinity and the content of soil available phosphorus that caused different root sphere conditions along the distance from the river. The highest root biomass was found in the riverward Avicennia zone, which was 4.8 times higher than that of the inland Xylocarpus zone in the wet season. The root necromass distribution along the zonation showed an opposite trend to that of biomass. Among seasons, the root size-class proportion differed, with high fine roots observed during the wet season. We confirmed that the root sphere showed both spatial and temporal heterogeneity. Mangrove roots, especially fine roots, interacted with changing salinity, inundation regime, and biological processes evoked by microtopographic gradients as a consequence of mangrove zonation and seasonal rainfall. Our findings indicate how the root sphere differed by specific vegetation structure in this mangrove forest. Therefore, these might provide an ecological perspective for the mangrove rehabilitation plans to facilitate below-ground carbon stock. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mangrove Wetland Restoration and Rehabilitation)
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23 pages, 3386 KiB  
Article
First Assessment of the Benthic Meiofauna Sensitivity to Low Human-Impacted Mangroves in French Guiana
by Claire Michelet, Daniela Zeppilli, Cédric Hubas, Elisa Baldrighi, Philippe Cuny, Guillaume Dirberg, Cécile Militon, Romain Walcker, Dominique Lamy, Ronan Jézéquel, Justine Receveur, Franck Gilbert, Amonda El Houssainy, Aurélie Dufour, Lars-Eric Heimbürger-Boavida, Isabelle Bihannic, Léa Sylvi, Baptiste Vivier and Emma Michaud
Forests 2021, 12(3), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12030338 - 13 Mar 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3902
Abstract
Bioindicators assess the mangroves ecological state according to the types of pressures but they differ with the ecosystem’s specificities. We investigated benthic meiofauna diversity and structure within the low human-impacted mangroves in French Guiana (South America) in response to sediment variables with various [...] Read more.
Bioindicators assess the mangroves ecological state according to the types of pressures but they differ with the ecosystem’s specificities. We investigated benthic meiofauna diversity and structure within the low human-impacted mangroves in French Guiana (South America) in response to sediment variables with various distances to the main city. Contaminant’s concentrations differed among the stations, but they remained below toxicity guidelines. Meiofauna structure (Foraminifera, Kinorhyncha, Nematoda) however varied accordingly. Nematode’s identification brought details on the sediment’s quality. The opportunistic genus Paraethmolaimus (Jensen, 1994) strongly correlated to the higher concentrations of Hg, Pb. Anoxic sediments were marked by organic enrichment in pesticides, PCB, and mangrove litter products and dominance of two tolerant genus, Terschellingia (de Man, 1888) and Spirinia (Gerlach, 1963). In each of these two stations, we found many Desmodora individuals (de Man, 1889) with the presence of epibionts highlighting the nematodes decreased fitness and defenses. Oxic sediments without contaminants were distinguished by the sensitive genera Pseudocella (Filipjev, 1927) and a higher diversity of trophic groups. Our results suggested a nematodes sensitivity to low contaminants concentrations. Further investigations at different spatio-temporal scales and levels of deterioration, would be necessary to use of this group as bioindicator of the mangroves’ ecological status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mangrove Wetland Restoration and Rehabilitation)
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14 pages, 3779 KiB  
Article
Anthropogenic Drivers of Mangrove Loss and Associated Carbon Emissions in South Sumatra, Indonesia
by Syaiful Eddy, Noril Milantara, Sigit D. Sasmito, Tadashi Kajita and Mohammad Basyuni
Forests 2021, 12(2), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12020187 - 07 Feb 2021
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 5182
Abstract
The Air Telang Protected Forest (ATPF) is one of the most dynamic and essential coastal forest landscapes in South Sumatra, Indonesia, because of its location between multiple river outlets, including the Musi catchment—Sumatra’s largest and most dense lowland catchment area. While most ATPF [...] Read more.
The Air Telang Protected Forest (ATPF) is one of the most dynamic and essential coastal forest landscapes in South Sumatra, Indonesia, because of its location between multiple river outlets, including the Musi catchment—Sumatra’s largest and most dense lowland catchment area. While most ATPF areas are covered by mangroves, these areas have been experiencing severe anthropogenic-driven degradation and conversion. This study aims to evaluate land cover changes and associated carbon emissions in the ATPF over a 35-year period (1985–2020) by utilizing the available Landsat and Sentinel imagery from 1985, 2000, and 2020. Throughout the analysis period, we observed 63% (from 10,886 to 4059 ha) primary and secondary forest loss due to land use change. We identified three primary anthropogenic activities driving these losses, namely, land clearing for plantations and agriculture (3693 ha), coconut plantations (3315 ha), aquaculture (245 ha). We estimated that the largest carbon emissions were caused by coconut plantation conversion, with total carbon emissions of approximately 14.14 Mt CO2-eq. These amounts were almost 4 and 21 times higher than emissions from land clearing and aquaculture, respectively, as substantial soil carbon loss occurs once mangroves get transformed into coconut plantations. While coconut plantation expansion on mangroves could generate significant carbon stock losses and cleared forests become the primary candidate for restoration, our dataset could be useful for future land-based emission reduction policy intervention at a subnational level. Ultimately, our findings have direct implications for current national climate policies, through low carbon development strategies and emission reductions from the land use sector for 2030, as outlined in the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mangrove Wetland Restoration and Rehabilitation)
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Review

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21 pages, 2847 KiB  
Review
Are Existing Modeling Tools Useful to Evaluate Outcomes in Mangrove Restoration and Rehabilitation Projects? A Minireview
by Victor H. Rivera-Monroy, Xiaochen Zhao, Hongqing Wang and Zuo George Xue
Forests 2022, 13(10), 1638; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101638 - 07 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2732
Abstract
Ecosystem modeling is a critical process for understanding complex systems at spatiotemporal scales needed to conserve, manage, and restore ecosystem services (ESs). Although mangrove wetlands are sources of ESs worth billions of dollars, there is a lack of modeling tools. This is reflected [...] Read more.
Ecosystem modeling is a critical process for understanding complex systems at spatiotemporal scales needed to conserve, manage, and restore ecosystem services (ESs). Although mangrove wetlands are sources of ESs worth billions of dollars, there is a lack of modeling tools. This is reflected in our lack of understanding of mangroves’ functional and structural attributes. Here, we discuss the “state of the art” of mangrove models used in the planning and monitoring of R/R projects during the last 30 years. The main objectives were to characterize the most frequent modeling approach, their spatiotemporal resolution, and their current utility/application in management decisions. We identified 281 studies in six broad model categories: conceptual, agent-based (ABM), process-based (PBM), spatial, statistical, and socioeconomic/management (ScoEco). The most widely used models are spatial and statistical, followed by PBM, ScoEco, and conceptual categories, while the ABMs were the least frequently used. Yet, the application of mangrove models in R/R projects since the early 1990s has been extremely limited, especially in the mechanistic model category. We discuss several approaches to help advance model development and applications, including the targeted allocation of potential revenue from global carbon markets to R/R projects using a multi-model and integrated approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mangrove Wetland Restoration and Rehabilitation)
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18 pages, 1859 KiB  
Review
Challenges and Strategies for Sustainable Mangrove Management in Indonesia: A Review
by Virni Budi Arifanti, Frida Sidik, Budi Mulyanto, Arida Susilowati, Tien Wahyuni, Subarno, Yulianti, Naning Yuniarti, Aam Aminah, Eliya Suita, Endang Karlina, Sri Suharti, Pratiwi, Maman Turjaman, Asep Hidayat, Henti Hendalastuti Rachmat, Rinaldi Imanuddin, Irma Yeny, Wida Darwiati, Nilam Sari, Safinah Surya Hakim, Whitea Yasmine Slamet and Nisa Novitaadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Forests 2022, 13(5), 695; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13050695 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 9443
Abstract
Mangroves are an important ecosystem that provides valuable social, economic, and environmental services. Indonesia has placed mangroves on its national priority agenda in an important effort to sustainably manage this ecosystem and achieve national climate commitments. However, mangrove management is faced with complex [...] Read more.
Mangroves are an important ecosystem that provides valuable social, economic, and environmental services. Indonesia has placed mangroves on its national priority agenda in an important effort to sustainably manage this ecosystem and achieve national climate commitments. However, mangrove management is faced with complex challenges encompassing social, ecological, and economic issues. In order to achieve the government’s commitments and targets regarding mangrove restoration and conservation, an in-depth study on and critical review of mangrove management in Indonesia was conducted herein. This work aimed to provide a comprehensive analysis of the challenges and strategic recommendations for sustainable mangrove management in Indonesia. SWOT analysis was carried out to understand the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats related to mangrove management in Indonesia. To address these gaps, we reviewed the existing policies, current rehabilitation practices, environmental challenges, and research and technology implementations in the field. We found that strategies on mangrove ecosystem protection, such as improving the function and value of mangrove forests, integrating mangrove ecosystem management, strengthening political commitments and law enforcement, involving all stakeholders (especially coastal communities), and advancing research and innovations, are crucial for sustainable mangrove management and to support the national blue carbon agenda. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mangrove Wetland Restoration and Rehabilitation)
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