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Special Issue "High-Capacity Cells and Batteries for Electric Vehicles"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "A6: Electric Vehicles".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 May 2021) | Viewed by 9856

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Lluc Canals Casals
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Project and Construction Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), 08034 Barcelona, Spain;
2. Energy Systems Analytics Group, Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), 08930 Sant Adrià de Besòs, Spain
Interests: battery aging; electric vehicles; end of life of electric vehicles; second life of batteries; battery reuse; battery remanufacture
Prof. Dr. Marcel Macarulla Marti
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Group of Research and Innovation in Construction (GRIC), Department of Project and Construction Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), 08034 Barcelona, Spain
Interests: energy efficiency; energy districts; modelling; indoor air quality; thermal comfort in buildings; life cycle assessment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Alberto Gómez Núñez
E-Mail Website1 Website2 Website3
Guest Editor
Eurecat - Centre Tecnològic de Catalunya, Unit of Waste, Energy and Environmental Impact, Av. Universitat Autònoma, 23, 08290, Cerdanyola Del Vallès, Spain
Interests: cell & battery testing, research and validation; second life applications; end of life; electric vehicles; e-mobility

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

If you are working in the field of electric vehicles, batteries, or energy storage applications, this might be of interest to you. This is a formal invitation to participate in the Special Issue of Energies on “High-Capacity Cells and Batteries for Electric Vehicles”.

Due to their overall performance, lithium-ion batteries currently dominate the electric vehicle market. Each year, car manufacturers launch new models, increasing the average capacity of electric vehicle batteries. This is achieved, in part, through making bigger batteries that imply an increase in the vehicle cost, weight, and use of more critical raw materials. Although prices are lowering, Li-ion batteries do not have enough energy density to substantially decrease the weight of vehicles; thus, using high-energy cells is an intriguing possibility that we are being called on to explore.

This Special Issue aims to evaluate several issues concerning high-capacity batteries, and papers are welcome if they analyze one or more of these topics or respond to these questions:

  • Upcoming battery technologies: analyzing their relevant benefits but also presenting their shortage or less performant issues;
  • From cell tests to battery;
  • New packaging strategies and configurations;
  • Weight versus consumption and overall performance of electric vehicles;
  • The role of battery management systems in maximizing the capacity of batteries;
  • Safety-security of cell's technologies;
  • Ageing and lifespan analysis. Higher capacity means fewer cycles and, thus, longer lifespan in real applications;
  • End of life;
  • Beyond the electric vehicle:
    • Circular economy strategies and battery second life;
    • Recycling;
  • Environmental impact;
  • Avoiding the use of critical and/or toxic materials;
  • When will capacities stop increasing?
  • The charge of high capacity electric vehicle batteries;
  • Reviews and comparatives of technologies.

Prof. Dr. Lluc Canals Casals
Prof. Dr. Marcel Macarulla Martí
Dr. Alberto Gómez Núñez
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • High-capacity batteries
  • Electric vehicles
  • End of life
  • State of health
  • Raw materials
  • Cobalt free
  • Beyond lithium
  • Battery packaging

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
High-Capacity Cells and Batteries for Electric Vehicles
Energies 2021, 14(22), 7799; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14227799 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 405
Abstract
The automotive sector is rapidly accelerating its transformation towards electric mobility, and electric vehicle (EV) sales have been increasing year after year since the beginning of the decade [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Capacity Cells and Batteries for Electric Vehicles)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Article
Comparative Study on the Calendar Aging Behavior of Six Different Lithium-Ion Cell Chemistries in Terms of Parameter Variation
Energies 2021, 14(11), 3358; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14113358 - 07 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1317
Abstract
The degradation of lithium-ion cells is an important aspect, not only for quality management, but also for the customer of the application like, e.g., scooters or electric vehicles. During the lifetime of the system, the overall health on the battery plays a key [...] Read more.
The degradation of lithium-ion cells is an important aspect, not only for quality management, but also for the customer of the application like, e.g., scooters or electric vehicles. During the lifetime of the system, the overall health on the battery plays a key role in its depreciation. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the health of the battery during operation, i.e., cycle life, but also during stationary conditions, i.e., calendar aging. In this work, the degradation due to calendar aging is analyzed for six different cell chemistries in terms of capacity degradation and impedance increase and their performance are being compared. In a new proposed metric, the relative deviations between various cells with the exact identical aging history are being analyzed for their degradation effects and their differences, which stands out in comparison to similar research. The capacity loss was found to be most drastic at 60 °C and at higher storage voltages, even for titanate-oxide cells. LiNiMnCoO2 (NMC), LiNiCoAlO2 (NCA) and Li2TiO3 (LTO) cells at 60 °C showed the most drastic capacity decrease. NMC and NCA cells at 60 °C and highest storage voltage did not show any open circuit voltage, as their current interrupt mechanism triggered. The effect of aging shows no uniform impact on the changes in the capacity variance when comparing different aging conditions, with respect to the evaluated standard deviation for all cells. The focus of this work was on the calendar aging effect and may be supplemented in a second study for cyclic aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Capacity Cells and Batteries for Electric Vehicles)
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Review

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Review
Future Material Developments for Electric Vehicle Battery Cells Answering Growing Demands from an End-User Perspective
Energies 2021, 14(14), 4223; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14144223 - 13 Jul 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1655
Abstract
Nowadays, batteries for electric vehicles are expected to have a high energy density, allow fast charging and maintain long cycle life, while providing affordable traction, and complying with stringent safety and environmental standards. Extensive research on novel materials at cell level is hence [...] Read more.
Nowadays, batteries for electric vehicles are expected to have a high energy density, allow fast charging and maintain long cycle life, while providing affordable traction, and complying with stringent safety and environmental standards. Extensive research on novel materials at cell level is hence needed for the continuous improvement of the batteries coupled towards achieving these requirements. This article firstly delves into future developments in electric vehicles from a technology perspective, and the perspective of changing end-user demands. After these end-user needs are defined, their translation into future battery requirements is described. A detailed review of expected material developments follows, to address these dynamic and changing needs. Developments on anodes, cathodes, electrolyte and cell level will be discussed. Finally, a special section will discuss the safety aspects with these increasing end-user demands and how to overcome these issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Capacity Cells and Batteries for Electric Vehicles)
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Review
End of Electric Vehicle Batteries: Reuse vs. Recycle
Energies 2021, 14(8), 2217; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14082217 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3967
Abstract
It is a fact that electric vehicles (EVs) are beneficial for climate protection. However, the current challenge is to decide on whether to reuse an EV battery or to recycle it after its first use. This paper theoretically investigates these areas i.e., recycle [...] Read more.
It is a fact that electric vehicles (EVs) are beneficial for climate protection. However, the current challenge is to decide on whether to reuse an EV battery or to recycle it after its first use. This paper theoretically investigates these areas i.e., recycle and reuse. It was found that there are several commercially used recycling processes and also some are under research to regain maximum possible materials and quantity. The concept of reusing (second life) of the battery is promising because, at the end of the first life, batteries from EVs can be used in several applications such as storing energy generated from renewable sources to support the government grid. However, the cost and life-cycle analysis (LCA) demonstrated that there are several aspects involved in battery reuse applications. Henceforth, one LCA generalised method cannot provide an optimal approach for all cases. It is important to have a detailed study on each of the battery reusing applications. Until then, it is safe to say that reusing the battery is a good option as it would give some time to recycling companies to develop cost and energy-efficient methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Capacity Cells and Batteries for Electric Vehicles)
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Review
Crashed Electric Vehicle Handling and Recommendations—State of the Art in Germany
Energies 2021, 14(4), 1040; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14041040 - 16 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1638
Abstract
In the near future, electric powered vehicles will represent a major part of the road traffic. Accordingly, there will be a natural increase of accidents involving electric vehicles. There are not many cases of such accidents yet and therefore the experience and correct [...] Read more.
In the near future, electric powered vehicles will represent a major part of the road traffic. Accordingly, there will be a natural increase of accidents involving electric vehicles. There are not many cases of such accidents yet and therefore the experience and correct handling are still partially open points for the involved parties, such as the rescue services for example. The aim of this work is to provide a complete overview of the accident handling sequence in Germany, starting with the damaged vehicle on site and moving on to the risks and challenges for the stakeholders, such as transport and recycling companies. Arising from the developed overview, a handling recommendation for yet undiscussed points is given. Especially, different extinguishing and deactivation methods are compared and discussed. Due to a lack of a common live-feed from battery data on site, other criteria have to be taken into account to assess the state of the battery. The wrecked vehicle—including the high voltage system—needs to be in a definite safe state at the handover to a towing service. Depending on the case, different options for securing the vehicle will be considered in this work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Capacity Cells and Batteries for Electric Vehicles)
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