Special Issue "Decision Support to Address Multiple Ecosystem Services in Forest Management Planning"

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907). This special issue belongs to the section "Forest Ecology and Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Jose G. Borges
Website
Guest Editor
Forest Research Centre, School of Agriculture, Universidade de Lisboa, 1349-017 Lisbon, Portugal
Interests: spatially explicit forest management scheduling; trade-off analysis between ecosystem services target values; integrating risk in forest management scheduling
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Harald Vacik
Website
Guest Editor
Dr. Keith M. Reynolds
Website
Guest Editor
USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Corvallis, OR 97331 USA
Interests: spatial decision support for environmental analysis and planning, including the application of logic-based modeling, multi-criteria decision analysis, Bayesian inference, and decision trees
Prof. Dr. Luiz Carlos E. Rodriguez

Guest Editor
Departamento de Ciências Florestais, ESALQ, University of S. Paulo, Av. Pádua Dias, 11 13418-900 Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil
Interests: sustainable industrial forests management scheduling; sustainable tropical forests management; forest economics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Emin Z. Başkent
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Former member of Faculty of Forestry, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon, Turkey
Interests: spatial forest planning; geographic information systems; decision support systems; multipurpose forest management; integration of ecosystem services to forest management planning

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will comprise a selection of papers reporting recent advances in research on decision support approaches in forest management, targeting the provision of ecosystem services (ES). The special issue aims to contribute to our understanding of how we can enhance forest management planning, in integrating a wide range of ES and assuring a sustainable supply (e.g. products and services listed in the Millenium Ecosystem Assessment). In this context, the special issue will address the challenges and opportunities regarding a) products obtained from ecosystems, b) benefits obtained from regulation of ecosystem processes, c) nonmaterial benefits obtained from ecosystems and d) services necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services. Manuscripts will be classified according to the ecosystem service category(ies) they address, e.g., provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services. Manuscripts may focus on 1) models to help forest managers check the impact of management options on the provision of ES, 2) methods to help forest managers develop plans targeting the supply of ES, 3) methods to help forest managers analyze tradeoffs between a multitude of ES, 4) methods to help forest managers assess the sensitivity of the supply of ecosystem services to uncertain parameters and 5) multiple criteria decision support systems, 6) approaches to map the demand for ES and the quality and quantity of ES supply. This Special Issue is sponsored by the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO Unit 4.04.04—Sustainable Forest Management Scheduling and IUFRO Unit 4.03—Informatics, Modelling, and Statistics and IUFRO Unit 4.03.03. Information management and information technologies). Papers submitted for publication in this Special Issue will undergo a rigorous peer review process with the aim of prompt and wide dissemination of research results and applications.

Prof. Jose G Borges
Prof. Harald Vacik
Dr. Keith M. Reynolds
Prof. Luiz Carlos Rodriguez
Prof. Emin Z. Başkent
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Forests is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • forest management planning
  • ecosystem services
  • decision support systems

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Searching for Pareto Fronts for Forest Stand Wind Stability by Incorporating Timber and Biodiversity Values
Forests 2020, 11(5), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11050583 - 22 May 2020
Abstract
Selecting a variant of forest regeneration cuttings that would ensure fulfilling multiple, frequently conflicting forest functions is a challenging task for forest management planning. The aim of this work is to present an efficient and complex analysis of the impact of different forest [...] Read more.
Selecting a variant of forest regeneration cuttings that would ensure fulfilling multiple, frequently conflicting forest functions is a challenging task for forest management planning. The aim of this work is to present an efficient and complex analysis of the impact of different forest management scenarios on stand wind stability, timber production (economy), and biodiversity of a secondary mixed temperate forest in Central Europe. We evaluated four different harvest-regeneration systems: clear-cutting, shelter-wood, selection cutting, and no-cutting using theSIBYLA growth simulator. We simulated forest stand development over time and applied 450 variants of 4 harvest-regeneration systems. The selected outputs from the simulator were used as indicators of the fulfilment of wood-production and non-wood-production functions. The calculated indicators were forest stability (height/diameter ratio), economic efficiency (soil expectation value, SEV), and tree species diversity (Shannon index). These indicators were used as inputs for multi-criteria a posteriori decision analysis using the weighted summation method and Pareto fronts. The results revealed substantial trade-offs among the three investigated criteria. The decision space was highly sensitive to their weighting system and included all regeneration systems. The Pareto fronts for wind stability revealed that the maximum stability could be achieved with shelter-wood based on target diameter. This variant, however, fulfils the other two examined functions only to a limited extent (SEV and diversity only to 9% and 27% of their absolute maxima). Other similar variants achieve high stability by sacrificing the diversity and increasing SEV, simultaneously. If a high diversity level is favoured, optimal stability could be achieved by the selection system. The proposed approach enables objective testing of a large number of variants, and an objective assessment of stand management planning since it provides us with the complex multi-dimensional picture about the impact of criteria weights on the selection of optimal variants, and the relative fulfilment of individual criteria. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Combining Climate Change Mitigation Scenarios with Current Forest Owner Behavior: A Scenario Study from a Region in Southern Sweden
Forests 2020, 11(3), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11030346 - 20 Mar 2020
Abstract
This study investigates the need for change of current forest management approaches in a southern Swedish region within the context of future climate change mitigation through empirically derived projections, rather than forest management according to silvicultural guidelines. Scenarios indicate that climate change mitigation [...] Read more.
This study investigates the need for change of current forest management approaches in a southern Swedish region within the context of future climate change mitigation through empirically derived projections, rather than forest management according to silvicultural guidelines. Scenarios indicate that climate change mitigation will increase global wood demand. This might call for adjustments of well-established management approaches. This study investigates to what extent increasing wood demands in three climate change mitigation scenarios can be satisfied with current forest management approaches of different intensities in a southern Swedish region. Forest management practices in Kronoberg County were mapped through interviews, statistics, and desk research and were translated into five different management strategies with different intensities regulating management at the property level. The consequences of current practices, as well as their intensification, were analyzed with the Heureka Planwise forest planning system in combination with a specially developed forest owner decision simulator. Projections were done over a 100-year period under three climate change mitigation scenarios developed with the Global Biosphere Management Model (GLOBIUM). Current management practices could meet scenario demands during the first 20 years. This was followed by a shortage of wood during two periods in all scenarios unless rotations were reduced. In a longer timeframe, the wood demands were projected to be easily satisfied in the less ambitious climate change mitigation scenarios. In contrast, the demand in the ambitious mitigation scenario could not be met with current management practices, not even if all owners managed their production forests at the intensive extreme of current management approaches. The climate change mitigation scenarios provide very different trajectories with respect to future drivers of forest management. Our results indicate that with less ambitious mitigation efforts, the relatively intensive practices in the study region can be softened while ambitious mitigation might push for further intensification. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Framework for Characterizing and Regulating Ecosystem Services in a Management Planning Context
Forests 2020, 11(1), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11010102 - 14 Jan 2020
Abstract
Sustainable management promises to improve the conservation and utilization of ecosystem services and their contribution to human wellbeing through management plans. This paper explores the concept of characterization and integration of ecosystem services in a management planning concept. The integration process involves the [...] Read more.
Sustainable management promises to improve the conservation and utilization of ecosystem services and their contribution to human wellbeing through management plans. This paper explores the concept of characterization and integration of ecosystem services in a management planning concept. The integration process involves the identification, quantification, valuation, assessment, and monitoring of ecosystem services over time. The quantification of common ecosystem services, such as soil erosion, water conservation, recreation, biodiversity conservation, and carbon sequestration was explored. A framework was developed to integrate ecosystem services into management planning process. Ecosystem services are classified as provisioning, regulating, supporting, and cultural services with a defined typology. The conceptual framework acts as an organizing structure and it serves as a model for the management of ecosystems with their contribution to human wellbeing. Ecosystem management with multi-criteria decision techniques, information technologies and a structured participation is a proposed approach for the sustainable management of ecological, economic, and socio-cultural functions. Establishing the quantitative relationships between ecosystem services and societal benefits is essential. The provision of a universally accepted clear measurement of regulating, supporting, and cultural services is challenging. A commitment, vision, and strong willingness are required to adopt policies, regulations, and management objectives in planning. Integration can only be realized with prioritizing ecosystem services with the involvement of stakeholders. Substantial understanding of both the ecological and social systems is a prerequisite for sustainable management of ecosystem services. The ecosystem services with significant benefits to the wellbeing of society should primarily be characterized, their relative importance be weighted, and prioritized through a participatory approach. A holistic approach with a comprehensive decision support system is essential in forecasting the future provision of ecosystem services and assessing the trade-off analysis, resulting in better policy formulation before on-the-ground implementation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Web-Based Forest Resources Management Decision Support System
Forests 2019, 10(12), 1079; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10121079 - 27 Nov 2019
Abstract
In this paper, we present a web-based decision support system (DSS)—wSADfLOR—to facilitate the access of stakeholders to tools that may contribute to enhancing forest management planning. The emphasis is on a web-based architecture and a web graphic user interface (wGUI) that may effectively [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present a web-based decision support system (DSS)—wSADfLOR—to facilitate the access of stakeholders to tools that may contribute to enhancing forest management planning. The emphasis is on a web-based architecture and a web graphic user interface (wGUI) that may effectively support the analysis of trade-offs between ecosystem services in order to address participatory and sustainable forest management objectives. For that purpose, the wGUI provides remote access to a management information system, enabling users to analyze environmental and biometric data and topological information as well. Moreover, the wGUI provides remote access to forest simulators so that users may define and simulate prescriptions such as chronological sequences of management options and the corresponding forest ecosystem services outcomes. Remote access to management planning methods is further provided so that users may input their objectives and constraints. The wGUI delivers information about tradeoffs between ecosystem services in the form of decision maps so that users in different locations may negotiate bundles of ecosystem services as well as the plan needed to provide them. The multiple criteria programming routines provide proposals for management plans that may be assessed further, using geographical and alphanumeric information provided by the wGUI. Results for an application to a forested landscape extending to 14,388 ha are presented and discussed. This landscape provides several ecosystem services and the development of its management plan involves multiple stakeholders. Results show that the web-based architecture and the wGUI provide effective access for stakeholders to information about the forest management planning area and to decision support tools that may contribute to addressing complex multi-objective and multiple-decision-maker management planning contexts. They also highlight that the involvement and participation of stakeholders in the design of the web-based architecture contributes to assuring the quality and the usability of the system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Spatial Pattern of Climate Change Effects on Lithuanian Forestry
Forests 2019, 10(9), 809; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10090809 - 17 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Research Highlights: Validating modelling approach which combines global framework conditions in the form of climate and policy scenarios with the use of forest decision support system to assess climate change impacts on the sustainability of forest management. Background and Objectives: Forests and forestry [...] Read more.
Research Highlights: Validating modelling approach which combines global framework conditions in the form of climate and policy scenarios with the use of forest decision support system to assess climate change impacts on the sustainability of forest management. Background and Objectives: Forests and forestry have been confirmed to be sensitive to climate. On the other hand, human efforts to mitigate climate change influence forests and forest management. To facilitate the evaluation of future sustainability of forest management, decision support systems are applied. Our aims are to: (1) Adopt and validate decision support tool to incorporate climate change and its mitigation impacts on forest growth, global timber demands and prices for simulating future trends of forest ecosystem services in Lithuania, (2) determine the magnitude and spatial patterns of climate change effects on Lithuanian forests and forest management in the future, supposing that current forestry practices are continued. Materials and Methods: Upgraded version of Lithuanian forestry simulator Kupolis was used to model the development of all forests in the country until 2120 under management conditions of three climate change scenarios. Selected stand-level forest and forest management characteristics were aggregated to the level of regional branches of the State Forest Enterprise and analyzed for the spatial and temporal patterns of climate change effects. Results: Increased forest growth under a warmer future climate resulted in larger tree dimensions, volumes of growing stock, naturally dying trees, harvested assortments, and also higher profits from forestry activities. Negative impacts were detected for the share of broadleaved tree species in the standing volume and the tree species diversity. Climate change effects resulted in spatially clustered patterns—increasing stand productivity, and amounts of harvested timber were concentrated in the regions with dominating coniferous species, while the same areas were exposed to negative dynamics of biodiversity-related forest attributes. Current forest characteristics explained 70% or more of the variance of climate change effects on key forest and forest management attributes. Conclusions: Using forest decision support systems, climate change scenarios and considering the balance of delivered ecosystem services is suggested as a methodological framework for validating forest management alternatives aiming for more adaptiveness in Lithuanian forestry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Using Machine Learning to Assess Site Suitability for Afforestation with Particular Species
Forests 2019, 10(9), 739; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10090739 - 27 Aug 2019
Abstract
Judging and predicting tree suitability is of great significance in the cultivation and management of forests. Background and Objectives: Due to the diversity of tree species for afforestation in China and the lack of experts or the limitations of expert knowledge, the site [...] Read more.
Judging and predicting tree suitability is of great significance in the cultivation and management of forests. Background and Objectives: Due to the diversity of tree species for afforestation in China and the lack of experts or the limitations of expert knowledge, the site rules of tree species in some regions are lacking or incomplete, so that a small number of tree suitability empirical site rules are difficult to adapt to the afforestation expert system’s diverse needs. Research Highlights: This paper explores an intelligent method to automatically extract rules for selecting favorable site conditions (tree suitability site rules) from a large amount of data to solve the problem of knowledge acquisition, updating and maintenance of suitable forest site rules in the expert system. Materials and Methods: Based on the method of site quality evaluation and the theory of the decision tree in knowledge discovery and machine learning, the dominant species of Chinese fir and Masson pine in the forest resources subcompartment data (FRSD) of Jinping County, Guizhou Province were taken as examples to select the important site factors affecting the forest quality and based on the site quality of potential productivity. Assessment methodology was proposed to determine the afforestation of a stand site by nonlinear quantile regression, the decision tree was constructed from the ID3, C5.0 and CART algorithms. Results: Finally, the best-performing CART algorithm was selected to construct the model, and the extractor of the afforestation rules was constructed. After validating the rules for selecting favorable site conditions of Chinese fir and Masson pine, the production representation method was used to construct the relationship model of the knowledge base. Conclusions: Intelligent extraction of suitable tree rules for afforestation design in an expert system was realized, which provided the theoretical basis and technical support for afforestation land planning and design. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating Management Strategies for Mount Kenya Forest Reserve and National Park to Reduce Fire Danger and Address Interests of Various Stakeholders
Forests 2019, 10(5), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10050426 - 16 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
A Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) approach was employed for evaluating and selecting the best management strategy for Mount Kenya Forest Reserve and National Park (MKFRNP). The MCA approach used a set of objectives and criteria (O&C) to address the complexity of the decision problem [...] Read more.
A Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) approach was employed for evaluating and selecting the best management strategy for Mount Kenya Forest Reserve and National Park (MKFRNP). The MCA approach used a set of objectives and criteria (O&C) to address the complexity of the decision problem in a transparent and understandable way, which also facilitated the active participation by diverse professionals, experts, and interest groups. The management strategies were developed to fulfill the key components of MKFRNP management and the current situation in the study area. The seven management strategies focused on climate change mitigation, protection of water catchments, education and research, stakeholder involvement, biodiversity conservation, timber production, and community interests. Forest stations with differing fire danger levels (very high, high, moderate, and low) were selected to compare the performance of the management strategies. The strategies were assessed qualitatively on their potential to improve the current situation according to the entire set of O&C. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was employed to identify the best management strategy according to the overall preferences of all stakeholder groups. The AHP indicated that a strategy focusing on community interests provided the best option to address the current management challenges in all the seven forest stations independently of their fire danger levels. Biodiversity conservation should also be considered by resource managers in order to reduce fire danger and increase the benefits obtained by different stakeholders in MKFRNP. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Species Mixing Regulation with Respect to Forest Ecosystem Service Provision
Forests 2018, 9(10), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9100632 - 11 Oct 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The control and maintenance of species composition of mixed stands is a highly relevant objective of forest management in order to provide multifunctionality and climatic resilience. In contrast to this requirement there is, however, an evident lack of quantitative methods for mixture regulation. [...] Read more.
The control and maintenance of species composition of mixed stands is a highly relevant objective of forest management in order to provide multifunctionality and climatic resilience. In contrast to this requirement there is, however, an evident lack of quantitative methods for mixture regulation. In this context, we propose an approach for the regulation of mixture proportions that has been implemented in a forest management model. The approach considers species-specific growth characteristics and takes into account the mixing effect on stand density. We present five exemplary simulations that apply the regulation. Each simulation maintains one of five desired species compositions. In these simulations, we consider the species European beech and Norway spruce under good site conditions, thus representing the most prominent mixed stands in Central Europe. Based on this model experiment, we analyze the potential benefit of controlled mixing regulation for achieving desired levels and combinations of ecosystem service provision, in particular productivity, diversity, and groundwater recharge. We found that a constant 50% basal area share of beech (equivalent growing space share of 80% to 70% depending on stand age) provided the most balanced supply of ecosystem services. Prominently, groundwater recharge considerably decreased when beech basal area shares were held below 50%. We discuss the ecological and practical implications of the regulation approach and different mixing shares. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Combining Decision Support Approaches for Optimizing the Selection of Bundles of Ecosystem Services
Forests 2018, 9(7), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9070438 - 21 Jul 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
This study examines the potential of combining decision support approaches to identify optimal bundles of ecosystem services in a framework characterized by multiple decision-makers. A forested landscape, Zona de Intervenção Florestal of Paiva and Entre-Douro and Sousa (ZIF_VS) in Portugal, is used to [...] Read more.
This study examines the potential of combining decision support approaches to identify optimal bundles of ecosystem services in a framework characterized by multiple decision-makers. A forested landscape, Zona de Intervenção Florestal of Paiva and Entre-Douro and Sousa (ZIF_VS) in Portugal, is used to test and demonstrate this potential. The landscape extends over 14,388 ha, representing 1976 stands. The property is fragmented into 376 holdings. The overall analysis was performed in three steps. First, we selected six alternative solutions (A to F) in a Pareto frontier generated by a multiple-criteria method within a web-based decision support system (SADfLOR) for subsequent analysis. Next, an aspatial strategic multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) was performed with the Criterium DecisionPlus (CDP) component of the Ecosystem Management Decision Support (EMDS) system to assess the aggregate performance of solutions A to F for the entire forested landscape with respect to their utility for delivery of ecosystem services. For the CDP analysis, SADfLOR data inputs were grouped into two sets of primary criteria: Wood Harvested and Other Ecosystem Services. Finally, a spatial logic-based assessment of solutions A to F for individual stands of the study area was performed with the NetWeaver component of EMDS. The NetWeaver model was structurally and computationally equivalent to the CDP model, but the key NetWeaver metric is a measure of the strength of evidence that solutions for specific stands were optimal for the unit. We conclude with a discussion of how the combination of decision support approaches encapsulated in the two systems could be further automated in order to rank several efficient solutions in a Pareto frontier and generate a consensual solution. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synergies and Trade-Offs in the Production of NWFPs Predicted in Boreal Forests
Forests 2018, 9(7), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9070417 - 11 Jul 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
The global growth of the consumption of non-wood forest products (NWFPs) is evident due to the current trends in lifestyle and consumption. Alongside the increased popularity and commercial use of NWFPs, their yields are also more often taken into account in forest management [...] Read more.
The global growth of the consumption of non-wood forest products (NWFPs) is evident due to the current trends in lifestyle and consumption. Alongside the increased popularity and commercial use of NWFPs, their yields are also more often taken into account in forest management planning. Empirical yield models recently developed for different NWFPs enable forest managers to include their predicted yields in multi-objective optimization. However, knowledge on the synergies and trade-offs between timber production and different NWFPs is scanty. In this study, we analyzed these relationships through correlation matrices and production possibility frontiers in two case study forest holdings from Finland. A large number of Pareto optimal forest holding level plans were produced by multi-objective optimization and used to analyze trade-offs and synergies. Empirical yield models for 12 NWFPs, representing different berries, mushrooms, and tree-based products, were utilized in the analyses. The results revealed synergies and possibilities for joint-production for NWFPs, but also trade-offs between NWFPs and timber production. NWFPs often had a negative correlation with cutting removals, with the only exception being cowberry. Despite the overall negative correlation, the maximum yields of NWFPs called for some cuttings. Negative correlations with the net present value of timber production were weaker. The results are valuable when the aim is to diversify the use of boreal forests and open avenues for truly multi-objective decision support services to facilitate the decision making of forest owners. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Can Existing Estimates for Ecosystem Service Values Inform Forest Management?
Forests 2019, 10(2), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10020132 - 06 Feb 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
This paper aims at analyzing whether existing economic value estimates for forest ecosystem services (ES) might be transferred and used for valuation purposes elsewhere, and whether these data are appropriate for application in forest management. Many forest ES are public goods or positive [...] Read more.
This paper aims at analyzing whether existing economic value estimates for forest ecosystem services (ES) might be transferred and used for valuation purposes elsewhere, and whether these data are appropriate for application in forest management. Many forest ES are public goods or positive externalities, and as a consequence they do not have a market price. The valuation of forest ES can provide important information for decision making in forest management and planning as well as in political processes, especially by allowing the comparison of different alternatives and helping set priorities for practical actions, as well as developing financial incentives or support mechanisms. We analyze whether an integrated economic valuation model for forest ES can be developed based on existing published data. To achieve this, we assess to which extent a benefit transfer could be expedient, and which challenges must be addressed. Based on a literature search, we compiled an extensive database of forest ES values. Given that these values vary substantially for the same ES, such a database alone does not seem useful to serve as a decision and management support tool. In addition, the available information mainly focuses on forests as such, and does not include desirable forest composition and management targets. If existing estimates should be transferred and used for forest management decisions, both the background conditions of the primary studies and the indicators used for valuation need to be specified in detail. The most expedient approach in this context seemed to be a valuation function transfer based on a broad set of indicators, offering the possibility to adapt the valuation function to changing background conditions. Full article
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Other

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Open AccessPerspective
Multifunctionality of Forests: A White Paper on Challenges and Opportunities in China and Germany
Forests 2020, 11(3), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11030266 - 27 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Both in Germany and in China, there is strong expertise regarding the different aspects of forest management, as well as forest products management. Nevertheless, forestry in both countries is facing challenges, some of which are regional, but many of which are shared. Therefore, [...] Read more.
Both in Germany and in China, there is strong expertise regarding the different aspects of forest management, as well as forest products management. Nevertheless, forestry in both countries is facing challenges, some of which are regional, but many of which are shared. Therefore, experts from both countries (Technical University of Munich Germany; Northwest A&F University Yangling, China; Forestry Academy of Shaanxi, China; Thünen Institut, Germany; FEDRC GIZ Forest Policy Facility (Forestry Economics Development and Research Center of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH), Germany; and Center for Natural Forest Protection in Shaanxi, China) met to share their knowledge and deduce recommendations for future multifunctional forest management for the temperate zone. The workshop, held at the Northwest A&F University in September 2018, included presentations and intensive discussions, as well as a field tour. The results of the workshop that are summarized in this white paper are meant to provide an overview of the multi-faceted nature of the topic for interested scientists and forest practitioners, describe tools that can be used to analyze various aspects of multifunctionality and, in an exemplary fashion, highlight gathered experience from long- and short-term experiments. Included are social demands, economic goals, and scientific baselines. The topics reach from economic evaluations of forest ecosystem services over forest management practices, including afforestation, restoration, and preparations to face climate change, to wood/forest products utilization and participation of local people for poverty reduction. Overall, an optimistic picture emerges, showing that by using adapted forest management practices, which try to embrace the concept of multifunctionality, various use schemes and demands can be integrated at single sites, allowing us to achieve both environmental protection and productive forests, including societal demands, as well as aspects of tradition and national identity. Full article
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