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Special Issue "Power Processing Systems for Electric Vehicles"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "E: Electric Vehicles".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (18 May 2021) | Viewed by 38818

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Annette Von Jouanne
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Electrical and Computer Engineering, Baylor University, Waco, TX, USA
Interests: energy systems including power electronics and drives; electric and hybrid vehicles; power systems; renewables; grid-integration; distributed generation
Prof. Dr. Alexandre Yokochi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Mechanical Engineering, Baylor University, Waco, TX, USA
Interests: energy storage; batteries; fuel cells; energy and power processing; the development of novel materials applied to the areas of energy sustainability; energy conversion and storage

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The electric vehicle (EV) market continues to grow, with over three million EVs on the road worldwide. The International Energy Agency (IEA) forecasts that these numbers will increase to 125 million by 2030. EVs offer increased efficiency and energy savings, reduced emissions (especially when the electricity is being generated from renewable resources), a greater diversity of fuel choices for transportation, and higher performance. This Special Issue focuses on power processing systems for high efficiency, high performance electric vehicles including power electronic converters, electric motor drives, electric machines, control, energy storage, and advanced charging approaches. Your contributions may describe new technologies, modeling, characterization, topologies, control methods, applications and other advancements. We are looking forward to receiving your submissions.

Prof. Dr. Annette von Jouanne
Prof. Dr. Alexandre Yokochi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Electric Vehicles
  • Power Electronic Converters
  • Drives
  • Electric Machines
  • Control
  • Energy Storage
  • Fast Charging

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
Deadbeat Predictive Current Control for Series-Winding PMSM Drive with Half-Bridge Power Module-Based Inverter
Energies 2021, 14(15), 4620; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154620 - 30 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 649
Abstract
Series-winding topology (SWT) could improve the DC-link voltage utilization, as open-winding topology does. Meanwhile, it can greatly reduce the number of power devices. Firstly, for the half-bridge power modules (HBPMs)-based inverter, an N-phase series-winding motor only requires N + 1 HBPMs for driving. [...] Read more.
Series-winding topology (SWT) could improve the DC-link voltage utilization, as open-winding topology does. Meanwhile, it can greatly reduce the number of power devices. Firstly, for the half-bridge power modules (HBPMs)-based inverter, an N-phase series-winding motor only requires N + 1 HBPMs for driving. On the other hand, such SWT also brings new challenges to the drive system. A zero-sequence loop is introduced into the motor windings due to SWT. The generated zero-sequence current would degrade the total harmonic distortion of the phase currents and produce the additional torque ripple. Moreover, current sensors are typically integrated with the HBPMs. However, in SWT, their measured results are the leg currents of the inverter, not the phase currents of the motor, which is crucial to the motor control. Thus, this paper mainly focuses on the aforementioned problems in a three-phase series-winding permanent-magnet synchronous motor (TPSW-PMSM) drive with HBPM-based inverter. Firstly, to control the zero-sequence subspace, the voltage vector distribution of TPSW-PMSM is analyzed. In addition, two voltage vectors with zero-sequence components are selected to generate the zero-sequence voltage. Then, the phase currents are reconstructed according to the leg currents from the current sensors on HBPMs. Based on the above, the deadbeat predictive current control (DBPCC) scheme is proposed for a TPSW-PMSM drive with HBPM-based inverter. It provides the TPSW-PMSM drive with fast dynamic response and effective zero-sequence current suppression. Finally, both simulation and experimental results verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed DBPCC scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Processing Systems for Electric Vehicles)
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Article
The Interconnection and Damping Assignment Passivity-Based Control Synthesis via the Optimal Control Method for Electric Vehicle Subsystems
Energies 2021, 14(12), 3711; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14123711 - 21 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 626
Abstract
The interconnection between optimal control theory and the theory of energy-shaping control is described in our paper. For linear and nonlinear systems, the application of the theory of optimal control for the synthesis of parameters of energy-shaping control matrices is demonstrated in detail. [...] Read more.
The interconnection between optimal control theory and the theory of energy-shaping control is described in our paper. For linear and nonlinear systems, the application of the theory of optimal control for the synthesis of parameters of energy-shaping control matrices is demonstrated in detail. The use of a Riccati equation allows us to form an optimality criterion and to synthesize the energy-shaping control system that provides the desired transient processes. The proposed approach was applied to the synthesis of control influences for electric vehicle subsystems, such as a two-mass system and a permanent magnets synchronous motor. The results of computer simulation studies, as well as those conducted on real experimental installations, are given in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Processing Systems for Electric Vehicles)
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Article
High Performance Electric Vehicle Powertrain Modeling, Simulation and Validation
Energies 2021, 14(5), 1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14051493 - 09 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1470
Abstract
Accurate electric vehicle (EV) powertrain modeling, simulation and validation is paramount for critical design and control decisions in high performance vehicle designs. Described in this paper is a methodology for the design and development of EV powertrain through modeling, simulation and validation on [...] Read more.
Accurate electric vehicle (EV) powertrain modeling, simulation and validation is paramount for critical design and control decisions in high performance vehicle designs. Described in this paper is a methodology for the design and development of EV powertrain through modeling, simulation and validation on a real-world vehicle system with detailed analysis of the results. Although simulation of EV powertrains in software simulation environments plays a significant role in the design and development of EVs, validating these models on the real-world vehicle systems plays an equally important role in improving the overall vehicle reliability, safety and performance. This modeling approach leverages the use of MATLAB/Simulink software for the modeling and simulation of an EV powertrain, augmented by simultaneously validating the modeling results on a real-world vehicle which is performance tested on a chassis dynamometer. The combination of these modeling techniques and real-world validation demonstrates a methodology for a cost effective means of rapidly developing and validating high performance EV powertrains, filling the literature gaps in how these modeling methodologies can be carried out in a research framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Processing Systems for Electric Vehicles)
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Article
Modeling the Future California Electricity Grid and Renewable Energy Integration with Electric Vehicles
Energies 2020, 13(20), 5277; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205277 - 12 Oct 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1471
Abstract
This study focuses on determining the impacts and potential value of unmanaged and managed uni-directional and bi-directional charging of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) to integrate intermittent renewable resources in California in the year 2030. The research methodology incorporates the utilization of multiple simulation [...] Read more.
This study focuses on determining the impacts and potential value of unmanaged and managed uni-directional and bi-directional charging of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) to integrate intermittent renewable resources in California in the year 2030. The research methodology incorporates the utilization of multiple simulation tools including V2G-SIM, SWITCH, and GridSim. SWITCH is used to predict a cost-effective generation portfolio to meet the renewable electricity goals of 60% in California by 2030. PEV charging demand is predicted by incorporating mobility behavior studies and assumptions charging infrastructure and vehicle technology improvements. Finally, the production cost model GridSim is used to quantify the impacts of managed and unmanaged vehicle-charging demand to electricity grid operations. The temporal optimization of charging sessions shows that PEVs can mitigate renewable oversupply and ramping needs substantially. The results show that 3.3 million PEVs can mitigate over-generation by ~4 terawatt hours in California—potentially saving the state up to about USD 20 billion of capital investment costs in stationary storage technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Processing Systems for Electric Vehicles)
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Article
Power Electronic Control Design for Stable EV Motor and Battery Operation during a Route
Energies 2019, 12(10), 1990; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12101990 - 24 May 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3437
Abstract
Electric vehicles (EVs), during a route, should normally operate at the desired speed by effectively controlling the power that flows between their batteries and the electric motor/generator. To implement this task, in this paper, the voltage source AC/DC converter is considered as a [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles (EVs), during a route, should normally operate at the desired speed by effectively controlling the power that flows between their batteries and the electric motor/generator. To implement this task, in this paper, the voltage source AC/DC converter is considered as a controlled power interface between the electric machine and the output of the DC storage device; the DC/DC converter is used to automatically regulate the battery operating condition in accordance to the profile of the acting on the vehicle wheels, unknown external torque. Particularly, the speed is continuously regulated by the vehicle driver via the pedal while all other regulations for absorbing or regenerating energy are internally controlled. The driver command is acting as speed reference input on a PI outer-loop motor speed controller which, in its turn, drives a fast P inner-loop current controller operating in cascaded mode. In a similar manner, the machine and the battery performance are self-regulated by a pure PI current controller that achieves maximum electric torque per ampere operation of the motor and by a PI/P cascaded scheme for the DC-voltage/battery–current regulation, respectively. In order to exclude any possibility of instabilities and adverse impacts between the different parts, a rigorous analysis is deployed on the complete electromechanical system that involves the motor, the batteries, the converter dynamic models and the proposed controllers. Modeling the system in Euler–Lagrange nonlinear form and applying sequentially suitable Lyapunov techniques and the time-scale separation principle, a systematic method for tuning the gains of the inner- and outer-loop controllers is derived. Therefore, the proposed controller design procedure guarantees asymptotic stability by considering the accurate system model as a whole. Finally, the proposed approach is validated by simulating realistic route conditions, performed under unknown external torque variations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Processing Systems for Electric Vehicles)
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Review

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Review
Advanced Electric Vehicle Fast-Charging Technologies
Energies 2019, 12(10), 1839; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12101839 - 15 May 2019
Cited by 62 | Viewed by 6073
Abstract
Negative impacts from the dominant use of petroleum-based transportation have propelled the globe towards electrified transportation. With this thrust, many technological challenges are being encountered and addressed, one of which is the development and availability of fast-charging technologies. To compete with petroleum-based transportation, [...] Read more.
Negative impacts from the dominant use of petroleum-based transportation have propelled the globe towards electrified transportation. With this thrust, many technological challenges are being encountered and addressed, one of which is the development and availability of fast-charging technologies. To compete with petroleum-based transportation, electric vehicle (EV) battery charging times need to decrease to the 5–10 min range. This paper provides a review of EV fast-charging technologies and the impacts on the battery systems, including heat management and associated limitations. In addition, the paper presents promising new approaches and opportunities for power electronic converter topologies and systems level research to advance the state-of-the-art in fast-charging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Processing Systems for Electric Vehicles)
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Review
Current Li-Ion Battery Technologies in Electric Vehicles and Opportunities for Advancements
Energies 2019, 12(6), 1074; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12061074 - 20 Mar 2019
Cited by 230 | Viewed by 20072
Abstract
Over the past several decades, the number of electric vehicles (EVs) has continued to increase. Projections estimate that worldwide, more than 125 million EVs will be on the road by 2030. At the heart of these advanced vehicles is the lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery [...] Read more.
Over the past several decades, the number of electric vehicles (EVs) has continued to increase. Projections estimate that worldwide, more than 125 million EVs will be on the road by 2030. At the heart of these advanced vehicles is the lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery which provides the required energy storage. This paper presents and compares key components of Li-ion batteries and describes associated battery management systems, as well as approaches to improve the overall battery efficiency, capacity, and lifespan. Material and thermal characteristics are identified as critical to battery performance. The positive and negative electrode materials, electrolytes and the physical implementation of Li-ion batteries are discussed. In addition, current research on novel high energy density batteries is presented, as well as opportunities to repurpose and recycle the batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Processing Systems for Electric Vehicles)
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Review
Autonomous Battery Swapping System and Methodologies of Electric Vehicles
Energies 2019, 12(4), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12040667 - 19 Feb 2019
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 4261
Abstract
The transportation industry contributes a significant amount of carbon emissions and pollutants to the environment globally. The adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) has a significant potential to not only reduce carbon emissions, but also to provide needed energy storage to contribute to the [...] Read more.
The transportation industry contributes a significant amount of carbon emissions and pollutants to the environment globally. The adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) has a significant potential to not only reduce carbon emissions, but also to provide needed energy storage to contribute to the adoption of distributed renewable generation. This paper focuses on a design model and methodology for increasing EV adoption through automated swapping of battery packs at battery sharing stations (BShS) as a part of a battery sharing network (BShN), which would become integral to the smart grid. Current battery swapping methodologies are reviewed and a new practical approach is proposed considering both the technical and socio-economic impacts. The proposed BShS/BShN provides novel solutions to some of the most preeminent challenges that EV adoption faces today such as range anxiety, grid reliability, and cost. Challenges and advancements specific to this solution are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Processing Systems for Electric Vehicles)
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