Special Issue "Human Exposure to Environmental Contaminants"

A special issue of Environments (ISSN 2076-3298).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2017).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Andrea Cattaneo
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Science and High Thechnology, University of Insubria, Como, Italy
Interests: exposure and risk assessment; environmental and occupational hygiene; air pollution; exposure modeling; indoor air quality; nanosafety; chemical risk assessment and managemen; health impact assessment
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Exposure can be can be thought of as the factor that modulates the relationship between the magnitude of environmental contamination and the probability of adverse health effects in humans or, more generally, the relationship between hazards and risks. Thus, accurate exposure estimates should represent a pivotal point for a reliable risk and health impact assessment. On the other hand, the choice of the best exposure assessment approach should lead to the best compromise between the needs for accurate and precise exposure measures and the size of the study population. There is also the need to identify the most relevant sources and determinants of exposure for the implementation of the most effective risk management strategies to protect worker and public health.

More efforts are thus needed to evaluate and eventually improve the current methods for exposure assessment. In addition, new knowledge about sources, determinants and spatio-temporal variations of exposure levels is required to face the challenges of disease prevention and health protection, especially when dealing with emerging chemical, physical and biological risks. This Special Issue aims to present articles emphasizing: (1) current trends, levels and patterns of exposure to traditional contaminants in occupational and environmental settings, including indoor environments; (2) exposure assessment of emerging chemical, physical and biological hazards; (3) exposure-based risk assessment approaches in air, water, food, waste, soils and consumer products; (4) environmental, behavioural, and source-related exposure determinants for a scientifically-sound risk management; and (5) methodological issues related to the assessment of human exposures to environmental pollutants.

Dr. Andrea Cattaneo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Environments is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • exposure assessment to chemical, physical and biological hazards
  • sources and determinants of exposure
  • human exposure modeling
  • multiple route exposure
  • human exposure to air, water, food, waste and soil contaminants
  • consumer exposure
  • peak, transient or intermittent exposures
  • methodological aspects of exposure measurements and estimates
  • human biomonitoring
  • exposure to emerging contaminants

Published Papers (7 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Hepatobiliary-Related Outcomes in US Adults Exposed to Lead
Environments 2018, 5(4), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments5040046 - 31 Mar 2018
Cited by 18
Abstract
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate hepatobiliary-related clinical markers in Unites States adults (aged ≥ 20) exposed to lead using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2008 and 2009–2010 datasets. Clinical markers and occupation were evaluated in 4 [...] Read more.
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate hepatobiliary-related clinical markers in Unites States adults (aged ≥ 20) exposed to lead using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2008 and 2009–2010 datasets. Clinical markers and occupation were evaluated in 4 quartiles of exposure—0–2 μg/dL, 2–5 μg/dL, 5–10 μg/dL, and 10 μg/dL and over—to examine how the markers and various occupations manifested in the quartiles. Linear regression determined associations, and binary logistic regression predicted the likelihood of elevated clinical makers using binary degrees of exposure set at (2 μg/dL, 5 μg/dL, and 10 μg/dL). Clinical makers, and how they manifested between exposed and less-exposed occupations, were explored in addition to how duration of exposure altered these clinical markers. In regression analysis, Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT), total bilirubin, and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) were positively and significantly associated with Blood lead level (BLL). Using binary logistic regression models, at the binary 2 μg/dL level ALP, and GGT were more likely to be elevated in those exposed. At 5 μg/dL level, it was ALP and GGT that were more likely to be elevated in those exposed whereas at 10 μg/dL level, it was GGT that were more likely to be elevated in those exposed. In the occupational analysis, Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), GGT, and ALP showed differences between populations in the exposed and less-exposed occupations. Regarding Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing, duration of exposure altered AST, ALP, and total bilirubin significantly (p < 0.05) while ALT and GGT were altered moderately significantly (p < 0.10). With mining, duration of exposure altered AST and GGT moderately significantly, whereas in construction duration in occupation altered AST, and GGT significantly, and total bilirubin moderately significantly. The study findings are evidence of occupational exposure to lead playing a significant role in initiating and promoting adverse hepatobiliary clinical outcomes in United States adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Methodology of Health Effects Estimation from Air Pollution in Large Asian Cities
Environments 2017, 4(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments4030060 - 07 Sep 2017
Cited by 1
Abstract
The increase of health effects caused by air pollution seems to be a growing concern in Asian cities with increasing motorization. This paper discusses methods of estimating the health effects of air pollution in large Asian cities. Due to the absence of statistical [...] Read more.
The increase of health effects caused by air pollution seems to be a growing concern in Asian cities with increasing motorization. This paper discusses methods of estimating the health effects of air pollution in large Asian cities. Due to the absence of statistical data in Asia, this paper carefully chooses the methodology using data of the Japanese compensation system. A basic idea of health effects will be captured from simple indicators, such as population and air quality, in a correlation model. This correlation model enables more estimation results of respiratory mortality caused by air pollution to be yielded than by using the relative model. The correlation model could be an alternative method to estimate mortality besides the relative risk model since the results of the correlation model are comparable with those of the relative model by city and by time series. The classification of respiratory diseases is not known from the statistical yearbooks in many countries. Estimation results could support policy decision-making with respect to public health in a cost-effective way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessShort Note
Commuters’ Personal Exposure to Ambient and Indoor Ozone in Athens, Greece
Environments 2017, 4(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments4030053 - 28 Jul 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
This pilot study aimed to monitor the residential/office indoor, outdoor, and personal levels of ozone for people living, working, and commuting in Athens, Greece. Participants (16 persons) of this study worked at the same place. Passive sampling analysis results did not indicate any [...] Read more.
This pilot study aimed to monitor the residential/office indoor, outdoor, and personal levels of ozone for people living, working, and commuting in Athens, Greece. Participants (16 persons) of this study worked at the same place. Passive sampling analysis results did not indicate any limit exceedance (Directive 2008/50/EC: 120 µg/m3, World Health Organization (WHO) Air Quality Guidelines 2005: 100 µg/m3). The highest “house-outdoor” concentration was noticed for participants living in the north suburbs of Athens, confirming the photochemical ozone formation at the northern parts of the basin during southwestern prevailing winds. The residential indoor to outdoor ratio (I/O) was found to be significantly lower than unity, underlying the outdoor originality of the pollutant. The highest “office-indoor” concentration was observed in a ground-level building, characterized by the extensive use of photocopy machines and printers. Personal ozone levels were positively correlated only with indoor-office concentrations. A clear correlation of personal ozone levels to the time spent by the individuals during moving/staying outdoors was observed. On the other hand, no correlation was observed when focusing only on commuting time, due to the fact that transit time includes both on-foot and in-vehicle time periods, therefore activities associated with increased exposure levels, but also with pollutants removal by recirculating air filtering systems, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Children Associated with Living near Mining Waste Sites in Guerrero/Mexico
Environments 2017, 4(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments4020041 - 12 Jun 2017
Cited by 1
Abstract
Blood lead levels (BLL) in children are associated with lead in soil and represent a major public health problem; however, there are few reports of lead contamination related to mining waste sites in Mexico. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study in the State [...] Read more.
Blood lead levels (BLL) in children are associated with lead in soil and represent a major public health problem; however, there are few reports of lead contamination related to mining waste sites in Mexico. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study in the State of Guerrero to identify the association between proximity of residence to mining site waste and BLL in children. The impact of the different variables related to BLL were analyzed with logistic regression. Geometric mean BLL was 13.6 μg/dL, 15.9 μg/dL in communities proximal to waste sites and 5.5 μg/dL in a distant control community. Children living in communities near the mining waste have higher BLL that children living in communities far away from the waste. Our results are similar to studies in other countries and indicate that mining waste sites remain an active source of BLL contamination that affect children’s health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessCommunication
Exposure Assessment Methods in Studies on Waste Management and Health Effects: An Overview
Environments 2017, 4(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments4010019 - 21 Feb 2017
Cited by 1
Abstract
Concerns and uncertainties persist about potential environmental and health effects associated with exposure to emissions from widely adopted waste management facilities: despite a limited amount of evidence having been found for some exposure-effect associations, most of the available studies were characterized by limitations [...] Read more.
Concerns and uncertainties persist about potential environmental and health effects associated with exposure to emissions from widely adopted waste management facilities: despite a limited amount of evidence having been found for some exposure-effect associations, most of the available studies were characterized by limitations related to poor exposure assessment, which could introduce biases and weaknesses in the interpretation of results. This communication provides a brief overview of the exposure assessment methods used in studies on waste management and health effects: problems, key issues, priorities and challenges are briefly presented and discussed. The main conclusions refer to the need of newly developed and harmonized exposure assessment strategies and techniques, which represent an essential step in the study of waste-disposal facilities’ health impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Air Quality Impacts of Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Industries
Environments 2017, 4(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments4030066 - 19 Sep 2017
Cited by 16
Abstract
Though refineries and petrochemical industries meet society’s energy demands and produce a range of useful chemicals, they can also affect air quality. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified polluted air as the single largest environmental risk, and hence it is necessary to [...] Read more.
Though refineries and petrochemical industries meet society’s energy demands and produce a range of useful chemicals, they can also affect air quality. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified polluted air as the single largest environmental risk, and hence it is necessary to strive for and maintain good air quality. To manage potential health impacts, it is important to implement proper air quality management by understanding the link between specific pollutant sources and resulting population exposures. These industries release pollutants such as Volatile Organic Compounds, greenhouse gases and particulate matter, from various parts of their operations. Air quality should be monitored and controlled more meticulously in developing nations where increased energy demands, industrialization and overpopulation has led to more emissions and lower air quality. This paper presents a review of findings and highlights from various studies on air quality impacts of petroleum refining and petrochemical plants in many regions in the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
Open AccessReview
Do Tick Attachment Times Vary between Different Tick-Pathogen Systems?
Environments 2017, 4(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments4020037 - 09 May 2017
Cited by 13
Abstract
Improvements to risk assessments are needed to enhance our understanding of tick-borne disease epidemiology. We review tick vectors and duration of tick attachment required for pathogen transmission for the following pathogens/toxins and diseases: (1) Anaplasma phagocytophilum (anaplasmosis); (2) Babesia microti (babesiosis); (3) Borrelia [...] Read more.
Improvements to risk assessments are needed to enhance our understanding of tick-borne disease epidemiology. We review tick vectors and duration of tick attachment required for pathogen transmission for the following pathogens/toxins and diseases: (1) Anaplasma phagocytophilum (anaplasmosis); (2) Babesia microti (babesiosis); (3) Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease); (4) Southern tick-associated rash illness; (5) Borrelia hermsii (tick-borne relapsing fever); (6) Borrelia parkeri (tick-borne relapsing fever); (7) Borrelia turicatae (tick-borne relapsing fever); (8) Borrelia mayonii; (9) Borrelia miyamotoi; (10) Coxiella burnetii (Query fever); (11) Ehrlichia chaffeensis (ehrlichiosis); (12) Ehrlichia ewingii (ehrlichiosis); (13) Ehrlichia muris; (14) Francisella tularensis (tularemia); (15) Rickettsia 364D; (16) Rickettsia montanensis; (17) Rickettsia parkeri (American boutonneuse fever, American tick bite fever); (18) Rickettsia ricketsii (Rocky Mountain spotted fever); (19) Colorado tick fever virus (Colorado tick fever); (20) Heartland virus; (21) Powassan virus (Powassan disease); (22) tick paralysis neurotoxin; and (23) Galactose-α-1,3-galactose (Mammalian Meat Allergy-alpha-gal syndrome). Published studies for 12 of the 23 pathogens/diseases showed tick attachment times. Reported tick attachment times varied (<1 h to seven days) between pathogen/toxin type and tick vector. Not all studies were designed to detect the duration of attachment required for transmission. Knowledge of this important aspect of vector competence is lacking and impairs risk assessment for some tick-borne pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
Back to TopTop