Special Issue "Carnot Cycle and Heat Engine Fundamentals and Applications"

A special issue of Entropy (ISSN 1099-4300). This special issue belongs to the section "Thermodynamics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 December 2019.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Michel Feidt
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratoire d’Énergétique et de Mécanique Théorique et Appliquée, UMR 7563, Université de Lorraine, 54505 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France
Interests: thermodynamics; energy; environment; economy; optimization
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Engineering thermodynamics has been advancing, particularly since the sixties. A first step was the consideration of endoreversible engines, and reverse corresponding configurations. These phenomenological approaches are currently being improved, considering dissipative mechanisms, in order to represent more precisely the global performance of the system. More and more complex systems are being considered (for example, cascades, co- or trigeneration).

The optimization of systems and processes requires clearly defining the objectives and constraints applied to them. The efficiency concept is central to that. Three main aspects are related to particular fundamentals or engineering situations:

  • fundamental physical criteria;
  • environmental concerns;
  • economic concerns.

The state-of-the-art of these aspects will be developed in this Special Issue. In fact, we note that cycles and engines are inspiring research in new fields, in order to, for example, reverse cycle machines and living systems, also at the nano and cosmological scale. These new areas of thermodynamics will also be considered.

Prof. Dr. Michel Feidt
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Entropy is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Carnot Engine
  • Optimization
  • Finite Time Thermodynamics
  • Finite Speed Thermodynamics
  • Finite Physical Dimension Thermodynamics

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Performance of a Simple Energetic-Converting Reaction Model Using Linear Irreversible Thermodynamics
Entropy 2019, 21(11), 1030; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21111030 - 24 Oct 2019
Abstract
In this paper, the methodology of the so-called Linear Irreversible Thermodynamics (LIT) is applied to analyze the properties of an energetic-converting biological process using simple model for an enzymatic reaction that couples one exothermic and one endothermic reaction in the same fashion as [...] Read more.
In this paper, the methodology of the so-called Linear Irreversible Thermodynamics (LIT) is applied to analyze the properties of an energetic-converting biological process using simple model for an enzymatic reaction that couples one exothermic and one endothermic reaction in the same fashion as Diaz-Hernandez et al. (Physica A, 2010, 389, 3476–3483). We extend the former analysis to consider three different operating regimes; namely, Maximum Power Output (MPO), Maximum Ecological Function (MEF) and Maximum Efficient Power Function (MEPF), respectively. Based on the later, it is possible to generalize the obtained results. Additionally, results show analogies in the optimal performance between the different optimization criteria where all thermodynamic features are determined by three parameters (the chemical potential gap Δ = μ 1 μ 4 R T , the degree of coupling q and the efficiency η ). This depends on the election that leads to more or less efficient energy exchange. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carnot Cycle and Heat Engine Fundamentals and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
What Is the Real Clausius Statement of the Second Law of Thermodynamics?
Entropy 2019, 21(10), 926; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21100926 - 24 Sep 2019
Abstract
In this paper, we first analyze the difference between the second law of thermodynamics and the laws in other disciplines. There are some phenomena in other disciplines similar to the Clausius Statement of the second law, but none of them has been accepted [...] Read more.
In this paper, we first analyze the difference between the second law of thermodynamics and the laws in other disciplines. There are some phenomena in other disciplines similar to the Clausius Statement of the second law, but none of them has been accepted as the statement of a certain law. Clausius’ mechanical theory of heat, published in the nineteenth century, is then introduced and discussed in detail, from which it is found that Clausius himself regarded “Theorem of the equivalence of the transformation of heat to work, and the transformation of heat at a higher temperature to a lower temperature”, rather than “Heat can never pass from a colder to a warmer body without some other change”, as the statement of the second law of thermodynamics. The latter is only laid down as the fundamental principle for deriving the theorem of the equivalence of transformations. Finally, based on the theorem of the equivalence of transformations and the average temperature method, a general quantitative relation among the heat, the work, and the temperatures is obtained for arbitrary cycles, which is thus recommended as an alternative mathematic expression of the second law. Hence, the theorem of the equivalence of transformations is the real Clausius Statement of the second law of thermodynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carnot Cycle and Heat Engine Fundamentals and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Global Efficiency of Heat Engines and Heat Pumps with Non-Linear Boundary Conditions
Entropy 2017, 19(8), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/e19080394 - 31 Jul 2017
Abstract
Analysis of global energy efficiency of thermal systems is of practical importance for a number of reasons. Cycles and processes used in thermal systems exist in very different configurations, making comparison difficult if specific models are required to analyze specific thermal systems. Thermal [...] Read more.
Analysis of global energy efficiency of thermal systems is of practical importance for a number of reasons. Cycles and processes used in thermal systems exist in very different configurations, making comparison difficult if specific models are required to analyze specific thermal systems. Thermal systems with small temperature differences between a hot side and a cold side also suffer from difficulties due to heat transfer pinch point effects. Such pinch points are consequences of thermal systems design and must therefore be integrated in the global evaluation. In optimizing thermal systems, detailed entropy generation analysis is suitable to identify performance losses caused by cycle components. In plant analysis, a similar logic applies with the difference that the thermal system is then only a component, often industrially standardized. This article presents how a thermodynamic “black box” method for defining and comparing thermal efficiency of different size and types of heat engines can be extended to also compare heat pumps of different apparent magnitude and type. Impact of a non-linear boundary condition on reversible thermal efficiency is exemplified and a correlation of average real heat engine efficiencies is discussed in the light of linear and non-linear boundary conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carnot Cycle and Heat Engine Fundamentals and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Carnot-Like Heat Engines Versus Low-Dissipation Models
Entropy 2017, 19(4), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/e19040182 - 23 Apr 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
In this paper, a comparison between two well-known finite time heat engine models is presented: the Carnot-like heat engine based on specific heat transfer laws between the cyclic system and the external heat baths and the Low-Dissipation model where irreversibilities are taken into [...] Read more.
In this paper, a comparison between two well-known finite time heat engine models is presented: the Carnot-like heat engine based on specific heat transfer laws between the cyclic system and the external heat baths and the Low-Dissipation model where irreversibilities are taken into account by explicit entropy generation laws. We analyze the mathematical relation between the natural variables of both models and from this the resulting thermodynamic implications. Among them, particular emphasis has been placed on the physical consistency between the heat leak and time evolution on the one side, and between parabolic and loop-like behaviors of the parametric power-efficiency plots. A detailed analysis for different heat transfer laws in the Carnot-like model in terms of the maximum power efficiencies given by the Low-Dissipation model is also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carnot Cycle and Heat Engine Fundamentals and Applications)
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Open AccessPerspective
The History and Perspectives of Efficiency at Maximum Power of the Carnot Engine
Entropy 2017, 19(7), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/e19070369 - 19 Jul 2017
Cited by 13
Abstract
Finite Time Thermodynamics is generally associated with the Curzon–Ahlborn approach to the Carnot cycle. Recently, previous publications on the subject were discovered, which prove that the history of Finite Time Thermodynamics started more than sixty years before even the work of Chambadal and [...] Read more.
Finite Time Thermodynamics is generally associated with the Curzon–Ahlborn approach to the Carnot cycle. Recently, previous publications on the subject were discovered, which prove that the history of Finite Time Thermodynamics started more than sixty years before even the work of Chambadal and Novikov (1957). The paper proposes a careful examination of the similarities and differences between these pioneering works and the consequences they had on the works that followed. The modelling of the Carnot engine was carried out in three steps, namely (1) modelling with time durations of the isothermal processes, as done by Curzon and Ahlborn; (2) modelling at a steady-state operation regime for which the time does not appear explicitly; and (3) modelling of transient conditions which requires the time to appear explicitly. Whatever the method of modelling used, the subsequent optimization appears to be related to specific physical dimensions. The main goal of the methodology is to choose the objective function, which here is the power, and to define the associated constraints. We propose a specific approach, focusing on the main functions that respond to engineering requirements. The study of the Carnot engine illustrates the synthesis carried out and proves that the primary interest for an engineer is mainly connected to what we called Finite (physical) Dimensions Optimal Thermodynamics, including time in the case of transient modelling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carnot Cycle and Heat Engine Fundamentals and Applications)
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