Next Article in Journal
The By-products and Emissions from Manufacturing Torrefied Solid Fuel Using Waste Bamboo Chopsticks
Next Article in Special Issue
Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Children Associated with Living near Mining Waste Sites in Guerrero/Mexico
Previous Article in Journal
Determination of Water Quality Degradation Due to Industrial and Household Wastewater in the Galing River in Kuantan, Malaysia Using Ion Chromatograph and Water Quality Data
Previous Article in Special Issue
Exposure Assessment Methods in Studies on Waste Management and Health Effects: An Overview
Article Menu
Issue 2 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Do Tick Attachment Times Vary between Different Tick-Pathogen Systems?

Department of Health Education and Promotion, Environmental Health Science Program, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858, USA
Toxicology Program, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
Animal Hospital of Boone, Boone, NC 28607, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrea Cattaneo
Environments 2017, 4(2), 37;
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 1 May 2017 / Accepted: 4 May 2017 / Published: 9 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
PDF [260 KB, uploaded 9 May 2017]


Improvements to risk assessments are needed to enhance our understanding of tick-borne disease epidemiology. We review tick vectors and duration of tick attachment required for pathogen transmission for the following pathogens/toxins and diseases: (1) Anaplasma phagocytophilum (anaplasmosis); (2) Babesia microti (babesiosis); (3) Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease); (4) Southern tick-associated rash illness; (5) Borrelia hermsii (tick-borne relapsing fever); (6) Borrelia parkeri (tick-borne relapsing fever); (7) Borrelia turicatae (tick-borne relapsing fever); (8) Borrelia mayonii; (9) Borrelia miyamotoi; (10) Coxiella burnetii (Query fever); (11) Ehrlichia chaffeensis (ehrlichiosis); (12) Ehrlichia ewingii (ehrlichiosis); (13) Ehrlichia muris; (14) Francisella tularensis (tularemia); (15) Rickettsia 364D; (16) Rickettsia montanensis; (17) Rickettsia parkeri (American boutonneuse fever, American tick bite fever); (18) Rickettsia ricketsii (Rocky Mountain spotted fever); (19) Colorado tick fever virus (Colorado tick fever); (20) Heartland virus; (21) Powassan virus (Powassan disease); (22) tick paralysis neurotoxin; and (23) Galactose-α-1,3-galactose (Mammalian Meat Allergy-alpha-gal syndrome). Published studies for 12 of the 23 pathogens/diseases showed tick attachment times. Reported tick attachment times varied (<1 h to seven days) between pathogen/toxin type and tick vector. Not all studies were designed to detect the duration of attachment required for transmission. Knowledge of this important aspect of vector competence is lacking and impairs risk assessment for some tick-borne pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: duration of tick attachment; tick-borne disease; tick; transmission dynamics duration of tick attachment; tick-borne disease; tick; transmission dynamics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Richards, S.L.; Langley, R.; Apperson, C.S.; Watson, E. Do Tick Attachment Times Vary between Different Tick-Pathogen Systems? Environments 2017, 4, 37.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Environments EISSN 2076-3298 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top