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Article

Novel Insight into the Intricate Shape of Flax Fibre Lumen

1
INRA-UR1268 Biopolymers Interactions and Assemblies (BIA), CEDEX 03, BP 71627-44316 Nantes, France
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IRDL, University of Southern Brittany, UMR CNRS 6027, 56100 Lorient, France
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Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste SCpA, 34149 Trieste, Italy
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AMM Research Group, University of Portsmouth, Hampshire PO13DJ, UK
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Kazan Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, FRC Kazan Scientific Center of RAS, 420111 Kazan, Russia
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Groupe Depestele, 14540 Bourguébus, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gea Guerriero
Fibers 2021, 9(4), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib9040024
Received: 18 February 2021 / Revised: 12 March 2021 / Accepted: 1 April 2021 / Published: 6 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Bast Fibers)
Plant fibres and especially flax can be distinguished from most synthetic fibres by their intricate shape and intrinsic porosity called lumen, which is usually assumed to be tubular. However, the real shape appears more complex and thus might induce stress concentrations influencing the fibre performance. This study proposes a novel representation of flax fibre lumen and its variations along the fibre, an interpretation of its origin and effect on flax fibre tensile properties. This investigation was conducted at the crossroads of complementary characterization techniques: optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution X-ray microtomography (µCT) and mechanical tests at the cell-wall and fibre scale by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in Peak-Force Quantitative Nano-Mechanical property mapping (PF-QNM) mode and micromechanical tensile testing. Converging results highlight the difficulty of drawing a single geometric reference for the lumen. AFM and optical microscopy depict central cavities of different sizes and shapes. Porosity contents, varying from 0.4 to 7.2%, are estimated by high-resolution µCT. Furthermore, variations of lumen size are reported along the fibres. This intricate lumen shape might originate from the cell wall thickening and cell death but particular attention should also be paid to the effects of post mortem processes such as drying, retting and mechanical extraction of the fibre as well as sample preparation. Finally, SEM observation following tensile testing demonstrates the combined effect of geometrical inhomogeneities such as defects and intricate lumen porosity to drive the failure of the fibre. View Full-Text
Keywords: porosity; internal structure; X-ray microtomography; scanning electron microscopy; lumen; flax fibre porosity; internal structure; X-ray microtomography; scanning electron microscopy; lumen; flax fibre
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MDPI and ACS Style

Richely, E.; Durand, S.; Melelli, A.; Kao, A.; Magueresse, A.; Dhakal, H.; Gorshkova, T.; Callebert, F.; Bourmaud, A.; Beaugrand, J.; Guessasma, S. Novel Insight into the Intricate Shape of Flax Fibre Lumen. Fibers 2021, 9, 24. https://doi.org/10.3390/fib9040024

AMA Style

Richely E, Durand S, Melelli A, Kao A, Magueresse A, Dhakal H, Gorshkova T, Callebert F, Bourmaud A, Beaugrand J, Guessasma S. Novel Insight into the Intricate Shape of Flax Fibre Lumen. Fibers. 2021; 9(4):24. https://doi.org/10.3390/fib9040024

Chicago/Turabian Style

Richely, Emmanuelle, Sylvie Durand, Alessia Melelli, Alexander Kao, Anthony Magueresse, Hom Dhakal, Tatyana Gorshkova, Franck Callebert, Alain Bourmaud, Johnny Beaugrand, and Sofiane Guessasma. 2021. "Novel Insight into the Intricate Shape of Flax Fibre Lumen" Fibers 9, no. 4: 24. https://doi.org/10.3390/fib9040024

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