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Environments 2017, 4(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments4030053

Commuters’ Personal Exposure to Ambient and Indoor Ozone in Athens, Greece

1
Environmental Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Western Macedonia, UOWM, Kozani 501 00, Greece
2
Environmental Research Laboratory, INRASTES, National Center for Scientific Research “DEMOKRITOS”, Athens 153 10, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 24 July 2017 / Accepted: 26 July 2017 / Published: 28 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
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Abstract

This pilot study aimed to monitor the residential/office indoor, outdoor, and personal levels of ozone for people living, working, and commuting in Athens, Greece. Participants (16 persons) of this study worked at the same place. Passive sampling analysis results did not indicate any limit exceedance (Directive 2008/50/EC: 120 µg/m3, World Health Organization (WHO) Air Quality Guidelines 2005: 100 µg/m3). The highest “house-outdoor” concentration was noticed for participants living in the north suburbs of Athens, confirming the photochemical ozone formation at the northern parts of the basin during southwestern prevailing winds. The residential indoor to outdoor ratio (I/O) was found to be significantly lower than unity, underlying the outdoor originality of the pollutant. The highest “office-indoor” concentration was observed in a ground-level building, characterized by the extensive use of photocopy machines and printers. Personal ozone levels were positively correlated only with indoor-office concentrations. A clear correlation of personal ozone levels to the time spent by the individuals during moving/staying outdoors was observed. On the other hand, no correlation was observed when focusing only on commuting time, due to the fact that transit time includes both on-foot and in-vehicle time periods, therefore activities associated with increased exposure levels, but also with pollutants removal by recirculating air filtering systems, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: ozone; personal exposure; indoor; ambient; passive samplers; commuting ozone; personal exposure; indoor; ambient; passive samplers; commuting
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Kalimeri, K.K.; Bartzis, J.G.; Saraga, D.E. Commuters’ Personal Exposure to Ambient and Indoor Ozone in Athens, Greece. Environments 2017, 4, 53.

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