The control and maintenance of species composition of mixed stands is a highly relevant objective of forest management in order to provide multifunctionality and climatic resilience. In contrast to this requirement there is, however, an evident lack of quantitative methods for mixture regulation. In this context, we propose an approach for the regulation of mixture proportions that has been implemented in a forest management model. The approach considers species-specific growth characteristics and takes into account the mixing effect on stand density. We present five exemplary simulations that apply the regulation. Each simulation maintains one of five desired species compositions. In these simulations, we consider the species European beech and Norway spruce under good site conditions, thus representing the most prominent mixed stands in Central Europe. Based on this model experiment, we analyze the potential benefit of controlled mixing regulation for achieving desired levels and combinations of ecosystem service provision, in particular productivity, diversity, and groundwater recharge. We found that a constant 50% basal area share of beech (equivalent growing space share of 80% to 70% depending on stand age) provided the most balanced supply of ecosystem services. Prominently, groundwater recharge considerably decreased when beech basal area shares were held below 50%. We discuss the ecological and practical implications of the regulation approach and different mixing shares.
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