Special Issue "Plant Bast Fibers"

A special issue of Fibers (ISSN 2079-6439).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Gea Guerriero

Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST), Environmental Research and Innovation (ERIN) Department, 5, Avenue des Hauts-Fourneaux, L-4362 Esch/Alzette, Luxembourg
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +352-275-888-5023
Fax: +352-275-888-1
Interests: fiber crops; plant fibers; plant and fungal cell wall; cellulose; chitin; callose; (a)biotic stress; alfalfa; barley; lignin; silicon; gene expression; transcriptomics; plant physiology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The current economic scenario is rapidly pushing towards finding sustainable alternatives to petrochemicals. In this respect, herbaceous crops are important. as they provide, sustainably, high amounts of biomass in a relatively short time. Among herbaceous species, there are fiber crops that produce phloem fibers (bast fibers) used for textile production and for the polymer composite industry. For example, hemp produces long cellulosic bast fibers, which are appreciated in the biocomposite sector. Bast fibers are cheaper, renewable and have a smaller C footprint as compared to synthetic fibers.

In this Special Issue, dedicated to bast fibers (both gelatinous and xylan-type), original research papers, as well as reviews, are welcome. The goal is to gather contributions on various aspects related to bast fibers, namely omics analyses, retting, industrial uses, reponse of fiber crops to exogenous constraints, as well as the molecular characterization of the steps involved in bast fiber growth and development.

I hope that this Special Issue will provide to the scientific community a thorough overview of the current research on bast fibers and fiber crops.

Dr. Gea Guerriero
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fibers is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Bast fibers  
  • Fiber crops  
  • -Omics  
  • Intrusive growth
  • Abiotic stress
  • Biotic stress
  • Gene expression profiling
  • Retting  
  • Industrial use

Published Papers (8 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-8
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Effect of Bitumen Emulsion and Polyester Resin Mixture on the Physico-Mechanical and Degradable Properties of Jute Fabrics
Fibers 2018, 6(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib6030044
Received: 16 April 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 25 June 2018
PDF Full-text (8400 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Jute fabric samples were treated, with different formulations, using various proportions of bitumen emulsion and polyester (PE) resin in combined solutions. Styrene monomer was used as solvent, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide as cross-linking agent and cobalt naphtha as curing agent. The fabric specimens
[...] Read more.
Jute fabric samples were treated, with different formulations, using various proportions of bitumen emulsion and polyester (PE) resin in combined solutions. Styrene monomer was used as solvent, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide as cross-linking agent and cobalt naphtha as curing agent. The fabric specimens were immersed in the solution for 10–15 min, then pressed by a roller and dried at room temperature for 24 h. According to the percentage of bitumen emulsion and PE resin, the jute samples were obtained as J0 (untreated or raw jute), J1 (20% bitumen emulsion +10% PE), and J2 (10% bitumen emulsion +20% PE). It was revealed that tensile strength (TS) increased with bitumen emulsion and PE resin mixture treatment on both directions of jute fabrics where J2 showed the highest improvement of TS which were 61.4% and 44.7% for warp and weft direction respectively. Tensile strength (TS) decreased for all the samples in both directions after soil degradation. After 90 days, the untreated sample was totally degraded. Treated samples exhibited better stability than untreated ones in soil medium. Weight loss by soil degradation, moisture regain, moisture content and water uptake tests of the treated and untreated jute samples were also performed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was conducted to analyze the fiber surfaces of raw and treated jute fibers, finding significant differences as a result of treatment. Finally, the strategy of combining bitumen emulsion and PE resin for treatment, rather than using only PE resin, was found to produce a jute fabric which was not only better in all the above respects but also would be cheaper to produce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Bast Fibers)
Figures

Figure 1a

Open AccessArticle Expression Analysis of Cell Wall-Related Genes in Cannabis sativa: The “Ins and Outs” of Hemp Stem Tissue Development
Fibers 2018, 6(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib6020027
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 31 March 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
PDF Full-text (645 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Textile hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a multipurpose crop producing biomass with uses in e.g., the textile, biocomposite, and construction sectors. It was previously shown that the hypocotyl of hemp is useful to study the kinetics of secondary tissue development, where primary
[...] Read more.
Textile hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a multipurpose crop producing biomass with uses in e.g., the textile, biocomposite, and construction sectors. It was previously shown that the hypocotyl of hemp is useful to study the kinetics of secondary tissue development, where primary and secondary growths are temporally uncoupled. We here sought to demonstrate that the stem of adult hemp plants is an additional suitable model to study the heterogeneous lignification of the tissues and the mechanisms underlying secondary cell wall formation in bast fibres. A targeted quantitative PCR analysis carried out on a set of twenty genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis clearly showed differences in expression in the core and cortical tissues along four stem regions spanning from elongation to cell wall thickening. Genes involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and secondary cell wall cellulose synthases were expressed at higher levels in core tissues at the bottom, while specific genes, notably a class III peroxidase and a gene partaking in lignan biosynthesis, were highly expressed in the cortex of elongating internodes. The two systems, the hypocotyl and the adult stem of textile hemp, are equally valid and complementary to address questions related to lignification and secondary cell wall deposition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Bast Fibers)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Dynamic In-Situ Observation on the Failure Mechanism of Flax Fiber through Scanning Electron Microscopy
Fibers 2018, 6(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib6010017
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 1 March 2018 / Accepted: 2 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
PDF Full-text (7149 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to develop and improve bio-inspired fibers, it is necessary to have a proper understanding of the fracture behavior of bio-fibers such as flax fibers from an individual fiber down to the constituent micro-fibrils and nano-fibrils. For investigating the failure mechanism of
[...] Read more.
In order to develop and improve bio-inspired fibers, it is necessary to have a proper understanding of the fracture behavior of bio-fibers such as flax fibers from an individual fiber down to the constituent micro-fibrils and nano-fibrils. For investigating the failure mechanism of individual and technical flax fibers, a tensile test bench was placed within a scanning electron microscope, and the entire process of fiber failure was investigated through the capture of an SEM movie. Next, fractographic analysis was performed on the failure surface of single fibers as well as meso-fibrils that failed at a displacement rate of 0.25 mm/min, 0.75 mm/min, and 1.6 mm/min. The analysis also enabled visualization of a few internal details of flax fiber such as the arrangement of meso-fibrils and micro-fibrils (nano-fibrils). It was shown that the crack bridging mechanism and successive fiber pull-out contributed to the high work of fracture of flax fiber and the value may reach as high as 10 6 J / m 2 . Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Bast Fibers)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Influence of Stem Diameter on Fiber Diameter and the Mechanical Properties of Technical Flax Fibers from Linseed Flax
Fibers 2018, 6(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib6010010
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 24 January 2018 / Published: 5 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2164 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The continued search for sustainable and eco-friendly materials has led to the integration of bio-fibers, such as flax fiber, as reinforcement in composite materials; however, a wide variation in their diameters and mechanical properties poses a considerable challenge for their incorporation in load
[...] Read more.
The continued search for sustainable and eco-friendly materials has led to the integration of bio-fibers, such as flax fiber, as reinforcement in composite materials; however, a wide variation in their diameters and mechanical properties poses a considerable challenge for their incorporation in load bearing and structural bio-composite materials. In this paper, a rigorous experimental investigation was performed using two varieties of linseed flax from two growing locations to determine if the variations observed in ultimate tensile strength, Young’s modulus, failure strain and diameter could be attributed to the diameters of the stems that produced the fibers. Tests were performed in two different facilities and the results were compared and analyzed using Welch’s t-tests. Results showed that samples which differed by stem diameter had statistically significant positive correlation with fiber diameter and negative correlation with tensile strength. No correlations for tensile strength, Young’s modulus or fiber diameter were found in samples with the same stem diameter range that were grown in different locations or were of different varieties, that is the effect of location and variety is not statistically significant. Failure strain did not show any statistical significance with respect to differences in stem diameter and only showed one statistically significant result between both facilities for one of the two growing location comparisons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Bast Fibers)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Interfacial Characterization by Pull-Out Test of Bamboo Fibers Embedded in Poly(Lactic Acid)
Received: 25 December 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
PDF Full-text (3359 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, the apparent shear strength at the interface between a bamboo fiber and the surrounding poly(lactic acid) (PLA) matrix is quantified. A method for processing pull-out test samples within a controlled embedded length is proposed and the details of the test
[...] Read more.
In this work, the apparent shear strength at the interface between a bamboo fiber and the surrounding poly(lactic acid) (PLA) matrix is quantified. A method for processing pull-out test samples within a controlled embedded length is proposed and the details of the test procedure are presented, along with a critical discussion of the results. Two series of samples are considered: untreated and mercerized bamboo fibers from the same batch, embedded in the same polyester matrix. Electron and optical microscopy are used to observe the fiber–matrix interface before and after the test, and to identify the failure mode of each sample, especially as regards the occurrence of fibrillation in the fiber bundles. The values of apparent interfacial shear strength are calculated only for regular fibers successfully pulled out from the matrix, and reported with their statistical variations. Mercerization, whose efficiency was proven by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, did not appear though to improve the quality of the interface (τapp = 7.0 ± 3.1 MPa for untreated fibers and τapp = 5.3 ± 2.4 MPa for treated fibers). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Bast Fibers)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication Investigation of the Mechanical Properties of Flax Cell Walls during Plant Development: The Relation between Performance and Cell Wall Structure
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 17 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2113 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) fibers was studied to obtain better insight on the progression of their high mechanical performances during plant growth. Fibers at two steps of plant development were studied, namely the end of the fast growth period
[...] Read more.
The development of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) fibers was studied to obtain better insight on the progression of their high mechanical performances during plant growth. Fibers at two steps of plant development were studied, namely the end of the fast growth period and at plant maturity, each time at three plant heights. The indentation modulus of the fiber cell wall was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) using peak-force quantitative nano-mechanical property mapping (PF-QNM). Changes in the cell wall modulus with the cell wall thickening were highlighted. For growing plants, fibers from top and middle heights show a loose inner Gn layer with a lower indentation modulus than mature fibers, which exhibit thickened homogeneous cell walls made only of a G layer. The influence of these changes in the fiber cell wall on the mechanical performances of extracted elementary fibers was also emphasized by tensile tests. In addition, Raman spectra were recorded on samples from both growing and mature plants. The results suggest that, for the fiber cell wall, the cellulose contribution increases with fiber maturity, leading to a greater cell wall modulus of flax fibers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Bast Fibers)
Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Key Stages of Fiber Development as Determinants of Bast Fiber Yield and Quality
Fibers 2018, 6(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib6020020
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 2 April 2018
PDF Full-text (18662 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Plant fibers find wide application in various fields that demand specific parameters of fiber quality. To develop approaches for the improvement of yield and quality of bast fibers, the knowledge of the fiber developmental stages and of the key molecular players that are
[...] Read more.
Plant fibers find wide application in various fields that demand specific parameters of fiber quality. To develop approaches for the improvement of yield and quality of bast fibers, the knowledge of the fiber developmental stages and of the key molecular players that are responsible for a certain parameter, are vitally important. In the present review the key stages of fiber development, such as initiation, intrusive growth, and formation of thickened cell wall layers (secondary and tertiary cell walls) are considered, as well as the impact of each of these stages on the final parameters of fiber yield and quality. The problems and perspectives of crop quality regulation are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Bast Fibers)
Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessBrief Report Transcriptome Assembly of the Bast Fiber Crop, Ramie, Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud. (Urticaceae)
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 24 January 2018 / Published: 1 February 2018
PDF Full-text (4269 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ramie (Boehmeria nivea) is a perennial crop valued for its strong bast fibers. Unlike other major bast fiber crops, ramie fiber processing does not include retting, but does require degumming, suggesting distinctive features in pectin and the development and composition of
[...] Read more.
Ramie (Boehmeria nivea) is a perennial crop valued for its strong bast fibers. Unlike other major bast fiber crops, ramie fiber processing does not include retting, but does require degumming, suggesting distinctive features in pectin and the development and composition of fibers. A comprehensive transcriptome assembly of ramie has not been made available, to date. We obtained the sequence of RNA transcripts (RNA Seq) from the apical region of developing ramie stems and combined these with reads from public databases for a total of 157,621,051 paired-end reads (30.3 billion base pairs Gbp) used as input for de novo assembly, resulting in 70,721 scaffolds (≥200 base pairs (bp); N50 = 1798 bp). As evidence of the quality of the assembly, 36,535 scaffolds aligned to at least one Arabidopsis protein (BLASTP e-value ≤ 10−10). The resource described here for B. nivea will facilitate an improved understanding of bast fibers, cell wall, and middle lamella development in this and other comparative species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Bast Fibers)
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top